1. Environment• All of the external factors affecting an organism. – These factors may be other living organisms (biotic factors) or – nonliving variables (abiotic factors), • temperature, rainfall, day length, wind, and ocean currents. • The interactions of organisms with biotic and abiotic factors form an ecosystem.
2. Aquatic ecosystemAquatic ecosystem• Ecosystem, organisms living in a particular environment (IN WATER), the physical parts of the environment that affect.
3. Fishery• Fisheries, industry of harvesting fish, shellfish, and other aquatic animals. FISHERY =FISH RESOURCE + HUMAN ACTIVITY towards hunting fish – Fishing: fishing operations=act of catching fish – Fishermen : a person who is catching fish – Fishing gears: net (different forms), hook and line, taps,
1. Fish Resource Potential Water body Annual harvest potential (MT) Major lakes 30,963 -35,963 Major Rivers 7,000 Major Small water bodies 6,067 Total 44,030-49,030• Resources not yet precisely defined• Water bodies are increasing every year• Not all SWB not included• Recent constructed large water bodies not included
2. Fish resource exploitation Fish Production 24,057 MT Fish Farming (15 ton)Capture Fisheries Lakes 14,523 MT (Ri.Vlakes and Tana) Culture based capture fisheries Rivers 189 MT Small & large Reservoirs 2,058 MT Total =14,712MT T. Production share =13%T. Production share =87% Exploitation rate= 34%Exploitation rate= 46%
Exploitation • Exploitation uneven • Some lakes, which are close to big towns are over exploited • Others are not yet utilized
National fish production trend (2000-2011) 30000 25000production (tons) 20000 15000 10000 5000 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Year
Production bu fish speciesCommercially important fish species Carp sp. 2% Others 3% Nile perch 6%Barbus 11% Tilapia 67% African catfish 11% Annual production 24057 Tons (2011)
Fish producers• Every fisher• Gear supplier• Fish processor• Fish trader
Fishing gears• Boats (plank, papyrus, wood dig out) – Modern with motorized boats• Nets (‘modern gears’) – Gillnet (20-100m) – Beach Seine net ( up to 250m) – Scoop net or Reed sieves – Cast nets• Hooks and line• Basket Traps• Spears• Stupefacient or poison plants
Contribution of fishery for development• The fisheries have potential contribute to the achievement of regional development objectives includes; – National income – Improve food security – Alleviation of poverty – Source of sustainable income – Improve the health status of the society by providing high quality protein
Contribution of fishery for national economy• Total value of fish production (2004) is ETBr 400 million – It is farm gate price – It accounts only the production of registered/organized fishermen.• Replacement of imported fish preparation by locally produced fish to save currency• Promotion of fish exports to earn foreign currency ;• Promotion of local and foreign investments in fish production and related activities – Contribution to National GDP is ~0.02%
Contribution of fishery to food security• Fishing is one of coping mechanism to fill the seasonal food shortage gaps near water bodies specially at rivers• Fishing, hunting and gathering wild foods are part of the livelihood system of the indigenous communities of Gambella and Benshangule- Gumuz regions.• Most of regional Woreds has large food shortage experience almost year round.
Cont’d• Food security does not just concern food production. It can be defined as the physical and economics access to sufficient safe and nutritious food to meet dietary needs. (1996 World Food Summit). – fisheries contributes to food security in a variety of ways • Access quality protein to the community • Reducing vulnerability
Access quality protein to the community• Fishes are become source of quality animal origin food protein• Nutrition, Protein-Energy Malnutrition (PEM) and Micronutrient deficiencies are the major problems in the Country.• Frintance Early data from MoH for BGRS – the prevalence of chronic malnutrition or stunting for children under the age of five is 41.3% and acute malnutrition or wasting is 14.2% and underweight is 42.3%. (2002) ~Fishery can support to reduce these malnutrition problems through supply of fish food for fishers and their families.
Reducing vulnerability• Severe food deficit exist at Woredas where the resource is available• Fish is accessible to vast majority of people, especially who lives on the course of lake and river banks and it is available throughout the year. – ~ fishery can reduce the vulnerability to food deficit season by providing complementary food source as part of diversified livelihood strategies.
Poverty alleviation and employment opportunity• Fishery offers several opportunities: – creates employment opportunity – alternative income generating – small scale fishing and trading provides a low capital and subsistence level of employment for youths which intern helps them to increase saving and continue their education.
Fishery management (FM)• Fisheries management (as defined in the FAO CCRF) is: “the integrated process of information gathering, analysis , planning, consultation, decision-making, allocation of resources and formulation and implementation, with enforcement as necessary, of regulations or rules which govern fisheries activities in order to ensure the continued productivity of the resources and accomplishment of other fisheries objectives”• Purposes of fisheries management include to:Ensure conservation, protection, proper use, economic efficiency and equitable distribution of the fisheries resources both for the present and future generations.
