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Cell processes



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  • 1. Part 1: How Materials Move In and Out of a Cell…
  • 2. Diffusion
    • Diffusion is the tendency for a substance to move from an area of greater concentration to an area of lesser concentration.
    • This process continues until the two areas have equal concentration of the substance.
  • 3. Osmosis
    • Osmosis is the movement of water across a cell membrane.
    • The process of osmosis as well as diffusion occur without the cell using any energy.
  • 4. Active Transport
    • Active transport occurs when the cell uses energy to transport materials across the cell membrane.
    • Food molecules are moved into the cell while waste molecules are moved out.
  • 5. Part 2: Cells and Energy How do photosynthesis and cell respiration help a cell get energy?
  • 6. Photosynthesis
    • Photosynthesis is the process by which light energy is used to make food.
    • The chloroplasts in a plant cell use sunlight to change carbon dioxide + water to make sugar. The waste product of this process is oxygen.
  • 7. Cell Respiration
    • Cell Respiration is the process of using oxygen to release stored energy by breaking down sugar molecules.
    • The mitochondria in both plant and animal cells use oxygen to break down sugar. This produces carbon dioxide, water, and energy! As a result the waste product is carbon dioxide. This process is the reverse of photosynthesis.
  • 8. Fermentation
    • Fermentation occurs when there isn’t enough oxygen available. (Usually when you exercise hard.)
    • During this process sugars are partially broken down for use as energy.
    • Fermentation causes your cells to produce a by product called lactic acid.
  • 9. Part 3: Cell Division What are the five stages of cell division?
  • 10. Stage 1: Prophase
    • Each chromosome makes a copy of itself.
  • 11. Stage 2: Prometaphase
    • Chromosomes become shorter and thicker. The chromosome copies fasten together. The nuclear membrane breaks down.
  • 12. Stage 3: Metaphase
    • The chromosome copies line up along the cell’s center.
  • 13. Stage 4: Anaphase
    • The chromosome copies split apart and are pulled to opposite ends of the cell.
  • 14. Stage 5: Cytokinesis
    • Chromosomes become hard to see. The cell splits, and new nuclear membranes form.
  • 15. Part 4: Specialized Cells How do specialized cells work together?
  • 16. Cell Differentiation
    • Cell differentiation is the development of cells into different and specialized cell types
    • Some examples of specialized cells are:
      • Blood cell
      • Skin cells
      • Muscle cells
  • 17. Tissues
    • Groups of specialized cells that work together.
    • Some examples of tissue are brain tissue, nerve tissue, and muscle tissue.
  • 18. Organ
    • An organ is a group of tissues that function together to do a specific job
    • A couple examples of organs are the heart and the skin.
  • 19. Organ System
    • An organ system is a group of organs that work together to do a job
    • An example of an organ system is your digestive system. This system includes such organs as the esophagus, the stomach, and the intestines.