Performance-based DesignConsiderations for Tsunami VerticalEvacuation Buildings    Presented at 65th EERI Annual Conferenc...
Overview   Oregon Tsunami Exposure   Tsunami Vertical Evacuation Building   Debris Types   Performance Objectives   D...
Cascadia Subduction Zone EarthquakeOregon is a geologic mirror-image of Northern Japan. In both places, the Pacific Oceanf...
Cascadia Subduction Zone Earthquake
Oregon Tsunami Exposure   (Source: Nate Wood/2007, USGS)
Tsunami Simulation at Cannon Beach                                                                 Elevation vs. Time     ...
Oregon Tsunami VulnerabilitiesCity of Seaside with 83% of its population, 89% of itsemployees and almost 100% its critical...
MinamisanrikuHigh Ground                            Residential                                          Residential      ...
MSR: EOC
MSR: Hospital
Tsunami Evacuation Building
Debris and Structural Damage > NSF Field Team:     Clay Naito (Lehigh U.)     Dan Cox (OSU)     Kent Yu (Degenkolb) > Tsun...
Wood Debris                                 Photo:                                 Y. Okuda                               ...
Vehicle DebrisOfunato, Japan
Boat/Ship Debris
Shipping Container Debris        Sendai, Japan
Building Component Debris
Fuel StorageContainers
Impact Cases
Wood Construction                • 4 m Inundation Threshold                     (MLITT, Japan)
Steel Building
Reinforced Concrete Building
Lessons Learned: OverturnedBuildings
US Tsunami National Standard> Hawaii Tsunami Code> FEMA P646 Tsunami Vertical Evacuation Building  (2008, 2012)> ASCE Tsun...
Lessons Learned: EvacuationStructure Tall Enough?                 (Source: P646 & Gary Chock, 2012 )
Design Performance Objectives > Performance objective   • Immediate Occupancy for MCE (comparable or better     than hospi...
Design Loads> Dead Loads    Self Wt of Structure (beams, columns, slabs)    Cladding/Partitions    Mechanical/electrical/p...
Design Loads                    > Seismic Loads                    0.6                    0.4 Acceleration (g)            ...
Tsunami Effects                                                                 Elevation vs. Time                        ...
Design Loads> Tsunami Loads    Impulse Load     •   Leading edge of wave   Hydrodynamic Load     •   Drag on Columns   ...
Structural Layout Consideration  > Design Vertical Layout to Minimize Tsunami    Loads  > Breakaway Walls  > Prevent Progr...
TEB Structural Design> Foundations   • Scouring Issue   • Piles to provide structural support   • Grade beams to interconn...
Tsunami Vertical Evacuation Refuge             Japan                    Proposed in OregonJapan                     Under ...
Lessons Learned: Why PeopleDon’t Evacuate?
Closing Thoughts> Assess Tsunami hazard accurately> Develop Tsunami Inundation Maps and Provide  Useful Engineering Parame...
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Performance-based Design Considerations for Tsunami Vertical Evacuation Buildings - Kent Yu

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2013 EERI Annual Meeting Session: Tsunami Design

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Performance-based Design Considerations for Tsunami Vertical Evacuation Buildings - Kent Yu

