TECHNOLOGY HAS BECOME A FULL TIME JOB FOR STUDENTS. Secondary aged students should be spending quality time building relationships outside of the technologically advanced world. What ever happened to “playing outside” and getting in trouble if you were not in before dark? Generation M does not get in trouble because they were outside playing with their friends until late, however they get in trouble because they spent too much time on the computer playing videogames and did not get their homework complete.
Generation M can connect individually (via text message and calling one another) however, in turn, this piece of technology hinders socialization as this forms a barrier of disconnection at a face-to-face social level.
When one walks through the halls of Lakeland High School, he will find students texting one another and talking on their cell phones during passing time. One would also see students congregating by their lockers. However, even when students are socializing, the interruption of a vibrating cell phone will put a conversation on hold. Students, mid conversation, will check their pocket and respond to the text message while continuing the face-to-face conversation. Generation M has mastered multi-tasking and in the process are hindering their social communication skills.
Multitasking with Technology hinders the cognitive process of our future. This is exactly what the secondary education generation does on a daily basis. They are multitasking, and are not 100% engaged with a their assignments (such as homework or school work). Having technology at their fingertips hinders their cognitive process and also their future. Will they ever focus on a single obligation? Or are they “programmed” to multitask?
Cheating has been taken to a higher level with the increase in technology. No longer do students need to hide answers in their calculators, or write on their hats, or make a cheat sheet to tape to their water bottle or slide into their clear pen. With the advanced technology, it is harder to catch students who are being dishonest.
While working at the math help desk, it is almost a daily occurrence that I will see a student get out a calculator to perform simple calculations such as those shown in this image. When I was a student, we only used calculators for truly complex calculations that are difficult to do in your head or with paper and pencil. There weren’t a lot of calculators around, so the teacher would put one out for the students to use when needed. Since we had to walk to a special table during the middle of a test to borrow the teacher’s calculator, we usually found it was just easier to calculate things ourselves. Now almost all students like the student pictured here have advanced calculators that they keep handy all the time while studying mathematics.
Jing Ling is both a friend and a colleague that I usually run with once per week. While running we discuss all kinds of issues related to teaching mathematics. One week we got on the subject of calculators and how students use them for both simple things and for complex things that were intended to do by hand. In some of the following slides I will show examples of how a problem might be done with and without a calculator and the difference in learning that goes on with each method.
In these images, you can see a huge difference between the graphs that a student drew by hand and the graph that a student copied from a calculator image. The one that was drawn by hand shows much greater detail than the one copied from a calculator. The detail comes from the fact that the student had to think through the steps to get the image. The student had to understand what causes the graph to cross the dotted line (the asymptote) and that the graph comes back to approach the asymptote. In the other image, the student simply copied what they saw in their calculator without understanding the image.
In calculus, students have to figure out how to find volumes of expressions. Even though their image may not be as pretty as a calculator image, the work they do in figuring out the image, helps them set up the integration formulas. When the image is provided for them, it might help them get an idea of what they are working with, but they still need to go through the hard work of figuring out what a cross section of the graph looks like and how that affects the integral.
Algebra students have to manipulate expressions just as arithmetic students need to. For example, fractions need to be added, subtracted, multiplied, divided, and simplified. If a student has used a calculator to perform these tasks since middle school, then how are they going to be able to do what is needed when they are faced with algebraic expressions. The concepts are the same, but most calculators are not going to give you the answer when you don’t have actual numbers to plug in. Also students who have grown dependent on calculators to do such tasks are going to be severly limited in how far they can progress in their mathematics education and this will limit their career choices as an adult.
Doing long division is another example of a skill that translates directly from arithmetic to algebra. Algebra and Calculus students need to be able to do long division on variable expressions in order to do higher level math operations such as figure out what a rational graph looks like and integrate an expression. If the student has always used a calculator to do the dividing for them, they are going to be lost when they need the skill in higher level mathematics.
