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  • Also increasing emphasis on enterprise education – ways in which universities can encourage students to develop awareness and capabilities associated with enterprise both to support innovation within companies but also with intention that more graduates will see self-employment, business start-up as an option.Enterprise in curriculum to be developed through learning about enterprise as well as developing the individual for enterprise through many experiential, problem-based approaches.This diagram comes from QAA Draft for Consultation published in Feb 2012‘Enterprise and entrepreneurship education: Guidance for UK Higher Education Providers.
  • QAA placing its expectations on institutions – no doubt driven by context outlined aboveHEA, in recent call for projects, has prioritised employability and internationalisation.
  • We also know that applicants are interested in measures of employability. To what extent this influences final choice of which university to attend is not clear, but clearly applicants are intetrested to klnow how graduates fare.This brings us to main measures of achievements and outputs.
  • Now on to the measuresGreater emphasis on measuring/reporting what graduates achieve but also on what they go on to do. Measuring actual impact of individual curriculum effects on employability is notoriously difficult but there are some broad measures/indicators of general university effect.Higher Education Achievement Report can be understood within context of employability. Intention is that it will provide greater consistency in way institutions report achievements of graduates. Enable greater comparability between graduates. Enable universities to provide detail of graduate achievements in richer narrative than ever before. More detail than simply degree classification which is seen as only partial indicator of graduate achievements.The Destination of Leavers from Higher Education Survey is conducted by HESA. The survey aims to contact UK/EU graduates six months after graduation to establish what type of employment or further study they are engaged in. The results are often used by league tables of British universities complied by newspapers. The newspapers purchase the data from HESAhttp://www.hesa.ac.uk/index.php?option=com_collns&task=show_colln&Itemid=232&c=C10018&s=3&wvy=any&wvs=1&isme=1Information from the DLHE is used as part of institutional data held on Unistats and made available for public view.Institutional data is returned to each institution, at LJMU this is made available via WebHub. Further support with data interpretation is available through the World of Work Careers Centre – Terry Dray.Information on the 2009/10 graduating cohort is now available on WebHub. 2010/11 graduating cohort is currently being surveyed, since it is now 6 months post-graduation

Transcript

  • 1. Course Design: Employability ‘It’s not what you teach, but the way that you teach it’ Liz Clifford, AEU Becky Murphy, SPS 7th March 2012
  • 2. Session Aims• What does an employable graduate look like?• What is the current context for education in relation to employability?• How do we use this knowledge and our own experiences to inform practice at personal, module and programme level?
  • 3. Context to scheme of work• 7004PCLTHE Design for Learning in the Higher Education Context – Consideration of the context/subject/professional body you are working within or to – Subject and other national benchmarks – Consideration of the employability agenda, e.g. LJMU’s WoW Strategy – Critique of models of curriculum design – Appropriateness for student group – Response to Peer Learning Group feedback and discussion – Consideration of any alternatives in the light of critical scrutiny including a brief self reflection on how this module changed your thinking/practice – Programme values should underpin discussion
  • 4. Session Plan• Group task – what does an employable graduate look like?• Political and institutional perspectives on employability• Models of employability• Student Perspectives• Developing employability in Sport and Exercise Science: A case study• Group task: considerations for practice
  • 5. Plotting your position ...... Where do you stand? Supporting students in employability focused development is very much part of my responsibility I am unclear about I am clear about thethe ways in which the ways in which the programme can programme can support students in support students inemployability focused employability focused development development Supporting students in employability focused development is not my responsibility
  • 6. What does an employable graduate look like? 5 MinutesUsing flip chart paper and coloured Start Timer pens create a poster that 10 encapsulates your group’s idea of 8 what an employable graduate looks like? 6 4 2 0
