Electrical and Electronics Engineering: An International Journal (ELELIJ) Vol 2, No 2, May 201315A BATTERY CHARGING SYSTEM...
Electrical and Electronics Engineering: An International Journal (ELELIJ) Vol 2, No 2, May 201316years. The battery charge...
Electrical and Electronics Engineering: An International Journal (ELELIJ) Vol 2, No 2, May 201317civilian areas [8-9]. In ...
Electrical and Electronics Engineering: An International Journal (ELELIJ) Vol 2, No 2, May 201318Fig.3Structure of a multi...
Electrical and Electronics Engineering: An International Journal (ELELIJ) Vol 2, No 2, May 201319There are lots of methods...
Electrical and Electronics Engineering: An International Journal (ELELIJ) Vol 2, No 2, May 20134. CIRCUIT ANALYSIS DESCRIP...
Electrical and Electronics Engineering: An International Journal (ELELIJ) Vol 2, No 2, May 2013energy, to ensure that batt...
Electrical and Electronics Engineering: An International Journal (ELELIJ) Vol 2, No 2, May 2013Mode 4 Mode 5Fig.8 Modes of...
Electrical and Electronics Engineering: An International Journal (ELELIJ) Vol 2, No 2, May 2013234.3. Normalized Voltage G...
Electrical and Electronics Engineering: An International Journal (ELELIJ) Vol 2, No 2, May 2013Fig.9 Normalized Load Chara...
Electrical and Electronics Engineering: An International Journal (ELELIJ) Vol 2, No 2, May 2013250302.2853.002 *120*10rZL ...
Electrical and Electronics Engineering: An International Journal (ELELIJ) Vol 2, No 2, May 20132616012.285*10 *70.76021rtd...
Electrical and Electronics Engineering: An International Journal (ELELIJ) Vol 2, No 2, May 2013Fig.10 Practical Circuit Pr...
Electrical and Electronics Engineering: An International Journal (ELELIJ) Vol 2, No 2, May 201328( )31 1 84*10 11.904S ST ...
Electrical and Electronics Engineering: An International Journal (ELELIJ) Vol 2, No 2, May 20130.999µs. The current iLr is...
Electrical and Electronics Engineering: An International Journal (ELELIJ) Vol 2, No 2, May 2013Fig.15 Waveforms of idm&VFi...
Electrical and Electronics Engineering: An International Journal (ELELIJ) Vol 2, No 2, May 2013Fig.15 Charging Efficiency ...
Electrical and Electronics Engineering: An International Journal (ELELIJ) Vol 2, No 2, May 201332[4] IrfanJamil, Zhao Jinq...
Electrical and Electronics Engineering: An International Journal (ELELIJ) Vol 2, No 2, May 2013RehanJamil was also born in...
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A BATTERY CHARGING SYSTEM & APPENDED ZCS (PWM) RESONANT CONVERTER DC-DC BUCK: TECHNIQUE FOR BATTERY CHARGER TO YIELD EFFICIENT PERFORMANCE IN CHARGING SHAPING

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Electrical and Electronics Engineering: An International Journal (ELELIJ)

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A BATTERY CHARGING SYSTEM & APPENDED ZCS (PWM) RESONANT CONVERTER DC-DC BUCK: TECHNIQUE FOR BATTERY CHARGER TO YIELD EFFICIENT PERFORMANCE IN CHARGING SHAPING

  1. 1. Electrical and Electronics Engineering: An International Journal (ELELIJ) Vol 2, No 2, May 201315A BATTERY CHARGING SYSTEM & APPENDED ZCS(PWM) RESONANT CONVERTER DC-DC BUCK:TECHNIQUE FOR BATTERY CHARGER TO YIELDEFFICIENT PERFORMANCE IN CHARGING SHAPINGIrfanJamil*1, Zhao Jinquan2, Rehan Jamil3, Rizwan Jamil4and Abdus Samee51,2Department of Energy & Electrical Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing, China1irfan.edu.cn@gmail.com3School of Physics & Electronic Information, Yunnan Normal University, China3ch.rehan.jamil@gmail.com4Heavy Mechanical Complex (HMC-3) Taxila, Rawalpindi, Pakistan4rizy951@gmail.com5Chashma Centre of Nuclear Training, PAEC, Pakistan5drabdussameepk@yahoo.comABSTRACTThis paper presents technique for battery charger to achieve efficient performance in charging shaping,minimum low switching losses and reduction in circuit volume .The operation of circuit charger is switchedwith the technique of zero-current-switching, resonant components and append the topology of dc-dc buck.The proposed novel dc-dc battery charger has advantages with the simplicity, low cost, high efficiency andwith the behaviour of easy control under the ZCS condition accordingly reducing the switching losses. Thedetailed study of operating principle and design consideration is performed. A short survey of batterycharging system, capacity demand & its topologies is also presented. In order to compute LC resonant pairvalues in conventional converter, the method of characteristic curve is used and electric function equationsare derived from the prototype configuration. The efficient performance of charging shaping is confirmedthrough the practical examines and verification of the results is revealed by the MATLAB simulation. Theefficiency is ensured about 89% which is substantially considered being satisfactory performance asachieved in this paper.KEYWORDSZCS, PWM Resonant Converter, dc-dc Buck, Battery Charger1. INTRODUCTIONIn recent years, with the enhancement of power electronics technology and control strategies inpower electronics devices coupled with the increasing demand of high efficiency in batterycharger system has invoked enormous attention from the research scholars around the world.Battery charger system technology is currently being incorporated in urban industrial areas tomaintain with these demands lot of work is on towards. Therefore, many battery chargers withdifferent ratings and functionalities are being developed for high output efficiency since few
