Perception, Possibility, InvitationApplying Gibson’s Theory of Affordances to Interior DesignAmanda Zaitchik Pratt Institu...
Allan Wexler’s “Buildings for Water Collection,” 1994“Why has man changed the shapes and substances of his environment?To ...
User[human]Artifact/Environment[chair][5’-11”tall][stable material][19”flat surface]qualities andabilitiesfeatures and con...
User[human]Artifact/Environment[chair][5’-11”tall][stable material][19”flat surface]qualities andabilitiesfeatures and con...
User[human]Artifact/Environment[chair][5’-11”tall][stable material][19”flat surface]qualities andabilitiesfeatures and con...
User[human]Artifact/Environment[chair][5’-11”tall][stable material][19”flat surface]qualities andabilitiesfeatures and con...
User[human]Artifact/Environment[chair][5’-11”tall][stable material][19”flat surface]qualities andabilitiesfeatures and con...
User[human]Artifact/Environment[chair][5’-11”tall][stable material][19”flat surface]qualities andabilitiesfeatures and con...
affordancekey characteristicsanimal : habitat : niche :: user : environment : place-emergent-subjective/objective-dynamic-...
methodology user studyLet U = a user with a set of qualities W and abilities X.Let E = an environment or artifact with a s...
Little House living roomFrank Lloyd Wright
Little House living roomFrank Lloyd Wright
Little House living roomFrank Lloyd Wright
Little House living roomFrank Lloyd Wright Little House Living Room: Artifact Features and Contextfeatures context feature...
Little House living roomFrank Lloyd WrightFrank Lloyd Wrights Little House Living Room: Artifacts, Features and Affordance...
Little House living roomFrank Lloyd WrightFrank Lloyd Wrights Little House Living Room: Affordance MatrixTable 1Rug 2Table...
Flatiron PlazaFlatiron Plaza23rd Street, 5th Avenue, and BroadwayNew York, New Yorktablestrash can chairssignchainsboulder...
Flatiron PlazaFlatiron Plaza23rd Street, 5th Avenue, and BroadwayNew York, New YorkMajor affordances(perceived and convert...
Flatiron PlazaFeatures and AffordancesArtifact Relevant Features Relevant Context Relevant User/Artifact2  Qualities Affor...
Flatiron PlazaBouldersBuildingChainsChairsGroundPlantersSignTablesTrash CanTriangular PlazaAsking directionsConversationDi...
New York Public Library porchNew York Public LibraryTerrace and Steps455 5th AvenueNew York, NY 10016tablesplanterstrashca...
New York Public Library porchNew York Public LibraryTable and chair affordances(converted to behavior)Steps affordances(co...
New York Public Library porchNew York Public Library Porch and Steps: Artifacts, Features, and AffordancesArtifact Relevan...
New York Public Library porchChairsColumnsGroundLedgeLibrary BuildingLion SculpturesPedestalsPlantersPorchRailingsStepsTab...
methodology user studyLet U = a user with a set of qualities W and abilities X.Let E = an environment or artifact with a s...
n a certain context Z.W, X, Y, and Z.Abilities-locomotion-thought-memory-vision-hearing-taste-smell-touchDemographicssex: ...
methodologyaffording graspingmethodologyaffording leaning8 1/4”EUA BCDGrasping = U + Eif and only ifAB < 8 1/4”ORCD < 8 1/...
methodologyaffording sittingmethodologyaffording steppingmethodologyaffording reachingLeg Roomthreshold-arm use necessarym...
bendingfoldingcurvingstructuringwrappingpuncturingmovingcarvingsandingpaintingpolishingmoldingextrudingmeltingwarpingstack...
methodology user studyLet U = a user with a set of qualities W and abilities X.Let E = an environment or artifact with a s...
ASSUMPTION OF TERMSLet U = a user with a set of qualities W and abilities X.Let E = an environment or artifact with a set ...
Amanda Zaitchik Pratt Institute Advisors: William Mangold, Anita Cooney, Karin Tehve, Jennifer HanlinBibliographyAlmquist,...