Arthur Wohlwill stopped by while I was working on this presentation and told me about the high school students that he tutors in Chemistry and how they will pull out a calculator to do simple calculations such as 100 divided by 50. This seems to be a hot topic among college science and math teachers because most of us are old enough to have received a large part of our education without the use of calculators. We know how to use them, but we also know when to use them and when they are not needed. I spoke with Mr. Taylor, my high school math teacher who is still in the teaching business even though I graduated nearly 28 years ago. He discussed at length how many kids have explored with the calculator but don’t really understand many of the basic concepts and have learned how to use the calculator to replace understanding. There are a few kids who use it properly as a visual aid, but this is not the majority of students.
I work at the math help desk at Lansing Community College. I get to see all kinds of students, some fresh out of high school and some older students. Aaron is one of the younger students. He was working on a problem involving finding the vertex of a parabola using his calculator. I showed him how to do this without a calculator and he made the comment that is quoted above. He did not know that I was doing a project on this topic, so I asked permission to quote him.
1. GENERATION M: The Millennials CEP 810 Estee Adery, Tim McGee, Tyler Robinson, Laura Shears & Cheryl Schaefer
2. Secondary High School Students: Generation M <ul><li>“ Born between roughly 1980 and 1994, the Millennials have already been pegged and defined by academics, trend spotters, and futurists: They are smart but impatient. They expect results immediately. They carry an arsenal of electronic devices—the more portable the better. Raised amid a barrage of information, they are able to juggle a conversation on instant messenger, a Web-surfing session, and an iTunes playlist while reading Twelfth Night for homework” (Bauerlein, 86). </li></ul><ul><li>-Scott Carlson author of The Net Generation in the Classroom” </li></ul>
3. TOO MUCH MEDIA? <ul><li>“ The total amount of leisure time kids spend with media ‘is the equivalent of a full time job.’ On average, the subjects in the study log six hours and 21 minutes a day. Here is a breakdown of the percentage of kids who consume different media in an average day and for how long” (Bauerlein, 77). </li></ul><ul><li>-Watch television: 84% (3:04 hours) </li></ul><ul><li>-Use a computer: 54% (48 minutes in online usage alone) </li></ul><ul><li>-Read a magazine: 47% (14 minutes) </li></ul><ul><li>- Read a book: 46% (23 minutes) </li></ul><ul><li>- Play video games: 41% (32 minutes at console, 17 minutes with handheld) </li></ul><ul><li>- Watch videos/DVDs: 39% (32 minutes) </li></ul><ul><li>-Watch pre-recorded TV: 21% (14 minutes) </li></ul><ul><li>-Go to a movie: 13% </li></ul><ul><li>“ Add up the television times and they reach three hours and 18 minutes, and coupled with 49 minutes with a video game and 48 minutes online, they yield a daunting screen time of 295 minutes a day, 2,065 minutes per week” (Bauerlein, 77) </li></ul><ul><li>Students are spending more time using technology and media than spending quality time with their friends. This hinders their social skills and interpersonal relationships. </li></ul>
4. iPhones and Socialization <ul><li>Students are “addicted” to their cell phone. Not only does it cause interruptions in school, but also interruptions outside of the school setting. In turn this has influenced their social skills. How one interacts in the social setting of school, is greatly influenced by society. </li></ul><ul><li>"[T]here is something genuinely disturbing about the cell culture itself. The cellular telephone (as the old folks call it) has changed social behavior just as radio and television did....The cell phone 'encourages us to connect individually but disconnect socially, ceding, in the process, much that was civil and civilized.'” </li></ul>
5. iPhone= Friend or FOE? <ul><li>“ When we talk on cell phones in public, we are, as Rosen points out, intentionally removing ourselves from the public space in a form of ‘radical disengagement’ with the public sphere. We're participating in an activity that doesn't just exclude those around us, it imposes on them too--in effect declaring our neighbors to be less important than we are. Or worse: It's a little bit like telling them that they don't exist. </li></ul>