  2. 2. Electrical and Electronics Engineering: An International Journal (ELELIJ) Vol 2, No 2, May 201316years. The battery charger usually works to globalize the energy saving and to serve in fasttransportation systems. The use of battery charger brings convince life solution during thetraveling from urban to rural areas. Many techniques were fetched out by the scientists sincebattery charger device was developed for renewable energy generation, electronic communicationpower supplies, electric vehicles, UPS or an uninterruptible power supplies, PV systems andportable electronics products. Many charging methods have been developed to improve thebattery charger efficiency in the last few decades. In order to achieving high efficiency in batterycharger, append the traditional battery charger with the technique of ZCS ( Zero-Current-Switching) resonant buck topology which delivered the efficient performance in chargingshaping[11-12-13-14].This work looks at the issues which associates ZCS PWM (Zero-Current-Switching Pulse widthModulation) converter, buck topology with the battery charger. This paper develops a novel high-efficiency battery charger with ZCS PWM buck topology which has simple circuit structure, lowswitching losses, easy control and high charging efficiencies [1-3]. Zero Current Switchingresonant buck converter is analyzed and mode of operation is also studied. Various waveforms &charging curve period were noted down during the piratical examine using MATLAB software.The curve of charging efficiency during the charging period shows 89% charging outputefficiency of novel proposed prototype.Fig.1 Block Diagram for the Proposed Novel Battery Charger2. BATTERY CHARGERING SYSTEM & CAPACITY DEMANDToday’s most modern electrical appliances receive their power directly right away the utility grid.Many devices are being developed everyday which requires electrical power from the batteries inorder to achieve large mobility and greater convenience.The battery charger system utilizes the battery by working to recharge the battery when its energyhas been drained. The uses rechargeable batteries include everything from low-power cell phonesto high-power industrial fork lifts, and other construction equipment. Many of these products areused everyday around-the-clock commonly in offices, schools, and universities, urban and
  3. 3. Electrical and Electronics Engineering: An International Journal (ELELIJ) Vol 2, No 2, May 201317civilian areas [8-9]. In fig. 2 shows that the Battery Capacities of Various Battery-PoweredDevices which are used in different rate of watt per hours level in cell phones, laptops, powertools, forklifts and golf crafts etc.[10].Fig.2 Battery Capacities of Various Battery-Powered DevicesA battery charger system is a system which uses energy drawn from the grid, stores it in anelectric battery, and releases it to power device. While engineers are used modern techniques tousually design the battery charger systems, which maximize the energy efficiency of their devicesto make certain long functioning & operation time between charging; however they often neglecthow much energy is used in the conversion process of ac electrical power into dc electrical powerstored in the battery from the utility grid.Apparently, energy savings can be possible if the conversion losses are reduced which associatedwith the charging batteries in battery-powered products & output voltage can be controlled viaswitching frequency. We can achieve these savings using different techniques includingbattery charger topology that is readily available today and is being employed in existingproducts. The same technique and topology is discussed in this paper which increases theefficient performance in charging shaping of novel battery charger.
  4. 4. Electrical and Electronics Engineering: An International Journal (ELELIJ) Vol 2, No 2, May 201318Fig.3Structure of a multi- piece battery charger system. The efficiency calculation is made over a24 hour charge and maintenance period and a 0.2C discharge for the battery. (Prepared forCalifornia Energy Commission Contract by EPRI Solution Ltd.,) [10].3. METHODS OF BATTERY CHARGING SYSTEM & ITSTOPOLOGIESMethods of efficiency improvements in battery charger systems in use today have substantiallylower possibilities due to a lack of cognitive skills in the charger and battery which commonlyconsume more electricity than the product they power. The energy savings are achieved inmillions of battery charger systems that are presently in operation worldwide by reducinginefficiencies in charger and battery. Battery charger systems work in three modes of operation.In charge mode of operation, the battery is accumulating the charge while the maintenance modeof operation occurs when battery is fully charged and charger is only started to supply energy toundermine the natural discharge. No-battery mode of operation shows that the battery has beenphysically disconnected from the charger [8-9].Fig.4SwitchModeBatteryChargerPowerVisibility
  5. 5. Electrical and Electronics Engineering: An International Journal (ELELIJ) Vol 2, No 2, May 201319There are lots of methods which are recognized to achieve the higher efficiency in battery chargersystems, including:• Higher voltage systems• Switch mode power supplies• Synchronous rectification• Improved semiconductor switches• Lithium-ion batteries• Charge and discharge at lower current rate• Off-grid charger when no battery is present.Topologies NormalEfficiencyRange(%)EstimatedImprovedEfficiencyRange (%)Switch Mode 40%- 60% 50%- 70%SCR 30%- 55% 45%- 60%Ferro resonant 25%-50% 45%-55%Linear 2%- 30% 20%- 40%TABLE: 1 Efficiency improvements in charger topologiesTable.1 show that the efficiencies of normal and improved range are measured less than 15%,comparable systems with overall efficiencies of 65% or greater are technically feasible in chargertopologies for battery charger system. The linear and switch mode chargers are analogous tolinear and switch mode power supplies with the exception that the charger topologies alsoincorporate charge control circuitry on their outputs. Most multi- or single-piece chargers areeither linear or switch mode chargers. These two categories are found commonly in consumerapplications, particularly in the residential public sector. Ferro-resonant and SCR(siliconcontrolled rectifier) battery chargers form a large percentage of the chargers utilized in developedindustrial applications [10]. This paper provides basic idea about the method of use of switchmode power supplies such as dc-dc converters are considered as they can achieve higherefficiency in battery charger scheme.
