www.ei-lat.geVisa Facilitation and Readmission:  Georgia’s Visa Liberalizations      Prospects with the EU           Final...
Report ContentsChapter 1:              The main pillars and provisions of the Agreement;                        The EU’s “...
Presentation OutlineVisa Facilitation and   The Agreements; Major pillars; OtherReadmission             relevant informati...
The Visa Facilitation Agreement      Participating EU member states:              17 June, 2010 / 1 March, 2011Austria    ...
Visa Facilitation  The main pillars of the Agreement1. Documentary evidence proving the purpose of   the journey - 13 cate...
Visa Facilitation      The main pillars of the Agreement5. Applications considered within 10 days (down from 30)6. The EU ...
The Readmission Agreement         Participating EU member states:                 22 November, 2010 / 1 March, 2011Austria...
Readmission      The main pillars of the Agreement1. Readmission of own nationals  •   persons who do not, or no longer fu...
Readmission        The main pillars of the agreement3. Means of evidence regarding nationality  •     passports of any kin...
Readmission  The main aspects of the agreement5. Readmission procedures and time limits  •   The application must be submi...
The EU “Black” and “White” Lists              The European Council #539/2001 Regulation - 2001• 41 countries and territori...
Georgia’s ‘Open Door’ Policy            Law of Georgia on legal Status of Foreigners        1 June, 2006 - 90 days ; 14 Ja...
Georgia’s ‘Open Door’ Policy                      Henley & Partners Visa Restrictions 2010 and 2011 IndexPosition         ...
The EU visas for Georgian citizens                in 2007-2011  Year       Total Visa     A, B, C Visa   Visa rejected    ...
Visa refusals by consulates                                                   Visa Refusals               Visa Refusals   ...
Refusal rates in the region        (EaP and Russia)Country        Visa refusal   Visa refusal                 2009        ...
Migration - Georgia•   An estimated 25% (1 058,3 thousand persons) are in emigration (WB, 2011)•   nearly 80 % of them are...
Labor Migration - GeorgiaMajor routes (top 10 countries / number of migrants):                                            ...
Remittances  Total $ 5,471,099 thousand in 2006-2011 (National                                                Bank) - max....
RemittancesRemittances average annual (IPPR)                       1325 $             EU top three more than              ...
Migrants from GeorgiaProfile:Age: 60% from 20 to 39 years oldSex: nearly equal male and female (though 70% male in CIS)Edu...
Implementation: Visa FacilitationMethodology:- Review of web-pages- Telephone Services- Field research / Monitoring consul...
Consulates                       EU ConsulatesAccredited EU Member States’ Consulates in GeorgiaDirectly represented Consu...
EU ConsulatesEU Member States Consulates represented by Non-EUCountriesSwitzerland               AustriaEU Member States‘ ...
Implementation: Visa FacilitationWeb pages (11 Consulates)            6 – only in foreign languageBulgaria, Romania, Latvi...
Implementation: Visa FacilitationChallenges - EU Visa Code Regulations:-Access to Information (Code, Article 27; Article 4...
Implementation: Visa FacilitationChallenges – the provisions of the Agreement:– Categories:the procedures have been more l...
Implementation: Visa Facilitation– Duration:Cases of non-application; 22.5% of total C type visas are multiple entry in 20...
Implementation: Visa FacilitationGeorgian side: challenges and need for additional reforms– Document Security– Integrating...
Implementation: Readmission                       Readmission Requests by March 1, 2012 Total                  758        ...
DeportationsFrom the EU:2009 - 780 persons                                            Years 2009-20112010 - 12712011 - 768...
Results: ReadmissionProcess :•   Bilateral implementation protocols•   Special unit for Readmission set up at Patrol Polic...
Results: Readmission    Challenges:•   Awareness (perception of threats and risks)•   Migration Strategy and Action Plan• ...
Liberalization Perspectives                      Pending two-phased Action Plan (exp. In 2012)                            ...
Liberalization Perspectives                   Action Plan (EaP) vs. Road Map (Balkans)Differences: - Terming             -...