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AZaitchik_EDRA_Applying Gibson's Affordance Theory

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AZaitchik_EDRA_Applying Gibson's Affordance Theory

  1. 1. Perception, Possibility, InvitationApplying Gibson’s Theory of Affordances to Interior DesignAmanda Zaitchik Pratt Institute Advisors: William Mangold, Anita Cooney, Karin Tehve, Jennifer Hanlin“I place a couch in a room and it acquires new significance:the air now shimmers with the possibilities of conversation ornapping or seduction.”-Mark Kingwell
  2. 2. Allan Wexler’s “Buildings for Water Collection,” 1994“Why has man changed the shapes and substances of his environment?To change what it affords him.”-Mark Kingwell
  3. 3. User[human]Artifact/Environment[chair][5’-11”tall][stable material][19”flat surface]qualities andabilitiesfeatures and context[180 lbs][brown hair][painted white][made in NY][speaks French][liberal]perceptionemergentpropertyintentionfunctionformobjectsubject[locomotion]Affordance[sitting]Behavior“The affordancesof the environmentare what it offersthe animal, what itprovides or furnishes,either for good or ill.”-James Gibson, 1979
  4. 4. User[human]Artifact/Environment[chair][5’-11”tall][stable material][19”flat surface]qualities andabilitiesfeatures and context[180 lbs][brown hair][painted white][made in NY][speaks French][liberal]perceptionemergentpropertyintentionfunctionformobjectsubject[locomotion]Affordance[sitting]Behavioraffordancekey characteristics-emergent
  5. 5. User[human]Artifact/Environment[chair][5’-11”tall][stable material][19”flat surface]qualities andabilitiesfeatures and context[180 lbs][brown hair][painted white][made in NY][speaks French][liberal]perceptionemergentpropertyintentionfunctionformobjectsubject[locomotion]Affordance[sitting]Behavioraffordancekey characteristics-emergent-subjective/objective
  6. 6. User[human]Artifact/Environment[chair][5’-11”tall][stable material][19”flat surface]qualities andabilitiesfeatures and context[180 lbs][brown hair][painted white][made in NY][speaks French][liberal]perceptionemergentpropertyintentionfunctionformobjectsubject[locomotion]Affordance[sitting]Behavioraffordancekey characteristics-emergent-subjective/objective-dynamic
  7. 7. User[human]Artifact/Environment[chair][5’-11”tall][stable material][19”flat surface]qualities andabilitiesfeatures and context[180 lbs][brown hair][painted white][made in NY][speaks French][liberal]perceptionemergentpropertyintentionfunctionformobjectsubject[locomotion]Affordance[sitting]Behavioraffordancekey characteristics-emergent-subjective/objective-dynamic-innate or learned
  8. 8. User[human]Artifact/Environment[chair][5’-11”tall][stable material][19”flat surface]qualities andabilitiesfeatures and context[180 lbs][brown hair][painted white][made in NY][speaks French][liberal]perceptionemergentpropertyintentionfunctionformobjectsubject[locomotion]Affordance[sitting]Behavioraffordancekey characteristics-emergent-subjective/objective-dynamic-innate or learned-strong or weak
  9. 9. affordancekey characteristicsanimal : habitat : niche :: user : environment : place-emergent-subjective/objective-dynamic-innate or learned-strong or weak-niche-creating“A species of animal is said to utilize or occupy a certain niche in theenvironment. This is not quite the same as the habitat of the species; a nicherefers more to how an animal lives than to where it lives. I suggest that aniche is a set of affordances…The niche implies a kind of animal, and theanimal implies a kind of niche.”-James Gibson, 1979