  6. 6. Electrical and Electronics Engineering: An International Journal (ELELIJ) Vol 2, No 2, May 20134. CIRCUIT ANALYSIS DESCRIPTION FOR NOVEL BATTERYCHARGERThe circuit analysis describes the study of ZCSconverter and the circuit is proposed as NovelModulationconverter dc-dc buck for battery charger [5]. The various Modes of operations of thesaid circuit are analyzed. As well as output voltage of the battery charger and the normalizedvoltage gain are also obtained.4.1. ZCS Resonant Buck ConverterBuck ZCSresonant converters are used for resolving the highreducing the circuit volume and controlling the switches with ease. Therefore, they control theoutput voltage via switching frequency.converters turn ON &OFF at zero current due to the current produced by resonant inductorresonant capacitor C୰that the resonance flows across the switch.switch S, resonant components inductorThe resonant converters are usually whichand capacitors to enable the switch to achieveVoltage Switching)went under resonance conditionseffective switching losses, switching stress and EMI (Electromagnetic Interference) problems6-7-8]. The advantages of ZCS converters are that they have lthe EMI (Electromagnetic Interference)over the switching elements MOSFETs.Fig.5 Traditional ZCS Resonant Buck ConverterThis paper develops a novel battery charger append with ZCS PWM converter dcnovel circuit contains auxiliary switchcapacitor rC and forward diode Ds[1-3-5]. In general way, battery is disabled to work for recharging if the energy source is notavailable. Without energy source batteryctrical and Electronics Engineering: An International Journal (ELELIJ) Vol 2, No 2, May 2013CIRCUIT ANALYSIS DESCRIPTION FOR NOVEL BATTERYThe circuit analysis describes the study of ZCS (Zero Current Switching) Resonant buckconverter and the circuit is proposed as Novel Zero Current Switching Pulse widthdc buck for battery charger [5]. The various Modes of operations of thesaid circuit are analyzed. As well as output voltage of the battery charger and the normalizedZCS Resonant Buck ConverterBuck ZCSresonant converters are used for resolving the high-switching frequency losses,reducing the circuit volume and controlling the switches with ease. Therefore, they control theg frequency. The switches of Zero-Current Switching resonantconverters turn ON &OFF at zero current due to the current produced by resonant inductorthat the resonance flows across the switch. The resonant circuit holds aS, resonant components inductor L୰ and capacitorC୰.The resonant converters are usually which contains the serial or parallel connections of inductorsto enable the switch to achieve the ZCS (Zero Current Switching)&Voltage Switching)went under resonance conditions. The produces the occurring result ofeffective switching losses, switching stress and EMI (Electromagnetic Interference) problemsconverters are that they have low switching losses, can eliminate(Electromagnetic Interference) problems, easy control of the switches and low stressover the switching elements MOSFETs.Traditional ZCS Resonant Buck ConverterThis paper develops a novel battery charger append with ZCS PWM converter dc-novel circuit contains auxiliary switch 1S which is connected in the serious with the resonantDs is placed as parallel to the auxiliary switch 1S as shown in fig. 65]. In general way, battery is disabled to work for recharging if the energy source is notavailable. Without energy source battery can’t recharge and charging method is replenished thectrical and Electronics Engineering: An International Journal (ELELIJ) Vol 2, No 2, May 201320CIRCUIT ANALYSIS DESCRIPTION FOR NOVEL BATTERYResonant buckZero Current Switching Pulse widthdc buck for battery charger [5]. The various Modes of operations of thesaid circuit are analyzed. As well as output voltage of the battery charger and the normalizedswitching frequency losses,reducing the circuit volume and controlling the switches with ease. Therefore, they control theCurrent Switching resonantconverters turn ON &OFF at zero current due to the current produced by resonant inductorL୰ andThe resonant circuit holds acontains the serial or parallel connections of inductorsthe ZCS (Zero Current Switching)& ZVS (ZeroThe produces the occurring result ofeffective switching losses, switching stress and EMI (Electromagnetic Interference) problems[4-ow switching losses, can eliminateproblems, easy control of the switches and low stress-dc buck. Thewhich is connected in the serious with the resonantas shown in fig. 65]. In general way, battery is disabled to work for recharging if the energy source is notcan’t recharge and charging method is replenished the
