Innovation and inclusion through open education


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Keynote speech of Roberto Carneiro, UCP, at the EFQUEL Conference in Oeiras on the 9th of September 2010.

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Innovation and inclusion through open education

  1. 1. Innovation and inclusion through open education Roberto Carneiro, UCP EFQUEL Conference Oeiras, 9 september 2010
  3. 3. Generative/Open Knowledge Co-Creation The Knowledge-Brokerage Cycle (Hargadon & Sutton, HBR, May-June 2000) Capturing good ideas Keeping ideas alive Radar Incubator The Innovation Factory Putting promising Imagining new uses concepts to the test for old ideas Test-bed Laboratory
  4. 4. SCHOOLS THAT LEARN? FIVE DISCIPLINES (1) Personal Mastery: Personal mastery is the practice of articulating a coherent image of your personal vision – the results you most want to create in your life – alongside a realistic assessment of the current reality of your life today. This produces a kind of innate tension that, when cultivated, can expand your capacity to make better choices and to achieve more of the results that you have chosen
  5. 5. SCHOOLS THAT LEARN? FIVE DISCIPLINES (2) Shared Vision: This collective discipline establishes a focus on mutual purpose. People with a common purpose (e.g., the teachers, administrators, and staff in a school) can learn to nourish a sense of commitment in a group or organization by developing shared images of the future they seek to create and the principles and guiding practices by which they hope to get there. A school or community that hopes to live by learning needs a common shared vision process.
  6. 6. SCHOOLS THAT LEARN? FIVE DISCIPLINES (3) Mental Models: This discipline of reflection and inquiry skills is focused around developing awareness of attitudes and perceptions – your own and those of others around you. Working with mental models can also help you more clearly and honestly define current reality. Since most mental models in education are often “undiscussable” and hidden from view, one of the critical acts for a learning school is to develop the capability to talk safely and productively about dangerous and discomfiting subjects.
  7. 7. SCHOOLS THAT LEARN? FIVE DISCIPLINES (4) Team Learning: This is a discipline of group interaction. Through such techniques as dialogue and skillful discussion, small groups of people transform their collective thinking, learning to mobilize their energies and actions to achieve common goals and drawing forth an intelligence and ability greater than the sum of individual members’ talents. Team learning can be fostered inside classrooms, between parents and teachers, among members of the community, and in the “pilot groups” that pursue successful school change.
  8. 8. SCHOOLS THAT LEARN? FIVE DISCIPLINES (5) Systems Thinking: In this discipline, people learn to better understand interdependency and change and thereby are able to deal more effectively with the forces that shape the consequences of their actions. Systems thinking is based on a growing body of theory about the behavior of feedback and complexity – the innate tendencies of a system that lead to growth or stability over time. Tools and techniques such as stock-and-flow diagrams, system archetypes and various types of learning labs and simulations help students gain a broader and deeper understanding of the subjects they study. Systems thinking is a powerful practice for finding the leverage needed to get the most constructive change.
  9. 9. ADAPTIVE AND GENERATIVE LEARNING Closed and Open Systems ADAPTIVE “OLD” LEARNING GENERATIVE “NEW” LEARNING • Responding to environmental • Expanding capabilities change • Enhancing creativity, fostering • Coping with threats openness • Reacting to symptoms • Looking at the environment in • Capturing trends and new ways incorporating early signs of • Adressing underlying causes change • Thinking differently • Eliciting flexibility as prime • Anticipating futures value
  10. 10. Mental habits that support LLL John Kotter, “Leading Change”, 1996 • Risk-taking: Willingness to push oneself out of comfort zones • Humble self-reflection: Honest assessment of successes and failures, especially the latter • Solicitation of opinions: Aggressive collection of information and ideas from others • Careful listening: Propensity to listen to others • Openness to new ideas: Willingness to view life with an open mind
  11. 11. INFORMAL LEARNING • Informal learning establishes the foundation for advanced synergies between learning and innovation. • Investing in the theory and practice of translating life (and professional) experience into accredited knowledge and skills. • Understanding and mastering complex processes involved in the formation and sharing of “social knowledge” - the centre of new lifelong learning agendas. •Exploring the role of IT + Web 2.0 (social networks) and Web 3.0 (semantic web + ‘internet of things’) in spreading informal learning narratives and tacit knowledge acquisitions.