6. TECHNOLOGY FORCES A MULTI-TASKING GENERATION <ul><li>“ They're e-mailing, IMing and downloading while writing the history essay. What is all that digital juggling doing to kids' brains and their family life?” </li></ul><ul><li>… . And school life </li></ul><ul><li> “ As for multitasking devices, social scientists and educators are just beginning to assess their impact, but the researchers already have some strong opinions. The mental habit of dividing one's attention into many small slices has significant implications for the way young people learn, reason, socialize, do creative work and understand the world. Although such habits may prepare kids for today's frenzied workplace, many cognitive scientists are positively alarmed by the trend.” </li></ul>
7. TECHNOLOGY FORCES A MULTI-TASKING GENERATION <ul><li>‘ Kids that are instant messaging while doing homework, playing games online and watching TV, I predict, aren't going to do well in the long run,’ says Jordan Grafman, chief of the cognitive neuroscience section at the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS). </li></ul><ul><li>Decades of research (not to mention common sense) indicate that the quality of one's output and depth of thought deteriorate as one attends to ever more tasks. </li></ul>
8. iPods and CHEATING <ul><li> “ MERIDIAN, Idaho (AP)--Banning baseball caps during tests was obvious--students were writing the answers under the brim. Then, schools started banning cell phones, realizing students could text message the answers to each other. Now, schools across the country are targeting digital media players as a potential cheating device.” </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> “ Devices including iPods and Zunes can be hidden under clothing, with just an earbud and a wire snaking behind an ear and into a shirt collar to give them away, school officials say.” </li></ul>
9. iPod= iCHEAT <ul><li>Some students use iPod-compatible voice recorders to record test answers in advance and them play them back, said 16-year-old Mountain View junior DamirBazdar. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Others download crib notes onto the music players and hide them in the "lyrics" text files. Even an audio clip of the old "Schoolhouse Rock" take on how a bill makes it through Congress can come in handy during some American government exams.” </li></ul>
10. Bibliography <ul><li>Bauerlein, Mark. The Dumbest Generation . New York, NY: Penguin Group, 2008. </li></ul><ul><li>Boone, R. (April 27, 2007). Schools Banning iPods to Beat Cheaters. Idaho Statesman, n.p. November 30, 2008 from SIRS </li></ul><ul><li>Carlson, Scott. “The Net Generation in the Classroom,” Chronicle of Higher Education (7 Oct 2005). </li></ul><ul><li>Last, J. (May 21, 2008). What Are Cell Phones Doing to Our Society? Philadelphia Inquirer, pg n.p. November 30, 2008 from SIRS </li></ul><ul><li>Wallis, C. (March 27, 2006) The Multitasking Generation . Time 167.13, page 48. November 30, 2008 from SIRS </li></ul><ul><li>TOPICS: </li></ul><ul><li>-Has technology become a full time job for students? </li></ul><ul><li>-Cell phones hinder socialization </li></ul><ul><li>-Technology forces a multitasking generation </li></ul><ul><li>-Technology increases cheating </li></ul>
11. Student Access to TECHNOLOGY and LEARNING
12. “ Shortcuts” <ul><li>American Teacher Award winner Rafe Esquith teaches 5 th grade in an inner- city, poverty and crime-stricken school district in Los Angeles. </li></ul><ul><li>Esquith has taught for over 20 successful years in a classroom devoid of “technology”. </li></ul><ul><li>-”How can you go after things (dreams) when you’re sitting in front of a television set or computer screen?” </li></ul><ul><li>He constantly emphasizes to his students who live in an “instant everything society” that “there are no shortcuts” to learning and that, yes indeed, learning takes “hard work”. </li></ul>
13. A “bridge” to the 18 th century? <ul><li>Neil Postman, a strong critic of technology in general, references the “Enlightenment” period in our world history as one to use as a supreme model for future societal “instruction”. </li></ul><ul><li>Technology/Information in an already “over-sourced” society is simply a “distraction”. </li></ul><ul><li>-”(Thomas) Jefferson would not be as impressed by the availability of information as he was by one's competence to understand and give coherent expression to political and social ideas.” </li></ul><ul><li>We need to routinely ask ourselves the following: “What PROBLEM is this technology really solving? </li></ul>