Thank you!             36
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Presentation (eng) - viza facilitation and readmission: georgia's visa liberalizations prospects with the EU

1,438 views
1,181 views

Published on

Published in: Education, Travel
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,438
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
315
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
3
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Presentation (eng) - viza facilitation and readmission: georgia's visa liberalizations prospects with the EU

  1. 1. www.ei-lat.geVisa Facilitation and Readmission: Georgia’s Visa Liberalizations Prospects with the EU Final Report April 27, 2012 The project is supported by the Open Society Georgia Foundation 1
  2. 2. Report ContentsChapter 1: The main pillars and provisions of the Agreement; The EU’s “black” and “white” lists; Georgia’s ‘open door’ policy; Visa statistics; Visa refusals; the profilesVisa Facilitation of the EU consulates; level of awareness; implementationChapter 2: The main pillars and provisions of the Agreement; Migration and labor migrants; Remittances; level of awareness and risk perceptions; Deportations;Readmission ImplementationChapter 3: The significance of the Agreements; Prospects for Visa Liberalization; Balkan experience with visa liberalization and EU migration policies; Action PlansLiberalization of Ukraine and Moldova; Brief country profiles; Visa dialogue experiences.Annexes (9): Information on EU embassies and consulates; EU citizens visits to Georgia in 2004-2011; EU detailed visa statistics for 2007-2010; Samples of visa application form and refusal motivation; Remittances in 2006-2011; statistics of deportations in 2009-2011; focus group questionnaires. 2
  3. 3. Presentation OutlineVisa Facilitation and The Agreements; Major pillars; OtherReadmission relevant information.General context The EU “black” and “white” lists; Visa Statistics; Visa refusals; Migration and labor migrants; remittances;Implementation Significance of the Agreements; Progress assessment; challenges; results; perspectives. 3
  4. 4. The Visa Facilitation Agreement Participating EU member states: 17 June, 2010 / 1 March, 2011Austria FranceBelgium SlovakiaBulgaria SloveniaGermany HungarySpain FinlandEstonia SwedenItaly Czech RepublicCyprusLatviaLithuania does not apply to:LuxembourgMalta United KingdomNetherlands IrelandPoland DenmarkPortugalRomaniaGreece 4
  5. 5. Visa Facilitation The main pillars of the Agreement1. Documentary evidence proving the purpose of the journey - 13 categories2. Multiple-entry visas • up to five years • up to one year • minimum of two years and a maximum of five years3. Diplomatic passports - visa free4. Visa fees • reduced visa fee at 35€ instead of 60 € • total exemption from the visa fee for 12 categories 5
  6. 6. Visa Facilitation The main pillars of the Agreement5. Applications considered within 10 days (down from 30)6. The EU Visa Code (Community Code on Visas, 2010) • Consular services: Language and quality • The list of minimum requirements • Motivation of refusal of visa • The right of appeal7. Joint Committee • monitoring the implementation of the Agreement; • suggesting amendments or additions to the Agreement; • settling disputes arising out of the interpretation or application of the provisions in the Agreement. 6
  7. 7. The Readmission Agreement Participating EU member states: 22 November, 2010 / 1 March, 2011Austria FranceBelgium SlovakiaBulgaria SloveniaGermany HungarySpain FinlandEstonia SwedenItaly Czech RepublicCyprus United KingdomLatviaLithuania does not apply to:LuxembourgMalta IrelandNetherlands DenmarkPolandPortugalRomaniaGreece 7
  8. 8. Readmission The main pillars of the Agreement1. Readmission of own nationals • persons who do not, or no longer fulfill the conditions for entry into, presence in, or residence on the territory of the member state2. Readmission of third-country nationals and stateless persons • illegally and directly entered the territory of a Member State after having stayed on, or transited through the territory of Georgia; • hold a valid visa or residence permit issued by Georgia. 8
  9. 9. Readmission The main pillars of the agreement3. Means of evidence regarding nationality • passports of any kind • identity cards • other official documents that mention or clearly indicate citizenship.4. Prima facie evidence regarding nationality • documents that expired 6 months ago • driving licenses, birth certificates or photocopies thereof • statements by witnesses • Language tests, Etc. 9