  7. 7. Electrical and Electronics Engineering: An International Journal (ELELIJ) Vol 2, No 2, May 2013energy, to ensure that battery operates continuously; enabling it provides a normal power supplyto load. This study keeps the idea to devFig.6 Proposed a Novel ZCS PWM Converter dc4.2. Mode of OperationThe operation of novel battery charger circuit is divided into various modes of operations. Theequivalent circuit of novel charger isrespectively as shown in fig. 8 [2].Fig.7 Equivalent Circuit of ZCS PWM Converter dcMode 1ctrical and Electronics Engineering: An International Journal (ELELIJ) Vol 2, No 2, May 2013energy, to ensure that battery operates continuously; enabling it provides a normal power supplyto load. This study keeps the idea to develop a ZCS PWM battery charger [15-16].Proposed a Novel ZCS PWM Converter dc-dc Buck for Battery ChargerThe operation of novel battery charger circuit is divided into various modes of operations. Theequivalent circuit of novel charger is shown in fig. 7 and modes are fatherly divided into 5 modesrespectively as shown in fig. 8 [2].Equivalent Circuit of ZCS PWM Converter dc-dc Buckde 1 Mode 2ctrical and Electronics Engineering: An International Journal (ELELIJ) Vol 2, No 2, May 201321energy, to ensure that battery operates continuously; enabling it provides a normal power supplydc Buck for Battery ChargerThe operation of novel battery charger circuit is divided into various modes of operations. Theshown in fig. 7 and modes are fatherly divided into 5 modesMode 2
  8. 8. Electrical and Electronics Engineering: An International Journal (ELELIJ) Vol 2, No 2, May 2013Mode 4 Mode 5Fig.8 Modes of operation of ZCS PWM Converter dcMode 1: 01 1rtdcL ItE∆ = =Mode 2: 2 2 1 1( ) tt t t∆ = − = ∆Mode3: 3 3 201( ) sint t tω ∆ = − = +  Mode4: ( ) {4 4 3 3 201 cosr rC Vt t t t tI∆ = − = − −Mode5: 5 1 2 3 4St T t t t t∆ = − ∆ −∆ − ∆ − ∆The output Voltage gain of novel charger can be determined from the voltagethroughout the freewheeling diode as is given by( ) (0 12 1 3 2 4 312dc sE tt t t t t tE T = + − + − + −  ctrical and Electronics Engineering: An International Journal (ELELIJ) Vol 2, No 2, May 2013Mode 3Mode 4 Mode 5Modes of operation of ZCS PWM Converter dc-dc Buck1 0 0( ) sindcI ZE−  ∆ = − = +    D( ) }4 4 3 3 21 cos ot t t t tω∆ = − = − −  5 1 2 3 4t T t t t t∆ = − ∆ − ∆ − ∆ − ∆The output Voltage gain of novel charger can be determined from the voltagethroughout the freewheeling diode as is given by) ( )2 1 3 2 4 3t t t t t t = + − + − + −  ctrical and Electronics Engineering: An International Journal (ELELIJ) Vol 2, No 2, May 201322(1)(2)(3)(4)(5)The output Voltage gain of novel charger can be determined from the voltage Dmv(6)
  9. 9. Electrical and Electronics Engineering: An International Journal (ELELIJ) Vol 2, No 2, May 2013234.3. Normalized Voltage GainThe normalized voltage gain is derived by the substituting the operating modes of proposednovel Zero Current Switching resonant buck converter battery charger into output voltage ofnovel charger.The normalized voltage equation is gained by substituting number the equations (1), (2), (3)and (4) into (6)1 10 00 03 1sin 1 cos sin2 2rrSdcE C RL M M MfE R f Q M Q− −          = + + + − +                  D DD(7)[ ]00 03 11 cos2 2rrSC QZL MM fQZ f Mα α = + + −  D(8)[ ]32 1 cos2nsM QM fQ Mα α = + + −  D (9)The efficiency of novel battery charger is given by( ) ( )00 01 .sTs s rtE IV T iL t dtη =    ∫(10)5. DESIGN CONSIDERATIONA lead-acid battery rated @ 12 V, 48 A h with an internal resistance of 0.1 ohm is used as a loadunder investigates of practical examine. The battery first discharges to 13 V, and then charge to16 V. The circuit charger components values are fixed as follows: input voltage 21VSV = , outputvoltage 0 16VV = , output current 0 7AI = , switching frequency 84Sf kHz= , 0.7nsf = chosenfrom the fig. 9 based on the normalized voltage gain 0 16 21 0.76dcM E E= = = . Normalizedload characteristic curve of novel ZCS resonant buck converter for battery charger is obtained byusing MATLAB. The values of 0f and rC can be calculated fatherly by determining the resonantfrequency 0f and obtaining for fixed switching frequency choosing the power quality factor Qfrom the fig.9 as well.