14. WINNERS VS. LOSERS <ul><li>Neil Postman argues that in the “game” of technology, there are always winners and losers alike. </li></ul><ul><li>He cited (and criticized) a 1996 Washington Post article about Maryland’s then plan to connect every one of the state’s public schools to the Internet as part of a $53 million effort “to give students greater access to far-flung information via computers”. </li></ul><ul><li>-Here (and since then), he claims the thousands of school staffers who are already severely underpaid or who have faced lay-offs are the real LOSERS. </li></ul><ul><li>Who else loses? Postman argues that the STUDENTS who henceforth lack quality “human” teachers and who are forced into overcrowded classrooms end up LOSING as well. </li></ul>
15. A “torrent” of technology <ul><li>*Todd Gitlin, a sociologist and media critic, argues against the growing role of the “media torrent” in students’ lives and the electronic media serving and promoting it. </li></ul><ul><li>-"Sensations within reach, emotions on demand, ease of access and rapid rewards: these are the hallmarks of the prevailing media experience. Given that media take up so much of a child's life, the nub of the matter is plain: media values are not strong training in the disciplines of schoolwork.” </li></ul><ul><li>-"Popular culture itself serves as the repertory on which popular culture draws, so that there is little or no recognition that any other, perhaps more demanding, more difficult, worthier culture might exist.” </li></ul><ul><li>-What should we value instead? "Intellectual receptivity, disciplined competence, and methodological deliberation." </li></ul>
16. Bibliography <ul><li>Esquith, Rafe. There Are No Shortcuts . New York: Pantheon Books. 2003 </li></ul><ul><li>Postman, Neil. Building a Bridge to the18 th Century . New York: Vintage Books. 1999 </li></ul><ul><li>Gitlin, Todd. “Teaching amid the Torrent of Popular Culture”. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins Press. 2003 </li></ul>
17. Stress Caused by Technology <ul><li>There is no denying the many benefits of technology, but new technologies all come with a cost, not the least of which is stress. </li></ul><ul><li>“ One of the biggest stress producers of technology is knowing that you have a tool right at your finger tips that will do the task you need done right now, but not knowing how to make it do so. This is frustrating” (Calloway 3). </li></ul><ul><li>More than likely, everyone who uses technology has felt stress associated with its use or its failure to work as planned. </li></ul>
18. Jim Calloway’s Rules of Technology and Stress <ul><li>“ The use of technology speeds up the pace of everything. </li></ul><ul><li>Living in a technological society is stressful. </li></ul><ul><li>The use of technology always involves trade-offs. </li></ul><ul><li>Dealing with changes generates stress and technology will always be changing. </li></ul><ul><li>Information technology distances the human element in communications. </li></ul><ul><li>You can be connected all the time and you cannot be connected all the time.” </li></ul>
19. Robert Reich, former Rhodes scholar, and Bill Clinton’s first term Secretary of Labor, talks about the loss of confidence caused by technology. <ul><li>“ There’s a trade-off for speed and flexibility: insecurity” (Stone 2). </li></ul><ul><li>“ Nowadays, the very speed and information explosion Reich describes also makes it impossible for him to stay ahead of the curve. His concern about the intrusiveness of cell phones, faxes, beepers, and email on our lives is hardly news” (Stone2). </li></ul><ul><li>Stone tells us that Reich is concerned because “…the vicious cycle of knowledge and technology-driven success in the marketplace can quickly morph into the vicious cycle of brutal competition that has vastly widened the income divide between the haves and the have-nots and diminished the quality of life for even the well-off” (Stone 1). </li></ul>
20. Technology Transfers Power from Workers to Management. Many people have lost jobs due to technology. Job loss is considered by many to be more stressful than nearly anything, including divorce and death of a spouse. <ul><li>“ Business Week speaks of a revolution in America’s workplace, ‘involving the law of the jungle and warning that only some will prosper, only the strong survive’” (Richardson 1). </li></ul><ul><li>“ New technologies have been used to create workplaces where people are continuously monitored, where processes are increasingly lean, where repetitive strain injuries (RSI’s) are common place, where stress is increasing, where new chemical hazards are introduced daily, and where dull and dead-end occupations reign” (Richardson 4). </li></ul>