  10. 10. Readmission The main aspects of the agreement5. Readmission procedures and time limits • The application must be submitted within maximum 6 months • A readmission application must be replied within 12 calendar days (2 working days under the accelerated procedure) • Transportation within 90 days6. Transport and transit costs7. Joint readmission committee • monitor the implementation of the Agreement; • uniform application of the Agreement; • recommend amendments to the Agreement 10
  11. 11. The EU “Black” and “White” Lists The European Council #539/2001 Regulation - 2001• 41 countries and territories – the EU “White list”• Visa Facilitation and Readmission: 9 countries Albania; Bosnia-Herzegovina; Macedonia; Moldova, Montenegro; Russia; Serbia; Georgia; Ukraine• Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia: “White List,” 2009• Albania and Bosnia-Herzegovina: “White List,” 2010• Moldova and Ukraine: Facilitation and Readmission - 2008 Dialogue on visa liberalization - 2010 11
  12. 12. Georgia’s ‘Open Door’ Policy Law of Georgia on legal Status of Foreigners 1 June, 2006 - 90 days ; 14 January, 2009 - 360 days Visa free regime for more than 80 countries; The 547 390 EU citizens entered Georgia in 2004-2011 The highest rate The lowest rateGermany - 113030 Cyprus - 1784United Kingdom - 78119 Malta - 624Greece - 97377 Luxembourg - 560Bulgaria - 58881France - 51791 After the unilateral liberalization in 2006: 2005 - 48 508 Persons 2011 – 136 975 Persons 12
  13. 13. Georgia’s ‘Open Door’ Policy Henley & Partners Visa Restrictions 2010 and 2011 IndexPosition Country Index* Position Country Index* 1-98 2010 1-198 2011 1 United Kingdom 166 1 Denmark, Sweden, 173 Finland 5 . Germany, France, 161 5 United Kingdom 171 Italy, Netherlands 49 Russia 83 77 Russia 89 65 Ukraine 64 97 Ukraine 69 67 Ghana 62 118 Ghana 62 71 Moldova, Saudi Arabia 57 122 Moldova, Saudi Arabia 58 72 Georgia, Belarus 56 123 Georgia 58 73 Benin 54 127 Belarus 54 92-98 Iran, Iraq, Afghanistan, 34-26 194-198 Iraq, Pakistan, 32-24 Somalia, Afghanistan, Somalia, Sudan Sudan 13
  14. 14. The EU visas for Georgian citizens in 2007-2011 Year Total Visa A, B, C Visa Visa rejected Percent issued 2007 61701 55042 6659 10,8% 2008 66734 56495 10239 15,3% 2009 61818 51198 10620 17,2% 2010 59162 50224 8938 15,1% 2011 65084 55152 9932 15.3%A Category - an airport transit visaB Category - a transit visa, for passing through the Schengen areaC Category - business and tourist visa for short-term stays* These Categories are covered by the Visa Facilitation Agreement** Airport transit visa equals to short-term visa 14
  15. 15. Visa refusals by consulates Visa Refusals Visa Refusals Consulate 2010 2011 1 Estonia* 31,1% 20,9% 2 Lithuania 29,1% 19,9% 3 Greece 28,8% 21,3% 4 Netherlands* 21,4% 26,6% 5 Czech Republic 18,9% 19,9% 6 Latvia* 18,5% 10,9% 7 Poland* 11,7% 10,2% 8 Germany* 10,9% 12,0% 9 France 8,2% 7,9% 10 Bulgaria** 4,3% --- 11 Italy* 4,00% 5,0% 12 Romania** 0 % ---* These Consulates also render consular services of other EU countries.** Relevant data for Bulgaria and Romania are not included in the 2011 data. 15
  16. 16. Refusal rates in the region (EaP and Russia)Country Visa refusal Visa refusal 2009 2010 Georgia 17.2% 15.1%Armenia 10,8% 10,8%Moldova 5,3% 6,9% Ukraine 4,7% 3,4%Azerbaijan 3,6% 5,0% Belarus 1,2% 0,96% Russia 1,6% 1,2% 16
  17. 17. Migration - Georgia• An estimated 25% (1 058,3 thousand persons) are in emigration (WB, 2011)• nearly 80 % of them are illegal labor migrants (IOM, 2008)• Out of whom 72 % send remittances back home (IPPR, 2010)• Every fourth household has a migrant abroad (BSLMR, 2010)• Georgia per asylum seekers: 2009: 6th position 2010: 10th position (34% decrease) (e.g. Russia is on 2nd position)• With the index of net migration* (per 1000 persons) Georgia in one of the leaders in the region (EE, CA, "New Europe") - (IOM, 2010) and is in the group of “sending” countries average Region (0 / – 1.5) Georgia – 12 (2005-2010) –20 (1990-1995) * Net migration is the difference between the total number of immigrants and the annual number of emigrants. (WB, 2010) 17
  18. 18. Labor Migration - GeorgiaMajor routes (top 10 countries / number of migrants): 644,390 75,792 13,497 18,164 41,817 26,032 10,702 72,410 25,310 7,295Armenia Cyprus Germany Greece Israel Russia Spain Turkey Ukraine USA Number of Emigrants Emigrants percent WB (2011) EU 95,992 9% CIS 802,291 76% Other 160,755 15% 18
