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Digital Forensics NIST Information Technology Laboratory William C Barker October 23, 2012Forensic science is generally defined as the application of scienceto the law.
Examples of digital forensicSome examples of data types: evidence:• Standard computer systems • Electronic mail messages• Networking equipment • Video/photo/audio attachments• Computing peripherals • Unstructured data• Mobile devices • Protocol information such as• Consumer electronic devices IP addresses • GPS data• Various types of media • Cell phone data • Metadata • Internet history • Deleted data residues in various types of IT devices. 2
Some Uses of Digital Forensics Techniques• Investigating crimes and internal policy violations,• Pre-trial e-discovery in civil litigations,• Reconstructing computer security incidents,• Troubleshooting operational problems, and• Recovering from accidental system damage. 3
Performing Digital ForensicsPhases specified in NIST’s Guide To Integrating Forensic Techniques Into Incident Response• Collection: identifying, labeling, recording, and acquiring data from the possible sources of relevant data, while following procedures that preserve the integrity of the data.• Examination: forensically processing collected data using a combination of automated and manual methods, and assessing and extracting data of particular interest, while preserving the integrity of the data.• Analysis: analyzing the results of the examination, using legally justifiable methods and techniques, to derive useful information that addresses the questions that were the impetus for performing the collection and examination.• Reporting: reporting the results of the analysis, which may include describing the actions used, explaining how tools and procedures were selected, determining what other actions need to be performed (e.g., forensic examination of additional data sources, securing identified vulnerabilities, improving existing security controls), and providing recommendations for improvement to policies, procedures, tools, and other aspects of the forensic process. 4
Policies and Procedures for Digital Forensics• Organizations should ensure that their policies contain clear statements addressing all major forensic considerations, such as contacting law enforcement, performing monitoring, and conducting regular reviews of forensic policies and procedures.• Organizations should create and maintain procedures and guidelines for performing forensic tasks, based on the organization’s policies and all applicable laws and regulations.• Organizations should ensure that their policies and procedures support the reasonable and appropriate use of forensic tools. Policies and procedures should clearly explain what forensic actions should and should not be performed under various circumstances, as well as describing the necessary safeguards for sensitive information that might be recorded by forensic tools, such as passwords, personal data, and the contents of e-mails.• Legal advisors should carefully review all forensic policy and high-level procedures.• Organizations should ensure that their IT professionals are prepared to participate in forensic activities.IT professionals throughout an organization, especially incident handlers and other first responders to incidents, should understand their roles and responsibilities for forensics, receive training and education on forensics-related policies and procedures. 5
Chain of EvidenceMaintaining source and content integrity of forensics informationElectronic authentication, access control mechanisms, and audittrails are needed for: • Control of forensic data • To record generation of forensic data • Access to forensic data • Change management for forensic data.Cryptographic technologies such as time stamped digital signature orsigned hashes, can be employed to identify the source of forensicdata, establish the time(s) at which each access to the data occurredand by whom, and whether or not modifications to the informationhas occurred (and, if so, at which point in the chain). 6
Overview of Existing NIST Computer Forensics WorkOverall NIST ITL Forensics Program Lead: Martin Herman, email@example.com://www.nist.gov/itl/ssd/computerforensics.cfm.Current Projects: – Computer Forensics Tool Testing (including mobile device tool testing) – National Software Reference Library, and – Computer Forensic Reference Data Sets.Initiating projects on: – Performing forensics as part of incident response – Cloud forensics (e.g., when a cloud computing environment is used by criminals for their illegal activities such as child pornography, or when there is an attack on a cloud computing). Privacy is a huge 7 issue here because clouds are typically multi-tenants.