  10. 10. methodology user studyLet U = a user with a set of qualities W and abilities X.Let E = an environment or artifact with a set of properties Y within a certain context Z.Let A = an emergent property based on the relationship between W, X, Y, and Z.= =“is an affordance of”Ab-loc-tho-me-vis-hea-tas-sm-touA = U + EW,XU,E Y,Zif and only if:-A is possible for U via E.-Neither U nor E possesses A.to be determinedthrough programming UNKNOWN givenmethodology usLet U = a user with a set of qualities W and abilities X.Let E = an environment or artifact with a set of properties Y within a certain context Z.Let A = an emergent property based on the relationship between W, X, Y, and Z.= =“is an affordance of”A = U + EW,XU,E Y,Zif and only if:-A is possible for U via E.-Neither U nor E possesses A.to be determinedthrough programming UNKNOWN givenmethodology user studyLet U = a user with a set of qualities W and abilities X.Let E = an environment or artifact with a set of properties Y within a certain context Z.Let A = an emergent property based on the relationship between W, X, Y, and Z.= =“is an affordance of”Abilities-locomotion-thought-memory-vision-hearing-taste-smell-touchA = U + EW,XU,E Y,Zif and only if:-A is possible for U via E.-Neither U nor E possesses A.to be determinedthrough programming UNKNOWN given5’ - 11 1/2”1’ - 7”1’ - 9”
  11. 11. Little House living roomFrank Lloyd Wright
  12. 12. Little House living roomFrank Lloyd Wright
  13. 13. Little House living roomFrank Lloyd Wright
  14. 14. Little House living roomFrank Lloyd Wright Little House Living Room: Artifact Features and Contextfeatures context features context features context features context features contextwhite oak, chestnut, poplar, plywood in front of fireplace Japanese on plant standAmerican Terra Cotta and Ceramic Company on ledge Robert Jarvie on table 3 Grueby Pottery on ledge1909 on rug wood with gilding behind two armchairs Illinois above entry Chicagocontaining white tapered candles Boston, MA above entryChicago, IL next to floor lamp figurative facing window 1902‐1922 next to bust and another vase 1901 1900‐1910 next to bust and another vasewood structure across from armchair about 3 tall Earthenware bronze Earthenwareupholstered seat and back cushions books, bowl on armrests dark color round base wide bottom, narrow topwide, flat armrests/platforms fabric over one armrest simple curve slender bodies some shineraised slightly on short legs fragile dark colordull, neutral fabric bendingfeatures context features context features context features context features contextgrey‐brown paper over board stacked on print table copper on library table 1893‐1902 on table 1 Caucasian on wood floor Japanese on ledgesuede spine in front of window River Forest, ILcatches light from windows copper dried flora coming out 19th century nothing on it 19th century above doorwaysuede hinges 1899 pyramid bases wool porcelain next to similar objectssuede corners round taper upwards rectangular delicateflat flat base about 30" tall fringe fragilerectangular open top multi‐color designgeometric designs thinfeatures context features context features context features context features contextChinese on ledge Chinese on ledge Japanese on ledge Japanese on ledge Japanese on ledgelate 18th century above fireplace 16th century above fireplace 19th century branches inside 17th century near corner of room 18th century near corner of roomporcelain next to similar objects stoneware with similar objects pottery at edge of brickpottery, enamel, and gold with similar objects figurative with similar objectsdelicate dark color shiny with similar objects tall, curvy draped clothingfragile small, round small handles white facedark color fragile fragiledelicatefeatures context features context features context features context features contextJapanese on sofa armrest Japanese on ledge Japanese on ledge Japanese dried flowers insidereproduction of Victoire de Samothrace on library table19th century on top of cloth 19th century in front of windows 18th century in front of window 19th century on library table plaster cast lit from windowmarked Dobachi pottery only silhouette visible pottery only silhouette visible pottery next to Winged Victory Greekpottery lid round round, short 190 BC (original)small short white round about 48" tallfragile square baseSofa Sculpture 13Vase 22Vase 14 Candlesticks 15 Vase 16Portfolio Cases Urn Rug 20 Dish 21Pot 31 Vase 33 Winged VictoryVase 25 Figure of GirlBowl 28 Bottle 29WeedholdersJar 23 Jar 24features context featureswhite oak, chestnut, poplar, plywood