  19. 19. Remittances Total $ 5,471,099 thousand in 2006-2011 (National Bank) - max. 70% 11.2 9.2 9.2 8.5 8.5 8.1 7.8 8.1 7.8 8.1Remittances and 7.1 7.3Agriculture / GDP 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Share of agriculture in GDP (percent) Percent of Remittances of GDPRemittances and FDIs 2,014,800 1,564,000 1,268,127 1,190,400 1,002,122 980,600 939,669 866,156 841,776 814,500 553,249 658,400 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011* 19 Remittances (Thousand USD) FDIs (Thousand USD)
  20. 20. RemittancesRemittances average annual (IPPR) 1325 $ EU top three more than 80% of total (2011):From Western Europe 2000 $Average annual income of households 3035 $ Greece 41%2007 Italy 30,9%Average annual income of households 4390 $ Spain 8,8%2010 66.6 62.9 63.3 53.5 52.8 51.7 27.8 20.1 22 15.3 14.9 11.1 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Share of remittances from the EU in total remittances (percent) Share of remittances from Russia in total remittances (percent) 20
  21. 21. Migrants from GeorgiaProfile:Age: 60% from 20 to 39 years oldSex: nearly equal male and female (though 70% male in CIS)Education: majority with high education – “brain drain”Type of employment: mostly low income, low qualification jobs;Around 85% had no prearranged jobs prior to emigration (IPPR/GDN, 2010)Potential Migrants: (IOM 2006-2009 Surveys)Destinations: 20 per cent – the US; 20 per cent - any country, other: EUGender : 54.36 per cent - Female - 45.64 percent - MaleAge: up to 25 - 22.60 per cent; 25 -30 - 18.31 per cent, 45-50 - 13.66 per centEducation: higher- 49.21 per cent, professional-31.40 per cent,Profession: Teachers, lecturers - 18.74 %, medical personnel - 11.23 %,engineers/architects - 8.30%, economists and social scientists 8 %, students – 8 %Jobs (in emigration): nurse -27.68 %, any job - 23.61 %, Service -10.37 %Preparation and adaptation: Language knowledge – 40 %- only basic;84.5 %- without any experience of study and work abroad 21
  22. 22. Implementation: Visa FacilitationMethodology:- Review of web-pages- Telephone Services- Field research / Monitoring consulates at spot- Two small-scale surveys- Three focus groups- Facebook survey 22
  23. 23. Consulates EU ConsulatesAccredited EU Member States’ Consulates in GeorgiaDirectly represented Consulates Indirectly Represented Consulates 1 Bulgaria 2 Germany Spain Portugal Finland 3 Estonia Denmark 4 Italy Malta 5 Latvia Sweden Hungary 6 Lithuania 7 Netherlands Belgium Luxemburg 8 Poland Slovenia 9 Romania 10 Greece 11 France 12 Czech Republic 23
  24. 24. EU ConsulatesEU Member States Consulates represented by Non-EUCountriesSwitzerland AustriaEU Member States‘ Consulates abroad Issuing Visas to GeorgianCitizensEU Member States Accredited Consulates 1 Ireland Bulgaria, Sofia 2 Slovakia Turkey, Ankara Ukraine, Kiev 3 Cyprus Greece, Athens Ukraine, Kiev 24
  25. 25. Implementation: Visa FacilitationWeb pages (11 Consulates) 6 – only in foreign languageBulgaria, Romania, LatviaVisa Application Forms 4 - only in foreign language Most of them are to be filled in in EnglishInformation on the agreement/ 3 – Full information on web-pagesvisa documents 2 – Full information on the notice boards 3 – No information on web-pages 2 - No information on the notice boards 7 - Provide no information by phoneInformation on the right to appeal 2 - No information on web-pagesQueues (Seasonal) Challenge in all 14 consulates 5 consulates - live queues 8 consulates - from 3 to 8 weeks (first observation; improved during the second observation)Infrastructure None of the consulates ensure fully apt infrastructure (at places where the visa applicants happen to wait longest) 25
  26. 26. Implementation: Visa FacilitationChallenges - EU Visa Code Regulations:-Access to Information (Code, Article 27; Article 47; Joint Declaration of the Agreement)- List of minimum requirements (Code, Article 14)-Service infrastructure and quality (Code, Article 38; Article 39)-Service on official language of host country (Code, Article 11)-Waiting period for visa appointments (Code, Article 9)- Visa refusal and right to appeal (Code, Article 34; Article 47)- Visa Statistics (VIS ) 26