  10. 10. Electrical and Electronics Engineering: An International Journal (ELELIJ) Vol 2, No 2, May 2013Fig.9 Normalized Load Characteristics curve (Versus M and fns) for novel battery chargerThe output impedance can be calculated from the output voltagegiven as00016 / 7 2.285ERI= = =The characteristic impedance is computed0 2.285R = Ω , 1Q =0 0 2.285 1 2.285Z R Q= = = ΩThe resonant frequency is calculated from switching frequency andand set is based on normalized voltage gain.0 /s nsf f f= 84 / 0.7 120kHz kHz= =(14)The LC-resonant pair will be derdesign parameters.The resonant inductor rL is given by00rZLω=ctrical and Electronics Engineering: An International Journal (ELELIJ) Vol 2, No 2, May 2013Normalized Load Characteristics curve (Versus M and fns) for novel battery chargercalculated from the output voltage 0E and the output currentThe characteristic impedance is computed as given2.285 1 2.285= = = ΩThe resonant frequency is calculated from switching frequency and nsf chosen from the Fig. 9and set is based on normalized voltage gain.84 / 0.7 120kHz kHzresonant pair will be derived for which fatherly computing the LC-filter pairs of novelis given byctrical and Electronics Engineering: An International Journal (ELELIJ) Vol 2, No 2, May 201324Normalized Load Characteristics curve (Versus M and fns) for novel battery chargerand the output current 0I is(11)(12)(13)chosen from the Fig. 9filter pairs of novel
  11. 11. Electrical and Electronics Engineering: An International Journal (ELELIJ) Vol 2, No 2, May 2013250302.2853.002 *120*10rZL Hµω λ= = =(15)The resonant capacitance rC is given by30 01 10.582.285*2 *120*10rC FZµω λ= = = (16)LC- filter pairs of ZCS battery charger are set as follows0 100 300rL L Hµ= =(17)0 100 58rC C Fµ= =(18)Table.2 presents the experimental circuit parameters& values for the developed novel high-efficiency battery charger with a buck ZCS PWM converter. A deign circuit parameters areconsidered & listed below in Table. 2 for practical examine [3].Table.2 ZCS buck novel chargerThe duty cycle is determined by using the parameters from above Table. 2PARAMETER VALUESInput Voltage dcE 21VOutput Charging Voltage 0E 16VResonant Inductor rL 3.0µHResonant Capacitor rC 0.58µFSwitching Frequency sf 84kHzResonant Frequency 0f 120kHzFilter Inductor 0L 300 µHFilter Capacitor 0C 58 µFOutput Charging Current 0I 7A
  12. 12. Electrical and Electronics Engineering: An International Journal (ELELIJ) Vol 2, No 2, May 20132616012.285*10 *70.76021rtdcL It sEµ−∆ = = = =(19)2 10.760t t sµ∆ = ∆ =(20)22 1 1.52tt t sµ= ∆ + = (21)13 3 2 31 7*2.285( ) sin 5.4972 *120*10 21t t t sµ−  ∆ = − = + =    DD(22)3 3 2 5.497 1.52 7.017tt t s s sµ µ µ= ∆ + = + = (Disruption time for switches S and S1) (23)Total time period is computed as given( )31 1 84*10 11.904s sT f sµ= = = (24)Duty Cycle 5.497 11.904 0.461ON SD t f s sµ µ= = = (25)The discharging time interval of capacitor is calculated as( ) { }63 64 4 30.58*10 *211 cos 2 *120*10 *7.017*10 0.8197t t t sµ−− ∆ = − = − = D (26)44 3 0.819 7.017 7.84tt t s s sµ µ µ= ∆ + = + = (27)The design has reasonable range since 4 st T<5.1. Practical Calculations of Novel ChargerAs for the practical examine to calculate the ideal values of novel design, resonant inductor is3.0uH and resonant capacitor 0.58uF were chosen.
  13. 13. Electrical and Electronics Engineering: An International Journal (ELELIJ) Vol 2, No 2, May 2013Fig.10 Practical Circuit Prototype of Novel Battery ChargerThe resonant frequency 0f is computed as given by(( 6 6001 3.0*10 *0.58*102 2f kHzω− −= = =D DOutput Impedance 0Z of actual practical value is given by60 63.0*102.2740.58*10rrLZC−−= = = Ω5.2. Duty Cycle of Novel Charger01 1 1.01rdcL It t sEµ∆ = = =2 2 1 1( ) 1.01t t t t sµ∆ = − = ∆ =2 2 1 2.02t t t sµ= ∆ + =(32)( )3 3 2 31 7*2.2742 *120*10 21t t t s ∆ = − = + =  D3 3 2 5.315 2.02 7.335t t t s s sµ µ µ= ∆ + = + =Total time period of novel design isctrical and Electronics Engineering: An International Journal (ELELIJ) Vol 2, No 2, May 2013Practical Circuit Prototype of Novel Battery Chargeris computed as given by))6 61 3.0*10 *0.58*10120.1f kHz− −= = =of actual practical value is given by2.274= = = ΩDuty Cycle of Novel Charger11 7*2.274sin 5.3152 *120*10 21t t t sµ−  ∆ = − = + =    D5.315 2.02 7.335t t t s s sµ µ µ= ∆ + = + =Total time period of novel design isctrical and Electronics Engineering: An International Journal (ELELIJ) Vol 2, No 2, May 201327(28)(29)(30)(31)(33)(34)
  14. 14. Electrical and Electronics Engineering: An International Journal (ELELIJ) Vol 2, No 2, May 201328( )31 1 84*10 11.904S ST f sµ= = = (35)The duty cycle D of switch S is determined as3 7.3350.61611.904ONS St t sDT T sµµ= = = = (36)The duty cycle sD of switch S1 is calculated as3 2 7.335 2.020.44611.904sSt t s sDT sµ µµ− −= = = (37)The discharging time of the capacitor is determined as( ) { }63 64 4 30.58*10 *211 cos 2 *120*10 *5.315*10 1.657t t t sµ−− ∆ = + = − = D (38)4 4 3 2.87 7.335 10.205t t t s s sµ µ µ= ∆ + = + = (39)After practical application, the design still can work within a reasonable range since410.205 11.904 ss s t Tµ µ< = <6. SIMULATION & EXPERIMENT RESULTSA prototype ZCS PWM converter dc-dc buck for battery charger is established [14]. Theexperiment results were confirmed through MATLAB software as simulation tool is used in thispaper. Fig. 11 shows that the waveforms of switch signal GV &iLr . The current iLr is declined tozero when the switch is cut off. As