in front of fireplace Japanese1909 on rug wood with gildingChicago, IL next to floor lamp figurativewood structure across from armchair about 3 tallupholstered seat and back cushions books, bowl on armrestswide, flat armrests/platforms fabric over one armrestraised slightly on short legsdull, neutral fabricfeatures context featuresgrey‐brown paper over board stacked on print table coppersuede spine in front of window River Forest, ILsuede hinges 1899suede corners roundflat flat baserectangular open topgeometric designsfeatures context featuresChinese on ledge Chineselate 18th century above fireplace 16th centuryporcelain next to similar objects stonewareSofa SculVase 22Portfolio CasesJ
  15. 15. Little House living roomFrank Lloyd WrightFrank Lloyd Wrights Little House Living Room: Artifacts, Features and AffordancesArtifact Relevant Features Relevant Context Relevant User/Artifact2  Qualities Affordance Affordance TypeStrength (5=high)NotesArmchair 4a seat ~18", backrest, armrests N/Aaverage leg length, bending knees, inclination to rest in seated position sitting AUA 5Armchair 4b seat ~18", backrest, armrests, cushions perpendicular to sofa, fireplaceinclination to sit, cultural tradition of eye contact during conversation, ability to talk talking AUA  3suitable for long conversation; dependant on multiple usersArmchair 4c seat ~18", backrest, armrests, cushions N/A ability to think thinking AUA  3Armchair 4d seat ~18", backrest, armrests, cushions next to books, floor lamp ability to read, ability to sit reading AUA  4 stronger than 4c based on contextBench size, cushion by windows, lowered ceiling average size, inclination to rest lounging AUA 4Book writing, pages accessible ability to read  reading AUA 4Bowl 28 shape N/A previous experience with dishes memory AUA 2 dependant on history of individual userCabinet doors with handles N/A cultural knowledge of handles  opening AUA 4Candles wax, wick upright position, candlesticks ability to light a match or lighter fire starting AUA 4Fireplace void space, materials wood inside fire starting materials, ability fire starting AUA 5Floor wood, flat, solid N/A weight stability AUA 5Floor wood, flat, solid, continuous N/A ability to walk walking AUA 5Flowers aroma at accessible position knowledge of flowers smelling AUA 1Ledge flat, stableposition‐ height, around perimeter of room stands on its own, appropriate size display AAA 5Plant Stand 4 thin legs, tall position  clumsiness knocking over AUA 2stronger in higher‐traffic area or with child/clumsy usersPrint table flat, sturdy, ~30" high between side chair and bench ability to write, necessary materials writing AUA  3 based on system with side chair 6aPrints frame, format hung on wall at eye level disposition to look at things of visual interest examining AUA 3Rug 2 soft, flat on floor, chairs and sofa on topaverage leg length, bending knees, inclination to rest in seated position sitting AUA 2 would be stronger if chairs and sofa did not existRug 2 flat on floor, mainly open in center ability to move, energy walking AUA 4Rug 2 N/A unattached to floor ability for motion slipping AUA 2 negativeRug 2 continuous, thick on top of floor position protection AAA 4Side Chair 6 wood, light, unattached N/A arm strength moveability AUA 3Side Chair 6 flat seat, about 18" tall, mobile near ledge ability to move legs, step up on chair seat standing on AUA 3 would be weaker if ledge did not existSofa seat height, cushions, flat wood armrests N/Ainclination to sit while eating, use of containers that need to rest somewhere eating AUA 2strength dependant on proximity to food storageSofa cushions, length N/A inclination to sleep while lying down napping AUA 2would be stronger if there were pillows on the side or if armrests were upholsteredStanding lamp switch, lightbulb, socket, cord plugged in cultural knowledge of lights turning on AUA 5Table 1 flat, ~30" high, stable N/A stands on its own, appropriate size display AAA 5Table 1 flat, shelf underneath, stable N/A appropriate size storage AAA 5Table 3 4 legs, flat, orthogonal N/A at rest, appropriate