Computer Forensics Tool Testing (CFTT)• Goal: Establish a methodology for testing computer forensic software tools by development of general tool specifications, test procedures, test criteria, test sets, and test hardware.• The Computer Forensics Tool Testing Project Handbook is now available in PDF format for downloading (http://www.cftt.nist.gov/CFTT-Booklet- Revised-02012012.pdf).• A description of NIST mobile device forensics tool testing activity is now available at (http://www.cftt.nist.gov/documents/MobileDeviceForensics- MFW08.pdf). Rick Ayers (firstname.lastname@example.org) is a good resource for additional information on this topic. 8
Sample Case: Problems Facing Deleted Files Recovery Tools (http://www.cftt.nist.gov/DFR-req-1.1-pd-01.pdf)• The files that have been deleted have to be identified and located. Although this could be as simple as scanning directory entries for a particular key (e.g. ‘0xE5’ in Fat 32), it may be a more complex process.• From a file system perspective, the data to be recovered is latent, and needs the assistance of a tool to recover the data. As with most other latent data recovery, since the results depend on the output of a particular tool, the tool must be shown to operate correctly (i.e., undelete files correctly).• The potential uncertainty present in any recovery effort leads to a reduced level of confidence in the information recovered. Specifically with deleted file recovery, the data recovered may be commingled with data from other deleted files, allocated files, or even from non- 9 allocated space.
National Software Reference Library (NSRL)Goal: Promote efficient and effective use of computer technology in the investigation of crimes involving computers.• The Reference Data Set (RDS) is a collection of digital signatures of known, traceable software applications .• The NSRL is designed to collect software from various sources and incorporate file profiles computed from this software into Reference Data Sets of information.• The NSRL RDS is released four times each year - in March, June, September and December. The current release, June 2012 RDS 2.37, contains 26,911,012 unique entries. 10
Computer Forensic Reference Data Sets(CFReDS)• Computer Forensic Reference Data Sets provide to an investigator documented sets of simulated digital evidence for examination.• Applications for Computer Forensic Reference Data Sets: - Data sets for tool testing need to be completely documented. The user of the data set needs to know exactly what is in the data set and where it is located. These data sets should also provide specification for a set of explicit tests. Examples of focused function areas are string searching, deleted file recovery and email extraction. - Data sets for equipment check out need to focus on issues in acquisition, access and restoration of data. These data sets might need to have a strong procedural component. - Data sets for staff training are primarily investigation scenario based tests intended to give a real flavor to the data set (similar to the data sets for proficiency testing). - Proficiency Testing and Skill Testing data sets are primarily investigation scenario based tests designed to give a real flavor to the data set (for example, a data set that would require the examiner to demonstrate some system skill such as loading a new font onto an analysis computer). 11
Some Other NIST Computer Forensics PublicationsGuide to SIMfill Use and Development, NIST IR-7658, February 2010, Wayne Jansen, AurelienDelaitre.Mobile Forensic Reference Materials: A Methodology and Reification, NIST IR-7617, October 2009, Wayne Jansen,AurélienDelaitre.Forensic Protocol Filtering of Phone Managers, International Conference on Security and Management (SAM08),July 2008. Wayne Jansen, AurelienDelaitreOvercoming Impediments to Cell Phone Forensics, Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS),January 2008. Wayne Jansen, AurelienDelaitre, LudovicMoenner.Reference Material for Assessing Forensic SIM Tools, International Carnahan Conference on Security Technology,October 2007. Wayne Jansen, AurelienDelaitre.Guidelines on Cell Phone Forensics, SP 800-101, May 2007, Wayne Jansen, Rick Ayers.Cell Phone Forensic Tools: An Overview and Analysis Update, NISTIR 7387, March 2007. Rick Ayers, Wayne Jansen,LudovicMoenner, AurelienDelaitre.Guide to Integrating Forensic Techniques into Incident Response, SP 800-86, August 2006, Karen Kent, SuzanneChevalier, Tim Grance, Hung Dang.Forensic Software Tools for Cell Phone Subscriber Identity Modules, Conference on Digital Forensics, Association ofDigital Forensics, Security, and Law (ADFSL), April 2006. Wayne Jansen, Rick Ayers.Cell Phone Forensic Tools: An Overview and Analysis, NISTIR 7250, October 2005. Rick Ayers, Wayne Jansen, NicolasCilleros, Ronan Daniellou.An Overview and Analysis of PDA Forensic Tools, Digital Investigation, The International Journal of Digital Forensicsand Incident Response, Volume 2, Issue 2, April 2005. Wayne Jansen, Rick Ayers.Guidelines on PDA Forensics, SP 800-72, November 2004. Wayne Jansen, Rick Ayers.PDA Forensic Tools: An Overview and Analysis, NISTIR 7100, August 2004. Rick Ayers, Wayne Jansen. 12