  27. 27. Implementation: Visa FacilitationChallenges – the provisions of the Agreement:– Categories:the procedures have been more legalized rather than additionally facilitated for the listedcategories; Does not include the most requested tourism visas.– Documentary evidence proving the purpose of journey :Single documentary evidence - yet same list of additional supporting documents beyond thelist of minimum requirements, which are not harmonized among the member states(possibility provision by Code, Article 14). Full and precise information not always available.– 10 days for consideration of visa applications:(Code, Article 21 from 30 to 15 days)Mostly similar to earlier practice;Long waiting queues for submitting visa applications;– Visa fees 35 Euro or No fees: (Code, Article 15, down from 60 to 35 )Cases of non-application; high transportation costs. 27
  28. 28. Implementation: Visa Facilitation– Duration:Cases of non-application; 22.5% of total C type visas are multiple entry in 2011– Diplomatic Passports visa free:Some cases reporting difficulties at EU Border Points– High Refusal Rates:• Problem identification• Joint efforts to cope the challenges• Better communicated information on visa refusal motivation and right to appealE.g. the Balkans: the “Road Maps” identified 3% ‘secure’/acceptable refusal rateMoldova: the refusal rates decreased from 12-14% to 6.6% after 11 months of enactingVisa Facilitation Agreement– Joint Committee• To exchange visa statistics and other relevant information on regular basis• To more efficient instrumentalize in terms of problem solving 28
  29. 29. Implementation: Visa FacilitationGeorgian side: challenges and need for additional reforms– Document Security– Integrating biometric identifiers– Increasing institutional capacities– Improving legislative basis– Ensure the security of new electronic basis– Migration Strategy and Action PlanBiometric Documents issued by March 1, 2012:National Passports - 358 315 (since April, 2010)IDs - 176 884 (Since August, 2011)The value merits of Visa Facilitation and Liberalization and significancefor Georgia’s European future, public attitudes, aspirations 29
  30. 30. Implementation: Readmission Readmission Requests by March 1, 2012 Total 758 Germany 230 Approved 687 Austria 160 Netherlands 81 In Review 5 Greece 80 Rejected 66 (8.7%) Sweden 50 Poland 420 Request from Georgia to EU Belgium 39Readmission Agreements: Lithuania 24Germany (2008) 21Italy (ratified 997) HungaryLatvia (2009) Italy 16Bulgaria (2003) Romania, Finland, 1-5Non-EU: Spain, Czech Republic,Switzerland (2005) Bulgaria, CyprusNorway (2011) 30
  31. 31. DeportationsFrom the EU:2009 - 780 persons Years 2009-20112010 - 12712011 - 768 (vs. Readmission 758) Poland 648 Greece 542Three states with highest deportation of Germany 452Georgian citizens (MIA, Georgia): Austria 191e.g. in 2007 85% of total deportations Spain 172Turkey (5319) France 154Russia (2047)Ukraine (823) Czech Republic 127 31
  32. 32. Results: ReadmissionProcess :• Bilateral implementation protocols• Special unit for Readmission set up at Patrol Police• Working Agreement with FRONTEX (2008)• Border management, border modernization and consulates’ equipment• Biometric documents and databaseFactors:• Possible impact on labor migration routes• "Old" and "new" migrants (biometric identifiers introduced)• The EU approach to illegal labor migration• No direct border with the EU 32
  33. 33. Results: Readmission Challenges:• Awareness (perception of threats and risks)• Migration Strategy and Action Plan• Readmission agreements with the third countries• Cooperation within the framework of Partnership for Mobility• Visa dialogue and Action Plan• Broader aspects of social and economic policy 33
  34. 34. Liberalization Perspectives Pending two-phased Action Plan (exp. In 2012) Moldova, Ukraine (2010)- Document security, including biometrics; • Biometric passports in full compliance with ICAO standards;- Irregular immigration, including readmission • Border Management; • Migration Management; • Asylum Policy.- Public order and security; • Organized crime, Terrorism and Corruption; • Judicial co-operation in criminal matters; • Law enforcement co-operation; • Data Protection.- External relations and fundamental rights; • Freedom of movement; • Identity documents; • Citizens’ rights including protection of minorities. 34
  35. 35. Liberalization Perspectives Action Plan (EaP) vs. Road Map (Balkans)Differences: - Terming - political connotation - procedurial - structuralRelevant experiences for visa liberalization, (Balkans, Ukraine, Moldova):-EU’s migration and asylum policy dynamics-decrease in number of asylum seekers-decease in visa refusals and entry refusals-controlling irregular migration (incl. dubious tour-companies.etc)-Wide information campaign-Political dedication and competence from the government-informed and active engagement from civil society and media 35
  36. 36. Thank you! 36

×