size stability AAA 5Telephone mouthpiece, earpiece at accessible position historical knowledge talking AUA 1 obsoleteVase 22 porcelain on ledge clumsiness breakability AUA 2strength would vary according to the accessibility of its location (context), also age, experience, and dexterity of userWall opaque material between interior and exterior vision concealing AUA 5Windows transparency N/A vision visibility AUA 5strength dependant on air quality, weather; also allows for visibility inside from outsideWindows transparency on exterior wall, with available light refracted by transparent surfaces refracting AAA 5Windows handles N/A cultural knowledge of handles/windows opening AUA 3Winged Victory form, material on display cultural history and historical knowledge meaning AUA 3Wood (fire) material composition N/A physical properties fire maintaining AAA 5
  16. 16. Little House living roomFrank Lloyd WrightFrank Lloyd Wrights Little House Living Room: Affordance MatrixTable 1Rug 2Table 3 Armchair 4aArmchair 4bArmchair 3cArmchair 4dPrint TableSide Chair 6aSide Chair 6bPlant Stand aPlant Stand bStanding Lamp aStanding Lamp bStanding Lamp cStanding Lamp dStanding Lamp eLibrary TableWall Lamp aWall Lamp bWall Lamp cWall Lamp dBench aBench bLedgeFirewoodFireplaceCeilingWindowsWallFloorFern DishSofaSculpture 13Vase 14Candlesticks 15CandlesVase 16Portfolio CasesUrnWeedholdersRug 20Dish 21Vase 22Jar 23Jar 24Vase 25Figure of GirlBowl 27Bowl 28Bottle 29Vase 30Pot 31FlowersFramesPrintsVase 32Vase 33Winged VictoryBreakabilityConcealingEatingExaminingFire startingKnocking OverLoungingMeaningMemoryMoveabilityNappingOpeningReadingSittingSlippingSmellingStabilityStanding on TalkingThinkingTurning onVisibilityWalkingWritingDisplayProtectionStorageStabilityRefractingFire MaintainingArtifact‐User AffordancesArtifact‐Artifact Affordances
  17. 17. Flatiron PlazaFlatiron Plaza23rd Street, 5th Avenue, and BroadwayNew York, New Yorktablestrash can chairssignchainsboulderplantersFlatironBuildingFlatironPlaza
  18. 18. Flatiron PlazaFlatiron Plaza23rd Street, 5th Avenue, and BroadwayNew York, New YorkMajor affordances(perceived and converted into behavior by users)
  19. 19. Flatiron PlazaFeatures and AffordancesArtifact Relevant Features Relevant Context Relevant User/Artifact2  Qualities Affordance Affordance TypeStrength (5=high)NotesBoulders solid, size, relatively flat presence of others inclination to converse while seated, ability to sit conversation AUA 3two people only, based on size of rocks; weakened by noise levelBoulders solid, size, relatively flat N/A size, ability to sit sitting AUA 4would be stronger if flatter or smoother materialBoulders solid, size, relatively flat N/A access to reading material, ability to read reading AUA 2Boulders solid, size, relatively flat food outlets nearby, trash cans access to food eating AUA 3best available option for eating, but would be better if surface was flatterBuilding large, opaque between user and sun perception of light shade AUA 5Chains strength, shape, connectedness wrapped around chairs, tables size, shape constraint AAA 5 artifact2=tables, chairsChairs sturdy stacked, chained in place desire for support leaning AUA 3Ground solid, continuous N/A weight, position support AAA 5Planters size, sturdy N/A desire for support leaning AUA 2Planters hollow N/A mass, form display AAA 5 artifact2=plantsSign writing position ability to read reading AUA 4could be stronger or weaker based on position, graphic qualities, languageTables flat, sturdy N/A with items  putting things on AUA 3Trash Can hollow available space cultural recognition of trash cans disposal AUA 4Triangular Plaza open areain front of Flatiron Building, view of Empire State Buildingcultural knowledge of significance of buildings, access to camera photography AUA 4Triangular Plaza flat, solid between roads ability to stand standing AUA 5Triangular Plaza flat, solid between roads ability to walk walking AUA 5Triangular Plaza open area, flat, solid between roads, sidewalks inclination to socialize gathering AUA 3Triangular Plaza open area, flat, solid urban, touristy area access to and use of maps looking at maps AUA 3Triangular Plaza too many obstacles to afford driving between roads fragility protection  AUA 4Triangular Plaza open area numerous visual stimuli vision looking   AUA 5Triangular Plaza open areaurban, touristy area, presence of others lacking knowledge of area, ability to communicateasking for directions AUA 2
