DR.NIKI GAITANI : INTEGRATED BIOCLIMATIC DESIGN AT URBAN SCALE
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DR.NIKI GAITANI : INTEGRATED BIOCLIMATIC DESIGN AT URBAN SCALE

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Dr. Niki Gaitani, Prof. Mattheos Santamouris

Dr. Niki Gaitani, Prof. Mattheos Santamouris
Group of Buildings Environmental Studies
Physics Department
National & Kapodstrian University of Athens

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DR.NIKI GAITANI : INTEGRATED BIOCLIMATIC DESIGN AT URBAN SCALE Presentation Transcript

  • 1. INTEGRATED BIOCLIMATIC DESIGN AT URBAN SCALE Dr. Niki Gaitani, Prof. Mattheos Santamouris Group of Buildings Environmental Studies Physics Department National & Kapodstrian University of Athens
  • 2. SMART&SUSTAINABLECITIESCONFERENCE2014 Climate Change Projections of extreme temperatures as represented by the combined number of hot summer (June-August) days (Tmax>35C) & tropical nights (Tmin>20C) Source: Fischer and Schär, 2010
  • 3. SMART&SUSTAINABLECITIESCONFERENCE2014 Key Observed & Projected Impacts from Climate Change for the main regions in Europe Source: European Environment Agency (EEA), 2012c
  • 4. SMART&SUSTAINABLECITIESCONFERENCE2014 Potential Impact IN GREECE: A. Changes in annual mean temperature of more than 3.5 degrees Celsius B. The number of sunny days exhibit increases of more than 40 days per year on average C. Decrease in summer precipitation of up to 40% Hot spots are mostly in the South of Europe The annual number of days above 37C and 40C is increasing
  • 5. SMART&SUSTAINABLECITIESCONFERENCE2014 Heat waves Source: The European Environment Agency, 2012. Heat waves - both a low share of green & blue urban areas & high population densities contribute potentially to the urban heat island in cities
  • 6. SMART&SUSTAINABLECITIESCONFERENCE2014 Urban Heat Island •City size & Urban Polulation •Climate, Topography, Physical Layout Modification by urban areas: •Radiative •Thermal •Moisture •Aerodynamic characteristics http://www.ides-edu.eu/ Copyright 2014 IDES-EDU Factors determining the strength of the UHI & its impacts Source: European Environment Agency (EEA), 2012c
  • 7. SMART&SUSTAINABLECITIESCONFERENCE2014 Urban Adaptation to Climate Change Adaptation & Mitigation  the way towards a more sustainable & resilient future for people & nature Adaptation also relates strongly to using & expanding green infrastructure such as parks, forests, wetlands, green walls and roofs, wherever feasible & sustainable  serves to provide a cooling effect on cities as well as playing a role in managing floods Support from a national and European framework is crucial in assisting cities to adapt Traditional measures Innovative solutions ¾ of the population of Europe live in urban areas & this is where climate change will be most apparent in everyday life
  • 8. SMART&SUSTAINABLECITIESCONFERENCE2014 Bioclimatic Design Knowledge of prevailing climate conditions Analysis & understanding of landscape data Methods for applying this knowledge, through landscape design, to create microclimate that are comfortable for people & minimize the energy use of buildings
  • 9. SMART&SUSTAINABLECITIESCONFERENCE2014 Microclimatic Modifications http://www.ides-edu.eu/ Copyright 2014 IDES-EDU
  • 10. SMART&SUSTAINABLECITIESCONFERENCE2014 Thermal Comfort http://www.ides-edu.eu/ Copyright 2014 IDES-EDU
  • 11. SMART&SUSTAINABLECITIESCONFERENCE2014 Techniques to Mitigate Urban Heat Problems 1 •Reduce solar radiation using shading techniques 2 •Increase reflected radiation using light colors 3 •Use cool materials with high reflectivity and emissivity 4 •Change inclination of surfaces http://www.ides-edu.eu/ Copyright 2014 IDES-EDU
  • 12. SMART&SUSTAINABLECITIESCONFERENCE2014 Microclimatic Design Parks & Green Spaces Permeable Surfaces MaterialsTrees http://www.ides-edu.eu/ Copyright 2014 IDES-EDU
  • 13. SMART&SUSTAINABLECITIESCONFERENCE2014 Adaptation Measures cool cool standard standard 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 (x 0.67 km) 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 (x0.67km) ΔΤ(oC) -3.0to-1.5 -1.5to0.0 0.0to0.5 0.5to1.0 1.0to1.5 1.5to2.0 2.0to2.5 2.5to3.0 “Cool” materials characterized by high reflectance to short wave radiation & high emissivity to long wave radiation The use of cool materials at city scale can contribute to the reduction of air temperature
  • 14. SMART&SUSTAINABLECITIESCONFERENCE2014 Integrated Approach A. Field measurements microclimatic data (Tair, Wind, Humidity, Tsurf) B. Study the role of the materials used in the urban fabric (IR) C. Investigation of thermal comfort in outdoor spaces (Bioclimatic indices) D. Integration of microclimatic information in the design of open spaces E. Evaluation of proposed solutions with bioclimatic CFD models
  • 15. SMART&SUSTAINABLECITIESCONFERENCE2014 Case study: Historic center of Tirana (1)
  • 16. SMART&SUSTAINABLECITIESCONFERENCE2014 Case study: Historic center of Tirana (2) The use of passive cooling techniques involving cool materials, solar control and additional vegetation as well as earth to air heat exchangers can reduce the peak summer ambient temperature up to 3 degrees, while surface temperatures are decreased up to 6-8ºC Bioclimatic design of open public spaces in the historic centre of Tirana, Albania (2011) SUSTAINABLE CITIES & SOCIETY, 1 (1), pp. 54-62. Fintikakis, N., Gaitani, N., Santamouris, M., Assimakopoulos, M., Assimakopoulos, D.N., Fintikaki, M., Albanis, G., Papadimitriou, K., Chryssochoides, E., Katopodi, K., Doumas, P
  • 17. SMART&SUSTAINABLECITIESCONFERENCE2014 Case study: Marousi (1) 3rd Palenc, 5th EPIC & 1st Cool Roofs Conference, 29 Sept-1 Oct, 2010, Rhodes, Greece, Strategies for microclimatic modifications in the urban spaces-Marousi center, Greece, N. Gaitani, A. Spanou, M. Saliari, M. Santamouris , F. Xyrafi
  • 18. SMART&SUSTAINABLECITIESCONFERENCE2014 Case study: Marousi (2) 3rd Palenc, 5th EPIC & 1st Cool Roofs Conference, 29 Sept-1 Oct, 2010, Rhodes, Greece, Strategies for microclimatic modifications in the urban spaces-Marousi center, Greece, N. Gaitani, A. Spanou, M. Saliari, M. Santamouris , F. Xyrafi
  • 19. SMART&SUSTAINABLECITIESCONFERENCE2014 Challenges & Opportunities for Cities •Local city characteristics tend to be highly important in terms of sensitivity to heat •The results suggest that cities designed in such a way that makes them susceptible to heat are not unique to one particular region •It is highly likely that the length, frequency and/or intensity of heat waves will increase • Present day design of many cities with few green urban areas but many artificial surfaces aggravates the impact of heat waves within cities, in particular by increasing night-time temperatures • City governments have a range of options at their disposal to be better prepared for future heat conditions, including 'grey', 'green' and variety of 'soft' solutions
  • 20. SMART&SUSTAINABLECITIESCONFERENCE2014 Thank you! Photos: Dimitris Messinis ngaitani@phys.uoa.gr