21. “ Technological Innovation Must Be Limited to Protect Humanity” (Gerdes 1). <ul><li>“ The Future of Technology Can Be Predicted” (Pearson 1). </li></ul><ul><li>Will man and machines merge in the future? </li></ul>
22. Bibliography <ul><li>Calloway, Jim. “Technology, Stress and the Lawyer.” Oklahoma Bar Association 11 November 2003: http://www.okbar.org/members/map/articles/technology.htm . </li></ul><ul><li>Edelstein, Daniel. “Tests + Stress= Problems For Students.” </li></ul><ul><li>Brain Connection.com July 2000: 1-3. 4 Dec. 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.brainconnection.com/topics/?main=fa/test=stress . </li></ul><ul><li>Havas, Magda. “Dirty Electricity.” Ontario Secondary School Teachers’ Federation Vol.32, Issue 3 Fall 2006: 1-3. 28 November 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.ossf.on.ca/Default.aspx?DN=1c922d4dc75-4364-ab7 > </li></ul><ul><li>Murray, Bridget. Exploring the Virtues and Vices of Technology.” APA Online Vol.29, Number 8 August 1998: 1-3. 28 November 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.apa.org/monitor/aug98/tech.html . </li></ul><ul><li>Noel, Rachael. “Economy, technology Adds Stress to Students.” The Appalachian Online 9 October 2008< http://thepp.appstate.edu/content/view/4097/41/ >. </li></ul><ul><li>Pearson, Tan D. “The Future of Technology Can Be Predicted.” Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center (2002): 1-8. 2 December 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>http://find.galegroup.com/ov/ovrc/retrieve.do?subjectParam=Local%25 . </li></ul><ul><li>Richardson, Charley. “The Transformation of the Workplace Will Be Negative.” Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center ej30147221 (1998): 1-9. 2 December 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>http://find.galegroup.com/ov/ovrc/retrieve.do?subjectParam=Local%25 </li></ul><ul><li>Stone, David M. “Locked in the Next Terrific Deal.” Literature Resource Center (May 2001): 1-3. 2 December 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>http://go.galegroup.com/ps/retrieve.do?sgHitCountType=None&so </li></ul><ul><li>Surowiecki, James. “Technology and Happiness.” Technology Review January 2005: 1-8. 25 April 2007 </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.technologyreview.com/printer-friendly-article.aspx?id </li></ul><ul><li>Weil, Michelle and Larry Rosen. “Technology Causes Stress at Home, Work.” Business Courier 18 September 1998: 1-2. 4 December 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>http://cincinnati.bizjournals.com/cincinati/stories/1998/09/21/focus </li></ul>
23. The Problem of Cyber-bullying in Schools <ul><li>“ In the 21 st Century, school violence is </li></ul><ul><li>taking on a new and more insidious form.” (Keith, </li></ul><ul><li>2005) </li></ul><ul><li>One of these students is a cyber-bully. One is a victim. Which is which? We just can’t tell anymore. </li></ul><ul><li>Girls are worse than boys. </li></ul><ul><li>Cell phones and computers make it easy. </li></ul><ul><li>It takes place right under our noses and we see and hear nothing. </li></ul><ul><li>Peer-on-peer cyber-bullying is becoming common in the workplace. Is there a cyber-bully on your staff? </li></ul>
24. What’s Going On In Your Lab? <ul><li>With a promise of amnesty, this audio message was offered up by a student who had typed it and sent it to another as she worked on a class assignment. Think twice if you believe this could never happen in your class. </li></ul><ul><li>57% of students said someone had said hurtful things to them online, 13% said it happens often </li></ul><ul><li>53% admit to saying hurtful things online, 7% said they do it often </li></ul><ul><li>35% have been threatened online, 5% said it happens often </li></ul><ul><li>42% have been bullied online, 7% say it happens often </li></ul><ul><li>20% have received mean or threatening emails </li></ul><ul><li>58% have not told a parent or adult (Keith, 2005) </li></ul><ul><li>What might the numbers be in 2008? </li></ul>