  20. 20. Flatiron PlazaBouldersBuildingChainsChairsGroundPlantersSignTablesTrash CanTriangular PlazaAsking directionsConversationDisposalEatingGatheringLeaningLooking  Looking at mapsMeaningPhotographyProtectionPutting things onReadingShadeSittingStanding WalkingConstraintDisplaySupportArtifact‐User AffordancesArtifact‐Artifact Afforda
  21. 21. New York Public Library porchNew York Public LibraryTerrace and Steps455 5th AvenueNew York, NY 10016tablesplanterstrashcansledgechairssignagecolumnsrailingslion sculpturepedestalporchtreesstepslibrary buildingNew YorkPublic Library
  22. 22. New York Public Library porchNew York Public LibraryTable and chair affordances(converted to behavior)Steps affordances(converted to behavior)Lion sculpture affordances(converted to behavior)Signage affordances(converted to behavior)
  23. 23. New York Public Library porchNew York Public Library Porch and Steps: Artifacts, Features, and AffordancesArtifact Relevant Features Relevant Context Relevant User/Artifact2  Qualities Affordance Affordance TypeStrength (5=high)NotesChairs height, flat seat, back rest N/A bending knees, inclination to rest in seated positionsitting AUA 5Chairs sit‐ability presence of tables ability to read, inclination to sit while reading reading AUA 3presence of table strengthens affordance, but not dependantColumns size, material, stability position mass, position support AAA 5 artifact2= entablatureLedge available surface position size, inclination to land bird landing AUA 4Library building size, opaque position (between user and sun) perception of light shade AUA 5Library building material, ornament historic and cultural status cultural knowledge meaning AUA 4Lion sculptures size, material position strength, mobility climbing AUA 2 strengthened by photography or if user is childLion sculptures climb‐ability position inclination to climb, balance falling AUA 2 dependant on climbing behaviorPedestals size, material, stability position mass, position support AAA 5 artifact2= lion sculpturesPlanters hollow, size N/A size, mass display AAA 5 artifact2= plantsPorch stand‐ability, elevation visual stimuli surrounding vision looking AUA 4Porch flat, solid N/A ability to stand standing AUA 4Porch stand‐ability, elevation visual stimuli surrounding access to camera photography AUA 3Porch flat, solid, continuous N/A mobility walking AUA 4Porch N/A adjacent to building perception of light shade AUA 5Porch roof overhead adjacent to uncovered areas size protection from weather AUA 3 would be stronger if roof extended furtherRailings height, solid material attached to steps/ground arms, hands, arm‐length, height stability AUA 5Railings stability, size, solid material attached to steps/ground size, mobility climbing AUA 1 stronger for childrenRailingsstability, size, solid material, round shape, diameterattached to steps/ground, open underneath size, mobility hanging AUA 1 stronger for shorter people/childrenRailings round shape, height, diameter N/A hands, size grasping AUA 5Signage writing position ability to read, vision reading AUA 5Steps height, depth, flat, stable N/A mobility, leg length climbing AUA 5requires very little cultural knowledge, affordance holds for human of any sizeSteps height, depth, flat, stable N/A mobility   walking AUA 2 lesser because of depth of stepsSteps climb‐ability N/A climbing ability, presence of others racing AUA 1 stronger for childrenSteps height, depth, flat, stable N/Abending knees, inclination to rest in seated position sitting AUA 4 stronger in nice weatherSteps sit‐abilityoutside building where phones arent permitted, nice day access to phone talking on phone AUA 3stronger in nice weather; might be