FM Cont’dMaximise long term sustainability and rational utilization of fish resources through:• Adjusting the investment level/ fishing efforts and users to match the magnitude of fish resources;• Combating water pollution and environmental degradation ;• Improving fish handling , preservation and processing to minimise post-harvest losses and secure quality products for local consumption and export .
Causes of fish resource depletion• Fishing pressure – Too many fishing gears – Improper fishing gears• Pollution – Agricultural and Industrial pollution – Excess organic matter• Degradation of fish habitat – Direct human or natural intervention • Lake shore degradation, fish pass obstacle, irrigation – Indirect intervention • Decrease littoral zone area through climate change
Sign of resource depletion• The size of catch will be small and large fish is scare in the lake.• The quantity of catch decrease gradually• Changed the catch composition
Legal framework for FMFederal level- The Fish Resource Development and Utilization Proclamation 315/2003By lows and standards The Ethiopian Quality Standard Authority declared – Fish Product Quality Standards (12), – Recommended code of practice (7) and – Guidelines (2) • Fish Products Quality Control Regulation No /2012 is prepared and suspending for approval. ). • Fish Resource Management Control and Fishing License Directive are produced in some regions National Aquaculture Development Strategy
Fishery Management (FM) systems and approachesThe existing fisheries management systems (FMs):Although some of these systems are used in isolations, in most cases there are used in combination.1. No fisheries management (Free-range) unrestricted exploitation with open access, unregulated and unreported fishing. The fishery is free for all2. Command and control management The Monitoring Control and Surveillance system “Command and Control is essentially a centralized system where power and authority is vested at the top and where policy and implementing decisions are made and passed on to lower levels down to grassroots. Fisheries Command and control success thrives on strict law enforcement by the authorities. – Very little community participation
FM systems and approaches Cont’d3. community-based management/traditional/ Gambella ponds4. right-based management Some Benshangul-Gumuz rivers5. co-management or Cooperative management• It can be defined as a partnership arrangement in which the community of local resource users (fishers), government, other stakeholders (boat owners, fish traders, boat builders, business• Co-management covers various partnership arrangements and degrees of power sharing and integration of local (informal, traditional, customary) and centralized government management systems.
Fisheries co-managementBased on roles government and fishers play classified in to five broad typesInstructive: There is only minimal exchange of information between government and fishers. This type of co-management regime is only different from centralized management in the sense that the mechanisms exist for dialogue with users, but the process itself tends to be government informing fishers on the decisions they plan to make.• Consultative: Mechanisms exist for government to consult with fishers but all decisions are taken by government.• Cooperative: This type of co-management is where government and fishers cooperate together as equal partners in decision-making.• Advisory: Fishers advise government of decisions to be taken and government endorses these decisions.• Informative: Government has delegated authority to make decisions to fisher groups who are responsible for informing government of these decisions.
FM integration FM systems • used in isolations, and • in most cases there are used in combination.• It can be integrated with Ecosystem management, catchment protection program and almost all lake pollution protection programs.
Fishery management technical measures1. Catch quota2. Closed area3. Closed season4. Mesh size regulations5. Gear restrictions6. Limits on the nb of boats7. Limits on the nb of gears8. Taxes on effort or catch9. Licensing10.Control of Traders
Fish resource and community• The community and Producer/consumers should be aware on: – Resource utilization – Poor quality fish product can be health hazard – Full and proper utilization of fish products – The importance of food fish – Collaborate the implementation of fisheries management plan
ChallengesLake of awareness on the fish resource amongpolicy makers and communities/consumersInsufficient knowledge of the fisheries resources,post harvest loss, marketing and distributionIllegal, unregulated and unreported fishing (Openaccess to the resources)No reliable statistics as an essential basis forfisheries managementLack of trained manpowerIlliteracy and the ignorance of fisher men orprevailing laws and regulations
Recommendation• Promote and collaborate to conserve the aquatic and related environment/ecosystem• Create technical cooperation and establishing professional links with relevant national, regional and international institutions.• Improve the knowledge on fisheries resources, post harvest loss, marketing and distribution through survey• Promote to increase fish supply from underutilized stocks of major lakes and increase fish supply from remote fisheries like that of rivers• Create awareness – on conserving fish resource – Fish consumption promotion from underutilize water bodies
What next?• What ECOPA can do?• Crate awareness to consumers on importance of fish food, handling and quality of fish product, and on conserving fish resource.• Study on postharvest and socio economic of fishery at selected lakes.• Study some issue which deems to be health hazard for consumers.• Support promoting subsistence aquaculture.