  1. 1. Performance-based DesignConsiderations for Tsunami VerticalEvacuation Buildings Presented at 65th EERI Annual Conference Date: February 14, 2013 Kent Yu – 503.223.9932 / kyu@degenkolb.com Degenkolb Engineers
  2. 2. Overview Oregon Tsunami Exposure Tsunami Vertical Evacuation Building Debris Types Performance Objectives Design Loads Closing Thoughts
  3. 3. Cascadia Subduction Zone EarthquakeOregon is a geologic mirror-image of Northern Japan. In both places, the Pacific Oceanfloor is sliding beneath the adjacent continents along giant faults called subductionzones. (Graphic by Dan Coe, DOGAMI)
  4. 4. Cascadia Subduction Zone Earthquake
  5. 5. Oregon Tsunami Exposure (Source: Nate Wood/2007, USGS)
  6. 6. Tsunami Simulation at Cannon Beach Elevation vs. Time 18 Depth (Location 2) Depth (Location 4) 15 12Depth (ft) 9 6 3 0 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 Time (s) Velocity vs. Time (+ inland) 15 10 Velocity (ft/s) (+ Inland) 5 0 -5 Velocity (Location 2) -10 Velocity (Location 4) -15 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 Time (s) (Source: DOGAMI SP 41, 2009) (Source: YouTube, Onagawa Tsuanmi)
  7. 7. Oregon Tsunami VulnerabilitiesCity of Seaside with 83% of its population, 89% of itsemployees and almost 100% its critical facilities in the tsunamiinundation zone (Source: Oregon Resilience Plan)
  8. 8. MinamisanrikuHigh Ground Residential Residential Neighborhood Neighborhood EOC Hospital Police HQ Department Store Multi-Family Housing & Tsunami Vertical Evacuation Building (Source: Oregon Resilience Plan)
  9. 9. MSR: EOC
  10. 10. MSR: Hospital
  11. 11. Tsunami Evacuation Building
  12. 12. Debris and Structural Damage > NSF Field Team: Clay Naito (Lehigh U.) Dan Cox (OSU) Kent Yu (Degenkolb) > Tsunami Borne Debris Wood Debris Boats/Ships Vehicles/Cars Shipping Containers Building Components
  13. 13. Wood Debris Photo: Y. Okuda BRI Japan Photo: Y. Okuda BRI Japan
  14. 14. Vehicle DebrisOfunato, Japan
  15. 15. Boat/Ship Debris
  16. 16. Shipping Container Debris Sendai, Japan
  17. 17. Building Component Debris
  18. 18. Fuel StorageContainers
  19. 19. Impact Cases
  20. 20. Wood Construction • 4 m Inundation Threshold (MLITT, Japan)
  21. 21. Steel Building
  22. 22. Reinforced Concrete Building
  23. 23. Lessons Learned: OverturnedBuildings
  24. 24. US Tsunami National Standard> Hawaii Tsunami Code> FEMA P646 Tsunami Vertical Evacuation Building (2008, 2012)> ASCE Tsunami Loading and Effects Committee Chaired by Gary Chock> ASCE 7 Chapter 6 to be published in ASCE 7-16 2018
  25. 25. Lessons Learned: EvacuationStructure Tall Enough? (Source: P646 & Gary Chock, 2012 )
  26. 26. Design Performance Objectives > Performance objective • Immediate Occupancy for MCE (comparable or better than hospitals) • Little Residual deformations after EQ • Current Code Design (with I =1.5) may not be adequate (Thomas et al. 2012, 15WCEE)
  27. 27. Design Loads> Dead Loads Self Wt of Structure (beams, columns, slabs) Cladding/Partitions Mechanical/electrical/plumbing Flooring/Roofing> Live Evacuation Zone (100psf) • Non-Reducible
  28. 28. Design Loads > Seismic Loads 0.6 0.4 Acceleration (g) 0.2 0 In Oxnard from 1994 -0.2 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Northridge EQ -0.4 -0.6 Time (sec.) 0.4 N-S Acceleration (g) 0.2 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 -0.2 -0.4 Time (sec.) In Ica from 2007 Peru M8 EQ (105 km from > Structural Verification epicenter)
  29. 29. Tsunami Effects Elevation vs. Time 18 Depth (Location 2) Depth (Location 4) 15 12Depth (ft) 9 6 3 0 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 Time (s) Velocity vs. Time (+ inland) 15 10 Velocity (ft/s) (+ Inland) 5 0 -5 Velocity (Location 2) -10 Velocity (Location 4) -15 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 Time (s)
  30. 30. Design Loads> Tsunami Loads  Impulse Load • Leading edge of wave  Hydrodynamic Load • Drag on Columns  Impact Loads • Impact of large objects (log, car, or/and container)  Damming Between Columns Buoyancy Forces
  31. 31. Structural Layout Consideration > Design Vertical Layout to Minimize Tsunami Loads > Breakaway Walls > Prevent Progressive Collapse > Multiple Line Defense
  32. 32. TEB Structural Design> Foundations • Scouring Issue • Piles to provide structural support • Grade beams to interconnect pile caps • Slab-on-grade tied to grade beams (Source: Cannon Beach City Hall White Paper, 2009)
  33. 33. Tsunami Vertical Evacuation Refuge Japan Proposed in OregonJapan Under construction in Thailand 3/4/2013Yumei
  34. 34. Lessons Learned: Why PeopleDon’t Evacuate?
  35. 35. Closing Thoughts> Assess Tsunami hazard accurately> Develop Tsunami Inundation Maps and Provide Useful Engineering Parameters Relevant To Structural Design and Assessment> Sound Planning based on Response and Recovery (schools, critical facilities)> Build Vertical Evacuation Structures as appropriate> Education, Training, and Practice

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