  • 7. Context: Expectations and Measures• Wilson Review (Feb 2012) A Review of Business-University CollaborationJust as castles provided the source of strength for medieval towns, and factories provided prosperity in the industrial age, universities are the source of strength in the knowledge‐based economy of the twenty‐first century. Lord Dearing, September 2002• 50+ Recommendations (specific and reflective) – Processes for Graduate recruitment to be reviewed – Careers and employability support to be a continuous feature of student experience – Greater focus on employability within Masters/Doctoral provision – Renewed emphasis on placements/internships, particularly international – Emphasis on Higher Education Achievement Report as means of presenting achievements – Employability and enterprise skills in the formal curriculum – Review mechanisms for gathering data on graduate employment
  • 8. Employer expectations Employability Skills Work Experience Graduates “who are excited by ideas, capable of challenging assumptions and most importantly, have the ability to keep learning”. Positive Attitude Degree SubjectFuture Fit: Preparing Graduates for the World of Work (CBI,2009)
  • 9. QAA, 2012
  • 10. QAA Expectations• QAA Framework for Higher Education Qualifications Descriptor for Level 6“And holders will have:the qualities and transferable skills necessary foremployment requiring:• the exercise of initiative and personal responsibility• decision-making in complex and unpredictable contexts• the learning ability needed to undertake appropriate further training of a professional or equivalent nature.”http://www.qaa.ac.uk/Publications/InformationAndGuidance/Documents/FH EQ08.pdf
  • 11. What is important to new studentSatisfaction with theexperience is key but alsoemployabilitySource: HEFCE (2010) Understanding theinformation needs of users of public informationabout higher education, available at:www.hefce.ac.uk/pubs/rdreports/2010/rd12_10/
  • 12. Graduate Destinations: how do weknow what happens to our students?• Higher Education Achievement Report – richer narrative of graduate achievements• ‘Employability statement’ on Unistats/UCAS websites• Destination of Leavers from HE (DLHE)• Alumni• LJMU Graduation Survey
  • 13. What are we preparing our studentsfor?• ‘to be employed is to be at risk, to be employable is to be secure’ Peter Hawkins 1999• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Gv8pmIr3a7k&t=4 5s• Student Finance Calculator http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/education-14785676 What is your own working life like? How well did your degree prepare you for it?
  • 14. Poster from Student Employability Workshop – University of Central Lancashire. Used withpermission from L Dacre Pool and P J Sewell
  • 15. Employability: a complex problem• Students required to develop ‘complex achievements’ – ‘fluctuating and contested social constructs, not real and stable’(Knight, 2007, p.76) – ‘they are slow to grow, the products of months and years, not of days and weeks; they are the outcomes of whole…programmes, not…individual…modules’ (ibid)• Focus on curriculum processes ‘creating environments and experiences that afford rich possibilities for development’ (ibid, p.81)• Students need experience of ‘ill-defined, interdisciplinary and real-world problems’ (Nicol, 2010, p.5)
  • 16. Models of EmployabilityElusive concept
  • 17. Models of Employability a set of achievements – skills and understandings“key”, “personal”, and personal“transferable” or attributes – that“employability” makes graduates more likely to gain employment and be successful in their chosen occupations” (2003, p. 3)
  • 18. SKILLS (S) PERSONAL QUALITIES; SELF EMPLOYABILITY THEORIES AND EFFICACY BELIEFS (E) SUBJECT METACOGNITION (M) UNDERSTANDING (U) Figure 1. The USEM account of employability (Yorke and Knight, 2004, p. 5) Yorke, M. and Knight, P.T. (2004). Embedding employability into the curriculum, August2010, http://www.qualityresearchinternational.com/ese/relatedpubs/Embedding%20employability%20into%20the%20curriculum.p df
  • 19. USEM in practice ………• Subject understanding (U) - specific teaching and assessment activities• Employability related skills (S) -employment based training (work-related learning opportunities, careers advice, employability related modules, personal development portfolios)• Metacognition (M) and self-theories (E) -teaching and assessment practices that foster good learning. Instructional strategies inquiry based teaching, collaboration among students and teachers, strategy instruction, development of mental models and conceptual change, use of technology and student and teacher beliefs concept mapping and reflection
  • 20. EMPLOYABILITY SELF- ESTEEM SELF - SELF- EFFICACY CONFIDENCE REFLECTION AND EVALUATION CareerDevelopment Experience Knowledge, Un Emotional (Work and Life) Generic Skills Intelligence Learning derstanding, Sk ills Dacre Pool, L. and Sewell, P. (2007) The key to employability: developing a practical model of graduate employability. Education and Training, 49(4), 277-289.
