Earn er- carer policies and outcomes: Sweden in comparative perspective Tommy Ferrarini Swedish Institute for Social Resea...
Background <ul><li>Sweden and other Nordic countries have since the 1970’s gradually developed ‘Earner-carer’ models of fa...
Reforms reinforcing earner-carer policy orientations in Sweden  <ul><li>Parental insurance.  Introduced in 1974; extended ...
Earner-carer policies in comparative perspective <ul><li>Family policies emerged gradually and in different directions in ...
Three family policy dimensions <ul><li>Traditional family support.  Flat-rate and lump sum cash and fiscal child and famil...
Family policy orientations  in 18 countries, 1950
Family policy orientations  in 18 countries, 2005
Family policy orientations  in 18 countries, 2005
Central outcomes of  earner-carer policies <ul><li>Higher degrees of female employment, in particular among women without ...
Female labour force participation rates in Sweden and 18 OECD-countries Source: OECD Female   labour force participation (...
Men’s use of parental leave in Sweden Fathers'   average   share of all used days for parental leave and temporary parenta...
Child poverty in Nordic countries and  16 OECD-countries Poverty limit 50 percent of median equivalized disposable income....
Total Fertility Rate in Nordic countries,  the EU and 18 OECD countries
Recent Swedish developments are in a mixed policy direction <ul><li>While previous policies remain, several reforms with d...
Consequences of recent reforms? <ul><li>Short term.  Family policy reforms are not likely to radically change basic functi...
Tommy Ferrarini Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI), Stockholm University
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Earner-carer policies and outcomes: Sweden in comparative perspective

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Presentation by Tommy Ferrarini on the occasion of the public hearing on The role of family policy in demographic change on 21.03.2011

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Transcript of "Earner-carer policies and outcomes: Sweden in comparative perspective"

  1. 1. Earn er- carer policies and outcomes: Sweden in comparative perspective Tommy Ferrarini Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI), Stockholm University
  2. 2. Background <ul><li>Sweden and other Nordic countries have since the 1970’s gradually developed ‘Earner-carer’ models of family policy. </li></ul><ul><li>Changes include major reforms of parental leave, public daycare, family-related taxation and family law. </li></ul><ul><li>Such family policy models are related to a number of central demographic and socio-economic outcomes. </li></ul><ul><li>Sweden is often pointed out as a prototypical case of such a model, with several pioneering family policy reforms. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Reforms reinforcing earner-carer policy orientations in Sweden <ul><li>Parental insurance. Introduced in 1974; extended to one year in the 1980s; ear-marked leave for fathers in 1995, 2002; gender equality bonus 2008. </li></ul><ul><li>Public daycare. Expansions in coverage since 1970s. Maximum user fees in 2002. 4 of 5 aged 1-3 in daycare. </li></ul><ul><li>Income taxation . Abolished joint taxation 1971; fully individualized 1992. </li></ul><ul><li>Joint Custody. Divorced/unmarried parents in 1977; joint custody by default in the late 1990s. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Earner-carer policies in comparative perspective <ul><li>Family policies emerged gradually and in different directions in longstanding welfare democracies. </li></ul><ul><li>Developments driven by structural-economic pressures, political power relations and normative views about the ideal gender divisions of work. </li></ul><ul><li>Long-term changes in family policies can be illustrated by variations in generosity of different family policy transfers. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Three family policy dimensions <ul><li>Traditional family support. Flat-rate and lump sum cash and fiscal child and family benefits. </li></ul><ul><li>Dual-earner support. Earnings-related parental leave benefits paid to mothers, fathers and both parents. </li></ul><ul><li>Dual-carer support. Share of paid parental leave rights directed at fathers. </li></ul><ul><li>Indicated by after-tax generosity of family benefits for ideal typical households </li></ul>
  6. 6. Family policy orientations in 18 countries, 1950
  7. 7. Family policy orientations in 18 countries, 2005
  8. 8. Family policy orientations in 18 countries, 2005
  9. 9. Central outcomes of earner-carer policies <ul><li>Higher degrees of female employment, in particular among women without tertiary education </li></ul><ul><li>Increased participation of fathers in care of young children </li></ul><ul><li>Lower child poverty rates </li></ul><ul><li>Relatively high fertility rates </li></ul>
  10. 10. Female labour force participation rates in Sweden and 18 OECD-countries Source: OECD Female labour force participation (total and over 30 hours a week) in Sweden and 18 OECD countries (average) 1960-2005, women aged 15 to 64, in percent.
  11. 11. Men’s use of parental leave in Sweden Fathers' average share of all used days for parental leave and temporary parental leave for sick child
  12. 12. Child poverty in Nordic countries and 16 OECD-countries Poverty limit 50 percent of median equivalized disposable income. Source: LIS
  13. 13. Total Fertility Rate in Nordic countries, the EU and 18 OECD countries
  14. 14. Recent Swedish developments are in a mixed policy direction <ul><li>While previous policies remain, several reforms with divergent aims have been added </li></ul><ul><li>Gender equality bonus, paid as tax benefit to parent with lowest income, when parent with higher income uses parental leave. </li></ul><ul><li>Home care leave benefit , paid in flat-rate amount until own child’s third birthday. </li></ul><ul><li>Tax-deduction for household services, 50000 SEK a year per adult household member. </li></ul><ul><li>Childcare voucher system, supporting home-based care by untrained child minders. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Consequences of recent reforms? <ul><li>Short term. Family policy reforms are not likely to radically change basic functioning of the Swedish family policy model. </li></ul><ul><li>Long term. Increased differences along the lines of class, gender as well as ethnicity expected. Larger socio-economic differentials in fertility and labour force participation, rising child poverty. </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative reform paths? Continued strengthening of earner-carer policies. Enhanced paternal rights and responsibilities surrounding care work. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Tommy Ferrarini Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI), Stockholm University

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