a consequence, the switch can be cut off and turned onwithout retaining current meanwhile achieving zero current switching with low switching losses.Fig. 12 shows that the trigger signal on the switchesS&S1, GV denotes the trigger signal on switchS whereas Gs1V denotes the trigger signal on switch S1 as well. To increase the charging current,trigger signal will be delayed by 0.088µs.In Fig.13 shows that the signal on the switch S1, Gs1V denotes the trigger signal on switch S1 andresonant capacitor voltage VCr on the switch S1. The resonant capacitor voltageVCr can be chargedonce the switch is triggered. Fig. 14 shows that the waveforms of iLr , VCr , iCr.The inductor currentiLr is increased from 0A to 8A during 0-0.9995µs, and maintained a constant value during0.0995µs-0.999 µs. The resonance then began when the auxiliary switch is turned on after
  15. 15. Electrical and Electronics Engineering: An International Journal (ELELIJ) Vol 2, No 2, May 20130.999µs. The current iLr is declined to zero when the switchcurrent-switching. Fig. 15 shows that the waveform of diode currentwaveform ofidm went down from 15A to zero during the 0is being charged. The diode Dm was cut off whencurrent remained at zero after 0.0995currentidm goes from 0A to 7A until 0.0997Voltage Curve during the Charging Periodshowing that charging the battery fromsimulation results Charging Current during the charging periodmaximum charging current approFig.11 Waveforms ofGV &Fig.13 Waveforms ofGsVctrical and Electronics Engineering: An International Journal (ELELIJ) Vol 2, No 2, May 2013declined to zero when the switch is cut off, thus it has achieving zero. Fig. 15 shows that the waveform of diode currentidm & diode voltagewent down from 15A to zero during the 0-0.0995µs when the inductor current. The diode Dm was cut off wheniLr = 0I due to the reverse bias voltage, and thecurrent remained at zero after 0.0995µs. The diode Dm was then turned on again, and the diodegoes from 0A to 7A until 0.0997µs when VCr is finished the discharging. Fig. 16Voltage Curve during the Charging Period. The variation curve of terminal voltage of the batteryshowing that charging the battery from 15V to 16.5V takes about 0.1 hour. Fig. 17 shows theing Current during the charging period of proposed novel charger. Thepproximately 7.5A and mean about 7.6A is founded.&iLrFig.12 Waveforms of Trigger Signal onGV &1GsV1GsV & CrV Fig.14 Waveform ofiLr,Vctrical and Electronics Engineering: An International Journal (ELELIJ) Vol 2, No 2, May 201329achieving zero-& diode voltageVdm . Thewhen the inductor currentiLrdue to the reverse bias voltage, and thes. The diode Dm was then turned on again, and the diodeFig. 16 showsThe variation curve of terminal voltage of the battery0.1 hour. Fig. 17 shows theof proposed novel charger. TheWaveforms of Trigger Signal onCrV and iCr
  16. 16. Electrical and Electronics Engineering: An International Journal (ELELIJ) Vol 2, No 2, May 2013Fig.15 Waveforms of idm&VFig.17 Charging Current during the charging periodFig. 18shows the practical ch89.5%.Thechargingtimeintervalis36ctrical and Electronics Engineering: An International Journal (ELELIJ) Vol 2, No 2, May 2013VdmFig.16 Voltage Curve during the ChargingCharging Current during the charging periodharging efficiency variationcurve ofthenovelchargerappro360minutesandthemeanefficiencyis calculatedabout89%.ctrical and Electronics Engineering: An International Journal (ELELIJ) Vol 2, No 2, May 201330Fig.16 Voltage Curve during the Charging Periodpproximatelyis
  17. 17. Electrical and Electronics Engineering: An International Journal (ELELIJ) Vol 2, No 2, May 2013Fig.15 Charging Efficiency during the charging period7. CONCULSIONThis paper addresses the technique of ZCS PWMModulation) resonant Converter dcdemonstrates the effectiveness of developed methodology. The research methodology of ZCSPWM converter for novel battery charger relatevolume, minimum switching losses and satisfactory performance in charging shaping. The briefdiscussion is done in battery charger system and on useable functional methods. The short studyof circuit descriptions, operating modes, output voltage gain and normalized voltage gain is alsosummarized. The simulation results are cited for its 89% efficiency that occurs during chargingperiod of proposed novel prototype. The practical examine is accord high repetitigives gratification fulfillment with the theoretical predictions in this paper.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSThe authors would like to acknowledge financial support& Electrical Engineering and College of International Education, Hohai UniversityREFERENCES[1] Y.C. Chuang, Y.