  12. 12. New Policy Agenda for Informal Lifelong Learning • Enabling the transformation of experience into consolidated and useful knowledge • Legitimising in a socially credible way tacit knowledge acquired in non-formal and informal settings • Overcoming traditional “monopolies” of codified knowledge • Constructing a credible “catalogue” of tacit competencies, uniquely acquired and nurtured through the means of experience? • Deconstructing systems of merit and opportunities predominantly based on formal degrees and certificates (cultural capital) • Designing a new system of social signalling which would be capable of showing the effective value of experiential knowledge • Rewarding a community of “knowledge subjects” of informal knowledge and constructors of tacit competencies instead of multiplying “knowledge objects”
  13. 13. Lessons from empirical research Adult Lifelong Learning Outcomes (1) Improved foundation skills for lifelong learning: a. Literacy and e. skills (reading, writing, speaking, computer use and internet use) and evidence of changing daily habits following certification especially having achieved the level of basic education. b. Learning to learn skills (self -image and self-esteem, critical thinking, motivation for learning, learning strategies and participation in education and training): especially improved self-esteem and motivation for learning among the basic education achievers. c. Improved soft skills – personal and social skills, civic competence and cultural awareness and expression. d. Less progress in hard skills namely in science and technology and foreign language. 13
  14. 14. Lessons from empirical research Adult Lifelong Learning Outcomes (2) Skills Summary - Evaluation Versus Skills Summary - Evaluation Versus Use in Use in Basic Level (grade 9) Secondary Level (grade 12) Skill Use Before certification After certification Skill Use Before certification After certification Literacy Literacy 9,0 9,0 8,0 "Learning to Learn" 8,0 7,0 e.Skills Skills "Learning to Learn" Skills 7,0 e.Skills 6,0 6,0 5,0 4,0 5,0 3,0 4,0 Basic Skills in Civic skills 2,0 Science and 3,0 Technology Basic Skills in Science and Civic skills 2,0 Technology Personal and social Foreign Language skills Personal and social skills Foreign Language Comunication, expression and cultural awarness Comunication, expression and cultural awarness
  15. 15. Lessons from empirical research Adult Lifelong Learning Outcomes (3) Learning to Learn After certification Before certification Skill Use Learning to learn Participation in education and skills: significant Basic traning Secondary Basic gains strategies Learning Secondary Self-esteem : the lowest ranking Self Image and Reasoning and Motivation for Basic before LLL participation; the learning Secondary biggest leapfrog after certification (basic education) self-estime critical thinking Basic Secondary Critical thinking skills: the lowest Basic ranking in work context and Secondary before LLL participation; a 5 6 robust enhancement after 7 8 9 10 certification (basic education)
  17. 17. WORLD INTERNET USAGE AND POPULATION STATISTICS Population Internet Users Internet Users Penetration Growth Users % World Regions ( 2010 Est.) Dec. 31, 2000 Latest Data (% Population) 2000-2010 of Table Africa 1,013,779,050 4,514,400 110,931,700 10.9 % 2,357.3 % 5.6 % Asia 3,834,792,852 114,304,000 825,094,396 21.5 % 621.8 % 42.0 % Europe 813,319,511 105,096,093 475,069,448 58.4 % 352.0 % 24.2 % Middle East 212,336,924 3,284,800 63,240,946 29.8 % 1,825.3 % 3.2 % North America 344,124,450 108,096,800 266,224,500 77.4 % 146.3 % 13.5 % Latin America/Caribbean 592,556,972 18,068,919 204,689,836 34.5 % 1,032.8 % 10.4 % Oceania / Australia 34,700,201 7,620,480 21,263,990 61.3 % 179.0 % 1.1 % WORLD TOTAL 6,845,609,960 360,985,492 1,966,514,816 28.7 % 444.8 % 100.0 % NOTES: (1) Internet Usage and World Population Statistics are for June 30, 2010. (2) CLICK on each world region name for