weaker if talking inside was not rude or if user was unaware of social cuesSteps sit‐ability, stand‐ability, walk‐abilityoutside building where phones arent permitted, nice day access to phone with texting texting AUA 3Steps sit‐ability N/Aability to communicate, presence of others, inclination to sit while talking conversing AUA 3 accommodates groups of any sizeSteps height, depth, flat, stable N/A mobility jumping AUA 2 stronger for childrenSteps sit‐ability N/A inclination to socialize gathering AUA 3Steps changes in elevation N/A clumsiness, distractedness, mobility tripping AUA 2 would be stronger if less visible or regularSteps changes in elevation N/A clumsiness, distractedness, mobility falling AUA 2 would be stronger if less visible or regularTables flat, height presence of chairsability to write, inclination to sit while writing, access to writing instruments writing AUA 3Tables flat, heightpresence of chairs, proximity to food outlets, nice weather access to food eating AUA 3Tables relatively light unconnected to anything strength, mobility moveability AUA 2 would be stronger if there were fewer tablesTables flat, heightpresence of chairs, proximity to library access to materials working AUA 3Tables flat, height, stable N/A items in possession putting things on AUA 3
  24. 24. New York Public Library porchChairsColumnsGroundLedgeLibrary BuildingLion SculpturesPedestalsPlantersPorchRailingsStepsTablesTrash CansTreesSignageClimbingConversingDisposalEatingFallingGatheringGraspingHangingJumpingLandingLeaningLookingMeaningMoveabilityPhotographyProtectionPutting things onRacingReadingReadingShadeSittingStabilityStanding  SupportTalking on phoneTextingTrippingWalkingWorkingWritingDisplayFilteringProtectionStabilityStorageArtifact‐User AffordancesArtifact‐Artifact Affordances
  25. 25. methodology user studyLet U = a user with a set of qualities W and abilities X.Let E = an environment or artifact with a set of properties Y within a certain context Z.Let A = an emergent property based on the relationship between W, X, Y, and Z.= =“is an affordance of”Ab-loc-tho-me-vis-hea-tas-sm-touA = U + EW,XU,E Y,Zif and only if:-A is possible for U via E.-Neither U nor E possesses A.to be determinedthrough programming UNKNOWN givenmethodology usLet U = a user with a set of qualities W and abilities X.Let E = an environment or artifact with a set of properties Y within a certain context Z.Let A = an emergent property based on the relationship between W, X, Y, and Z.= =“is an affordance of”A = U + EW,XU,E Y,Zif and only if:-A is possible for U via E.-Neither U nor E possesses A.to be determinedthrough programming UNKNOWN givenmethodology user studyLet U = a user with a set of qualities W and abilities X.Let E = an environment or artifact with a set of properties Y within a certain context Z.Let A = an emergent property based on the relationship between W, X, Y, and Z.= =“is an affordance of”Abilities-locomotion-thought-memory-vision-hearing-taste-smell-touchA = U + EW,XU,E Y,Zif and only if:-A is possible for U via E.-Neither U nor E possesses A.to be determinedthrough programming UNKNOWN given5’ - 11 1/2”1’ - 7”1’ - 9”
  26. 26. n a certain context Z.W, X, Y, and Z.Abilities-locomotion-thought-memory-vision-hearing-taste-smell-touchDemographicssex: maleweight: 180 lbsage: 26Z5’ - 11 1/2”5’ - 11 1/2”1’ - 7”1’ - 9”2’ - 4 3/4”
  27. 27. methodologyaffording graspingmethodologyaffording leaning8 1/4”EUA BCDGrasping = U + Eif and only ifAB < 8 1/4”ORCD < 8 1/4”Positive Material Affordances-touching-squeezingArmrestsNegative Material Affordances-slipping-splinteringPositive Material Affordances-structuring-cushioning-touchingNegative Material Affordances-shattering-splintering-cracking-denting-crumpling9042” 54” 66”72minimumoptimaloptimalmaximumminimum optimal12
  28. 28. methodologyaffording sittingmethodologyaffording steppingmethodologyaffording reachingLeg Roomthreshold-arm use necessaryminimumminimum20”25”30”35”40”45”optimaloptimalmaximum(with no stepor assistance)SurfaceHeightPositive Material Affordances-structuring-cushioning-touching-washingNegative Material Affordances-shattering-splintering-cracking-denting-crumpling17”22”31”42”optimalrangesurface height = 18”surfaceheight=18”surface height = 0”surfaceheight=0”28” 44”26”14”7’ - 8 1/2”7’ - 3”2’ - 4”33”25 1/2”threshold of easethresholdsof comfortmaximummaximum