-L. Ke, “High Efficiency battery charger with a buck zeropulse-width-modulated converter”[2] M.D Singh, K B Khanchandani, Electrical & Electronics Engineering series, 2rd ed.,McGraw-Hill, 2008, pp.775[3] Ying-Chun Chuang, “HighTransactions on Industrial Electronctrical and Electronics Engineering: An International Journal (ELELIJ) Vol 2, No 2, May 2013Charging Efficiency during the charging periodThis paper addresses the technique of ZCS PWM (Zero Current Switching Pulse widthresonant Converter dc-dc buck append with battery charger circuit whichdemonstrates the effectiveness of developed methodology. The research methodology of ZCSPWM converter for novel battery charger relates the idea to gain high efficiency, low circuitvolume, minimum switching losses and satisfactory performance in charging shaping. The briefdiscussion is done in battery charger system and on useable functional methods. The short studyions, operating modes, output voltage gain and normalized voltage gain is alsosummarized. The simulation results are cited for its 89% efficiency that occurs during chargingperiod of proposed novel prototype. The practical examine is accord high repetitious work whichgives gratification fulfillment with the theoretical predictions in this paper.The authors would like to acknowledge financial support of this project from College ofEngineering and College of International Education, Hohai University, ChinaL. Ke, “High Efficiency battery charger with a buck zero-currentmodulated converter” IET Power Electron., 2008, Vol. 1, No.4, pp. 433M.D Singh, K B Khanchandani, Electrical & Electronics Engineering series, 2rd ed.,, 2008, pp.775-778.Chun Chuang, “High-Efficiency ZCS Buck Converter for Rechargeable Batteries”Transactions on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 57, NO. 7, July 2010.ctrical and Electronics Engineering: An International Journal (ELELIJ) Vol 2, No 2, May 201331.(Zero Current Switching Pulse widthdc buck append with battery charger circuit whichdemonstrates the effectiveness of developed methodology. The research methodology of ZCSs the idea to gain high efficiency, low circuitvolume, minimum switching losses and satisfactory performance in charging shaping. The briefdiscussion is done in battery charger system and on useable functional methods. The short studyions, operating modes, output voltage gain and normalized voltage gain is alsosummarized. The simulation results are cited for its 89% efficiency that occurs during chargingous work whichfrom College of Energy, China.current-switchingpp. 433-444.M.D Singh, K B Khanchandani, Electrical & Electronics Engineering series, 2rd ed., TATAEfficiency ZCS Buck Converter for Rechargeable Batteries” IEEE
  18. 18. Electrical and Electronics Engineering: An International Journal (ELELIJ) Vol 2, No 2, May 201332[4] IrfanJamil, Zhao Jinquan, RehanJamil“Analysis, Design and Implementation of Zero-Current-Switching Resonant Converter DC-DC Buck Converter” International Journal of Electrical &Electronic Engineering (IJEEE) IASET Vol. 2, Issue. 2, pp. 1-12 May 2013.[5] Yu-Lung Ke, Ying-Chun Chuang, Shao-Wei Huang “Application of Buck Zero-Current-Switching Pulse-Width-Modulated Converter in Battery Chargers” Industrial and CommercialPower Systems Technical Conference 2007.[6] G. Hua and fred C. Lee, “Soft-Switching Techniques in PWM Converters” IEEE Trans. IndustrialElectronics, Vol.42, no. 6. PP. 595-60, Dec 1995.[7] NaseemZaidi, Aziz Ahmad “Analysis, Design and Control of Zero Current Switching DC To DCBuck Converter” International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, Vol. 2, Issue 7,July 2012.[8] HelioLeaes Hey, Lourenco Matias and Joao Batista Viera Junior “A Buck ZC-ZVS PWMConverter” Power Electronics Specialists Conference PESC 94 Record. 25th Annual IEEE June1994.[9] Suzanne Foster Porter, HareshKamath,Tom Geist, “Draft 2 Energy Efficiency Battery ChargerSystem Test Procedure: A Technical Primer.” February 28, 2006. Published by the CaliforniaEnergy Commission through the Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program, available athttp://www.efficientpowersupplies.org[10] Tom Geist, HareshKamath, Suzanne Foster Porter, Peter May-Ostendorp “Designing BatteryCharger Systems for Improved Energy Efficiency: A Technical Primer.” September 28,2006.Published by the California Energy Commission through the Public Interest EnergyResearch (PIER) Program, available at http://www.efficientpowersupplies.org[11] A. Nasiri, Z. Nie, S. B. Bekiarov, and A. Emadi, “An on-line UPS system with power factorcorrection and electric isolation using BIFRED con- verter,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 55,no. 2, pp. 722–730, Feb. 2008.[12] L. R. Chen, J. J. Chen, N. Y. Chu, and G. Y. Han, “Current-pumped batterycharger,” IEEE Trans.Ind. Electron., vol. 55, no. 6, pp. 2482–2488, Jun. 2008.[13] L. R. Chen, C. S. Liu, and J.-J. Chen, “Improving phase-locked battery charger speed by usingresistance-compensated technique,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 56, no. 4, pp. 1205–1211,Apr. 2009.[14] S. Abinaya, A. Sivaranjani and S. Suja “Methods of Battery Charging with buck Converter usingsoft-Switching Techniques” Bongfing International Journal of Power Systems and IntegratedCircuits, Vol. 1, Special Issue, December 2011.[15] FOSTER M.P., SEWELL H.I., BINGHAM C.M., STONE D.A., HOWE D. “Methodologies forthe design of LCC voltage-output resonant converters’” IEE Proc., Electr. Power Appl., 2006,153,(4), pp. 559 – 567[16] ABE H., SAKAMOTO H., HARADA K. “A noncontact charger using a resonant converter withparallel capacitor of the secondary coil”IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., 2000, 36, (2), pp. 444 – 451AUTHORSIrfanJamil was born in Punjab province, City Multan, Pakistan on Feb 25, 1987. Hereceived his bachelor degree in Electrical Engineering and its Automation fromHarbin Engineering University, Harbin, China in 2011. Currently he is pursuing hisMaster degree at Hohai University, Nanjing, China. During these days he is doingmaster research as a Visiting Research Scholar at Tsinghua University, BeijingChina. His research interest involves in Power electronics and Power systemAutomation.