  • 21. Employability in practice ……. Developing a pedagogy for employability• Programme level – designated personal skills/employability/work related learning modules (The Pedagogy for Employability Group, 2006)• Modular level – teaching activities that foster good learning• Employer involvement in course design (Cranmer, 2006) Cranmer, S. (2006). Enhancing graduate employability: best intentions and mixed outcomes. Studies in Higher Education, 31(2), 169-184. The Pedagogy for Employability Group. (2006). Pedagogy for employability, August 2010, http://www.heacademy.ac.uk/assets/York/documents/ourwork/tla/employability/id383_pedagogy_for_employability_357.pdf
  • 22. Self Regulated LearningLevel of achievement is influenced by how people feel about themselves SELF- ESTEEM SELF - SELF- EFFICACY CONFIDENCE •VICARIOUS EXPERIENCES •MASTERY EXPERIENCES •SOCIAL PERSUASION
  • 23. What do students value?• Opportunities for placements/ work-based experiences‘Good life experiences from lecturers who have worked in the industry’‘Practical based aspects are good for real life problems.’‘Giving me ability to work in the real world!’• Staff: experience, enthusiasm, helpfulness, learnfrom their experiences“The teaching staff are always happy to help and there is a sense of community onthe course”“Lecturers are enthusiastic about the course and it shows…how they get youinvolved…so you’re not just sitting there”“ Good life experiences from lecturers who have worked in the industry”‘Tutors take long to reply to emails and they dont help, e.g. find out for yourself‘’.
  • 24. • Breadth, challenge, difference and variety„The University is able to push me to produce work that I would never have thoughtI was capable of‟„Giving us something and telling us to play around with it.‟„Good variety of projects given-using different skills.‟„Too many lectures on theory, with no practical work to re-enforce what we learnt‟• Interaction and interactivity„I didn‟t feel as though the lecturers helped us to integrate with other students‟„interactive days help to engage and focus students and allow things to beexplained in a way that a classroom cannot, field trips and more engaging methodsshould be used more often …also extremely good experiences for life as agraduate to allow talking points in interviews etc rather than just talking about thetheories and practices that were taught in a classroom.‟„Residential was fun and exciting and helped the whole course bond‟
  • 25. •Groupwork„Somehow make group work better‟ „far too much and marking criteria not clear‟„Im not happy with the over-reliance on group work. I understand that group workis key to the working environment, but…feel that group work has significantlyaffected my grades due to lack of enthusiasm and teamwork from other students‟„More advice on how to work as a group‟•Relevance and Benefit„The course has some modules, which seem irrelevant‟„Reflection tasks felt pointless‟
  • 26. Opportunities for personal development„I have had time to reflect on my life and achievements so far and set myselfsome clear goals for the future‟„The opportunities within my course have helped me gain confidence and awider understanding on what personal skills and life skills are needed whenleaving university. My time here has helped me grow as a person.‟
  • 27. Observations• Importance and value of WRL, particularly placement experiences, in terms of student satisfaction but also personal, academic and skills development• Further consideration of how tla activities can support increasing self-confidence and self-efficacy through adapting to learning in new situations• Cumulative effect of experiences both within and outside of curriculum• Supporting students to make connections and make most of all opportunities
  • 28. How does the whole student experience ofuniversity build up to give students confidence in themselves but also confidence in the experience they have had?timetabling….helpfulness of staff….facilities… peer support…..extra-curricular activities communication of changes….feedback……clarity and consistency….interaction with staff connections to ‘real world’ practice…..
  • 29. Break
  • 30. Developing employability in SportScience Students ……. Philosophy and Practice
  • 31. Developmental "core curriculum"approach to embedding employability at all levels of undergraduate study
  • 32. Sport Science: "core curriculum" approach• Level four (Familiarisation), the students are familiarised with the various types of careers open to them within the area of sport and exercise science.• Level five (Skilling-up), students are provided with vocational training as part of their core modules. The emphasis is on acquiring the practical skills necessary for a career in sport and exercise science.• Level six (Engagement), the students should have the appropriate practical skills and self-belief to engage in an externally driven, sustained Work Related Learning project that has been developed with a potential employer
  • 33. Scientists and PractitionersMethods Knowledge Transfer Familiarization R E Discipline S WSkills E Knowledge Transfer R Skilling-up A L RProject C Knowledge Transfer Engagement H Content Students are required to apply their knowledge and provide some practical support to a provider, that supports the academic criteria of their modules.
  • 34. When does a student’s career inSport and Exercise Science begin?
  • 35. Diversity of communication“You need to comfortable in speaking to people, speaking to groups, sobar all the technical work you have got to be confident ….. goodcommunication skills”Practical Experience“Although I didn‟t have the degrees, the PhDs behind me what I learned(from coaching rugby) on a grass roots level was I got a flavour of whatworked with people and how to speak to them at their level”Subject specific knowledge“If I was involved in an interview I would want to be enthused bysomebody who I felt could really motivate children into having a healthierlifestyle, and that would be more important than if they got a 2:1 or a 1st”(Child Obesity Officer)“You need to be comfortable in speaking to people, speaking to groups…. so bar all the technical work you have got to be confident, you havegot to have good communication skills. Good presentation skills aswell, lots of experience of presentations is absolutely essential becausedaily you are presenting to 20 patients plus, and then the odd time youare expected to go out and talk to other health professionals as well.”