  18. 18. WORLD EDUCATION: A BIG PICTURE Age Group 6-11 700 million 150 million out of school Age Group 12-17 640 million 300 million out of school Age Group 15-64 3,900 million 3,000 million in developing countries 900 million in industrial countries World Illiterates 850 million 200 million in E. Asia (20% population, 2/3 F) 400 million in S. Asia 40 million in LAmerica and Carib. 145 million in SSAfrica 65 million in Arab States Tertiary Enrollment 90 million Teachers 60 million Public Expend. in Ed. US$ 2 trillion (80% in developed countries)
  19. 19. THE WAY TO INCLUSIVE KNOWLEDGE CLASSICAL APPROACH NEW APPROACH What to teach Where to learn How to teach When to learn Initial Education Flexible Learning for a lifetime throughout life Status-ridden Inclusive Knowledge Knowledge “Have-nots” “Haves”
  20. 20. Assessing the effects of ICT in education Friedrich Scheuermann (JRC) and Francesc Pedró (OECD), 2009 First, recent evidence has unveiled that the digital divide in education goes beyond the issue of access to technology. A new second form of digital divide has been identified: the one existing between those who have the right competencies and skills to benefit from computer use, and those who do not. These competences and skills are closely linked to the economic, cultural and social capital of the student. Second, the changing needs of economic and social development require a wide range of new skills and competencies, known as the 21st century competencies. These are considered key enablers of responsible citizenship in a knowledge-based and technology-pervaded economy. Last but not least, there is the pending issue of whether or not today’s teaching and learning experience in schools matches what could be expected from a knowledge society.
  21. 21. OEP AS A BRIDGE BETWEEN NEW AND OLD LEARNING •Network and distributed learning may act to -approximate supply and demand -enhance flexibility and customization -promote an equitable distribution of learning resources -combine distance and proximity (face to face) strategies - develop “invisible” learning interfaces •Boosting the effectiveness of classroom learning and teaching •Assisting in the expansion of teaching competencies •Augmenting LLL opportunities for continuous skills upgrading and personal/social development – TARGETING THE LOW SKILLED
  22. 22. A ‘LEARNING UTILITY’: AGENDA • Build an infrastructure (OER and OEP) for Lifelong Learning • Skills for All – generic, ICT, civic, social, ‘productive’ • Quality of Service and Standards for Learning • Invisible technologies and CoP • Balanced corporate and individual learning agendas: embed learning in production contexts • Rewarding learning cultures, boosting motivation to engage in effortful learning • Making room for nonformal and informal learning – valuing real life and problem-based learning, enhancing tacit and experiential knowledge
  23. 23. INTUITION, IMAGINATION, QUALITY ... ... and PERSPIRATION “The gift of imagination is by no means an exclusive property of the artist; it is a gift we all share ... The dullest ... among us has the gift of dreams at night – visions and yearnings and hopes. Everyone can also think; it is the quality of thought that makes the difference – not just the quality of logical thinking, but of imaginative thinking ... Albert Einstein ... often spoke of having dreamed his Unified Field Theory and his Principle of Relativity – intuiting them, and then, high on inspiration, plunging into the perspiration of working them out to be probable, and therefore true”. Leonard Bernstein, Johns Hopkins University commencement address, 1980.
  24. 24. LIFELONG LEARNING A SENSE OF PURPOSE: CULTIVATING HUMANITY Three kinds of progress are significant for culture: progress in knowledge and technology; progress in the socialisation of man; progress in spirituality. The last is the most important…technical progress, extension of knowledge, does indeed represent progress, but not in fundamentals. The essential thing is that we become more finely and deeply human. Albert Schweitzer, “The Teaching of Reverence for Life”, p. 33, 41