25. Pervert From Petoskey?: Online Predators Among Us <ul><li>Our kids are prey. (Technology Wire, 2008) </li></ul><ul><li>Be aware, 60% of the students interviewed said they wouldn’t report abuse because they felt nothing would be done. (Barack, 2008) </li></ul><ul><li>Network safety: It’s all about education…NOT </li></ul><ul><li>Your expectations are clear. You’ve taught about Internet safety, etiquette and monitor vigilantly. What could possibly go wrong? </li></ul><ul><li>The unsuspected predator: This teacher’s recounting of a 2007 classroom incident. </li></ul><ul><li>What would you have done? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you know what’s really going on in your class? </li></ul><ul><li>Schools must be proactive. Having a firm action plan in place is an absolute. Extensive staff training is a must. (MacFarlane, 2007) </li></ul>
26. Bibliography Barack, Laura. “Cyberbullying dissected.” School Library Journal . 1 October 2008. 12 November 2008 < http://www.schoollibraryjournal.com/article/CA6599771html?q=cyber+bullying >. Keith, Susan, and Michelle E. Martin. "Cyber-bullying: creating a culture of respect in a cyber world.“ Reclaiming Children and Youth 13.4 (Wntr2005): 224(5). Educator's Reference Complete . Gale. Library of Michigan. 28 November 2008 http://0-find.galegroup.com.elibrary.mel.org/itx/start.do?prodId=PROF>. MacFarlane, Maureen A. “Misbehavior in cyberspace.” School Administrator .” 64.9 (October 2007): 14-16, 18(9). 28 November 2008< http://0-firstsearch.oclc.org.elibrary.mel.org/sic >. "Pennsylvania Office of Attorney General: 1 of 3 Teens and 1 of 6 Preteens are Victims of Cyber Bullying; Teenager Recounts Harrowing Tale of Online Death Threats." PR Newswire (August 17, 2006): NA. Educator's Reference Complete . Gale. Library of Michigan. 2 Deember 2008 <http://0-find.galegroup.com.elibrary.mel.org/itx/start.do?prodId=PROF>. “ Teens engage in Internet bullying.” Technology Wire . (7 January 2005): NA. Computer Database. Gale. Library of Michigan. 23 November 2008 < http://0find.galegroup.com.elibrary.mel.org/itx/start.do?prodId=CDB >. A complete bibliography & presentation notes on this topic are located in the Internet Safety folder found on the Resources page of my website.
27. Are calculators contributing to the demise of American math skills?
28. Dr. Jing Wang Thinks So <ul><li>Dr. Wang teaches math at Lansing Community College and she says that students often pull out a calculator when they should be thinking through a concept. </li></ul><ul><li>She thinks her students would do better if they would take the time to think before they press buttons. </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Wang has even caught herself starting to use a calculator when it is not needed. </li></ul>
29. Graphing by Hand Vs. Using a Calculator <ul><li>Insert images that shows how a student learns more about a graph by doing it by hand </li></ul>
30. <ul><li>Insert image that shows how thinking about a 3D object without a calculator helps a student figure out how to calculate its volume versus using an image generated for you </li></ul>
31. Fractions <ul><li>Insert image that shows how using a calculator to compute with fractions makes it difficult for students to learn how to do algebraic manipulations with rational expressions. </li></ul>
32. Division <ul><li>Insert an image that shows how doing long division by hand reinforces skills needed for division of algebraic expressions </li></ul>
33. Evidence <ul><li>Back up my ascertains with evidence from a scholarly source. </li></ul>
34. <ul><li>Another back up with evidence </li></ul>
35. College Teachers Jump In <ul><li>Bring up this topic around most college math and science teachers and they will start spilling out the stories of how students use calculators for simple calculations. </li></ul><ul><li>Mr. Taylor, who won Teacher of the Year for Perry Townships schools in 2008, says most kids don’t use technology to reinforce things that they understand, instead they want to use calculators to replace understanding. </li></ul>
36. Aaron Wissner, LCC student <ul><li>“ I understand it so much better when I do it on paper.” </li></ul>
38. Conclusion <ul><li>Schools are quick to jump on the technology bandwagon singing the praises of it’s ability to enhance curriculum, foster collaboration, and extend the knowledge base of staff and students and more. </li></ul><ul><li> However, the very cell phones; PDA’s; iPods; calculators and computers that work these wonders are waging a moral and ethical battle for the hearts and minds of our youth and winning. Their dangers are insidious but real. </li></ul><ul><li>We must take control and not allow the dark underbelly of technology to further corrupt and degrade what was once precious. For the sake of education and our youth we must master technology before it totally masters us. </li></ul>