  • 36. Developing a pedagogy for employability …….Work Based LearningWorld of Work Career CentreReflection as practitionersGuest SpeakersStaff working in field (Consultant Nutritionistand Consultant Sport Scientist)Research Informed curriculumInquiry Based learning …….
  • 37. Context to scheme of work• 7004PCLTHE Design for Learning in the Higher Education Context – Consideration of the context/subject/professional body you are working within or to – Subject and other national benchmarks – Consideration of the employability agenda, e.g. LJMU’s WoW Strategy – Critique of models of curriculum design – Appropriateness for student group – Response to Peer Learning Group feedback and discussion – Consideration of any alternatives in the light of critical scrutiny including a brief self reflection on how this module changed your thinking/practice – Programme values should underpin discussion
  • 38. Task• Think about the features of an employable graduate you identified and how a module/programme with which you are involved could be ‘fine-tuned’ to better support student development for employability• Think about all aspects of its design and delivery• Use the resources and prompts on the tables to help you• In using the prompts think, – Should this aspect be developed in this programme? – Does it already appear? – If so, does it link coherently with other aspects of employability in the programme? Is there duplication/over-use of particular methods? – Are staff and students aware of its value/purpose for student development? – Are students expected to deal with both familiar and unfamiliar problems?
  • 39. Curriculum: how Work experiencethe subject istaught? Social/Economic factors Extra- curricularEngagement provisionwith CareersEducation Employability Students: what do they bring? what are they Institutional Discipline aiming for? reputation studied and links Professional with requirements employers
  • 40. References• Wilson Review Business-University Collaboration: http://www.bis.gov.uk/assets/biscore/further-education-skills/docs/w/12-610-wilson- review-business-university-collaboration• The Graduate Market 2011: Annual Review of graduate vacancies and starting salaries at Britain’s leading employers, High Fliers Research. http://www.highfliers.co.uk/download/GMReport11.pdf• QAA. Enterprise and entrepreneurship education: Guidance for UK higher education providers. Draft for Consultation. Feb 2012 http://www.qaa.ac.uk/Publications/InformationAndGuidance/Pages/EE-draft- consultation.aspx• Future Fit: Preparing graduates for the world of work. CBI. 2009 http://www.agcas.org.uk/agcas_resources/104-Future-fit-Preparing-graduates-for-the- world-of-work-• Pegg, A., Waldock, J., Hendy-Isaac, S., Lawton, R. (Feb 2012) Pedagogy for Employability. HEA. http://www.heacademy.ac.uk/assets/documents/employability/pedagogy_for_employ ability_update_2012.pdf• Knight, P. (2007) Grading, classifying and future learning, in Boud, D and Falchikov, N. (eds) Rethinking Assessment in Higher Education: Learning for the longer term. Routledge. Abingdon• Schraw, G.S., Crippin, K.J. and Hartley, K. (2006). Promoting self regulation in Science Education: Metacognition as part of a broader perspective on learning. Research in Science Education, 36, 111-139.
  • 41. • Knight, P and Yorke, M. (2004) Learning, Curriculum and Employability in Higher Education. RoutledgeFalmer. London• Nicol, D (2010) The foundation for Graduate Attributes: developing self-regulation through self and peer assessment. QAA. Available from: http://www.enhancementthemes.ac.uk/resources/publications/graduates-for-the- 21st-century• Student Finance Calculator: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/education-14785676• Cranmer, S. (2006). Enhancing graduate employability: best intentions and mixed outcomes. Studies in Higher Education, 31(2), 169-184.• The Pedagogy for Employability Group. (2006). Pedagogy for employability, Accessed August 2010, http://www.heacademy.ac.uk/assets/York/documents/ourwork/tla/employ ability/id383_pedagogy_for_employability_357.pdf• Yorke, M. and Knight, P.T. (2004). Embedding employability into the curriculum, Accessed August 2010, http://www.qualityresearchinternational.com/ese/relatedpubs/Embedding %20employability%20into%20the%20curriculum.pdf• Dacre Pool, L. and Sewell, P. (2007) The key to employability: developing a practical model of graduate employability. Education and Training, 49(4), 277-289.• Hawkins, P. (1999) The Art of Building Windmills: career tactics for the 21st century. Graduate Into Employment Unit. Liverpool