  19. 19. Electrical and Electronics Engineering: An International Journal (ELELIJ) Vol 2, No 2, May 2013RehanJamil was also born in Punjab province, City Multan, Pakistan on Feb 25,1987. He received his bachelor in B.Sc.Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science & Technology Islamabad Pakistan in 2009.Currently he is pursuing his Master degreChina. His research interest involves in Electronics, Renewable energy powergeneration.Engr. RizwanJamil was born in Punjab province, City Multan, Pakistan onAugust 21, 1976. He received his bachefrom University of Engineering & Technology, Lahore, Pakistan in 2000 andreceived his Master degree in Power Engineering from NED University ofEngineering & Technology, Karachi, Pakistan in 2003. Currently, he is workHeavy Mechanical Complex-3 (HMCinvolved in research & development of different equipment’s as per ASME, API,AWS code/standards for power sector.Dr.Abdus Sameegraduated as PhInstitute of Technology in 2009. Currently he is working as Associate Professor atChashma Centre of Nuclear Training, Pakistan. He is also a visiting faculty memberof Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applieinclude modeling and simulation of electrical systems, noninsulation aging and degradation, space charge behavior in solid insulation, pulsedpower plasma application in biology, environment andProf. JinquanZhao was born in Yangquan, Shanxi province, China, on June 261972. He received his B.S. and Ph.D. degrees, all in electrical engineering, fromShanghai Jiao tong University, Shanghai, China, in 1993 and 2000, respectively.From 1993 to 1995, he was an engineer in Guangzhou Power Company,Guangzhou, China. From Dec 2000 to SeptCornell University, Ithaca, NewTsinghua University, Beijing, China. Currently he isPh.D.Energy &Electrical Engineering, Hohai University, and Nanjing, Chibeen published more than 28 papers in many international conferences. Hisresearch interests in the area of voltage stability analysis and control, OPF and itsapplications.ctrical and Electronics Engineering: An International Journal (ELELIJ) Vol 2, No 2, May 2013n Punjab province, City Multan, Pakistan on Feb 25,1987. He received his bachelor in B.Sc. Electrical (Electronic) Engineering fromFederal Urdu University of Arts, Science & Technology Islamabad Pakistan in 2009.Currently he is pursuing his Master degree at Yunnan Normal University, KunmingChina. His research interest involves in Electronics, Renewable energy powerwas born in Punjab province, City Multan, Pakistan onAugust 21, 1976. He received his bachelor degree in Mechanical Engineeringfrom University of Engineering & Technology, Lahore, Pakistan in 2000 andreceived his Master degree in Power Engineering from NED University ofEngineering & Technology, Karachi, Pakistan in 2003. Currently, he is working in(HMC-3) as a Senior Engineer since 2003. He isinvolved in research & development of different equipment’s as per ASME, API,AWS code/standards for power sector.graduated as Ph.D. in electrical power engineering at HarbinInstitute of Technology in 2009. Currently he is working as Associate Professor atChashma Centre of Nuclear Training, Pakistan. He is also a visiting faculty memberof Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences. His research interestsinclude modeling and simulation of electrical systems, non-linear dielectrics, cableinsulation aging and degradation, space charge behavior in solid insulation, pulsedpower plasma application in biology, environment and water waste.was born in Yangquan, Shanxi province, China, on June 26B.S. and Ph.D. degrees, all in electrical engineering, fromShanghai Jiao tong University, Shanghai, China, in 1993 and 2000, respectively.From 1993 to 1995, he was an engineer in Guangzhou Power Company,Guangzhou, China. From Dec 2000 to Sept 2003, he was a postdoctoral associate inew York. He was also postdoctoral associate ineijing, China. Currently he isPh.D.-professor in College of, Hohai University, and Nanjing, China. He haspapers in many international conferences. Hisresearch interests in the area of voltage stability analysis and control, OPF and itsctrical and Electronics Engineering: An International Journal (ELELIJ) Vol 2, No 2, May 201333

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