  29. 29. bendingfoldingcurvingstructuringwrappingpuncturingmovingcarvingsandingpaintingpolishingmoldingextrudingmeltingwarpingstackingadheringtoseeingthroughscratchingstretchingdyeingcastinglaminatingtearinginsulatingwashingdrapinginflatingsewingembossingprintingonlaser cuttingburningstainingback-lightingshatteringdrillingchiselingcrushinggrindingcompressingshavingcrackingcushioningdentingweavingsplinteringlathinginjectingstuffingtwistingwettingweldingsqueezingnailingcrumplingfadingcreasingpatchingwritingonshreddingblowinginwindelectricityconductingfireresistingsoundreflectingsoundabsorbinglightreflectinglightdiffusinglightabsorbingUVresistingwater absorbingwater resistingheat conductingshadingacid etchingbio-degradingre-usingoff-gassingrecyclingcuttingA B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P P O N M L K J I H G F E D C B AA - aluminumB - brickC - concreteD - woodE - corkF - fabricG - glassH - translucent glassI - stoneJ - gypsum boardK - steelL - leatherM - cardboardN - paperO - rubberP - plasticmaterial affordancesbendingwritingonshreddingblowinginwindelectricityconductingfireresistingsoundreflectingsoundabsorbinglightreflectinglightdiffusinglightabsorbingUVresistingwater absorbingwater resistingheat conductingshadingacid etchingbio-degradingre-usingoff-gassingrecyclingcuttingA B C D E F G H I J K L M N O PA - aluminumB - brickC - concreteD - woodE - corkF - fabricG - glassH - translucent glassI - stoneJ - gypsum boardK - steelL - leatherM - cardboardN - paperO - rubberP - plasticmaterial affordances
  30. 30. methodology user studyLet U = a user with a set of qualities W and abilities X.Let E = an environment or artifact with a set of properties Y within a certain context Z.Let A = an emergent property based on the relationship between W, X, Y, and Z.= =“is an affordance of”Ab-loc-tho-me-vis-hea-tas-sm-touA = U + EW,XU,E Y,Zif and only if:-A is possible for U via E.-Neither U nor E possesses A.to be determinedthrough programming UNKNOWN givenmethodology usLet U = a user with a set of qualities W and abilities X.Let E = an environment or artifact with a set of properties Y within a certain context Z.Let A = an emergent property based on the relationship between W, X, Y, and Z.= =“is an affordance of”A = U + EW,XU,E Y,Zif and only if:-A is possible for U via E.-Neither U nor E possesses A.to be determinedthrough programming UNKNOWN givenmethodology user studyLet U = a user with a set of qualities W and abilities X.Let E = an environment or artifact with a set of properties Y within a certain context Z.Let A = an emergent property based on the relationship between W, X, Y, and Z.= =“is an affordance of”Abilities-locomotion-thought-memory-vision-hearing-taste-smell-touchA = U + EW,XU,E Y,Zif and only if:-A is possible for U via E.-Neither U nor E possesses A.to be determinedthrough programming UNKNOWN given5’ - 11 1/2”1’ - 7”1’ - 9”
  31. 31. ASSUMPTION OF TERMSLet U = a user with a set of qualities W and abilities X.Let E = an environment or artifact with a set of properties Y within a certain context Z.Let A = an emergent property based on the relationship between W, X, Y, and Z.A = “is an affordance of”(A + A ) A U + (E + E )U,E U,E W,X Y,Z Y,Z1 1 if and only if:A is possible for U via E.Neither E nor U possess A.A can largely be designed towardby programming desired affordances.BUT: If A is an emergent propertybased on W,X,Y,Z and W,X,Y,Z are alldynamic, A is also dynamic.These unforseen emergent propertiescan be accounted for through thevariable A .E is primarily the crux of the problem: theproperties of the designed environment.In interior design a component of E is given,the existing conditions, represented byE .Determinedthroughprogrammingvariable givenUNKNOWNgivenU,E1Y,Z1
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