Cell processes


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Cell processes

  1. 1. Part 1: How Materials Move In and Out of a Cell…
  2. 2. Diffusion <ul><li>Diffusion is the tendency for a substance to move from an area of greater concentration to an area of lesser concentration. </li></ul><ul><li>This process continues until the two areas have equal concentration of the substance. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Osmosis <ul><li>Osmosis is the movement of water across a cell membrane. </li></ul><ul><li>The process of osmosis as well as diffusion occur without the cell using any energy. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Active Transport <ul><li>Active transport occurs when the cell uses energy to transport materials across the cell membrane. </li></ul><ul><li>Food molecules are moved into the cell while waste molecules are moved out. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Part 2: Cells and Energy How do photosynthesis and cell respiration help a cell get energy?
  6. 6. Photosynthesis <ul><li>Photosynthesis is the process by which light energy is used to make food. </li></ul><ul><li>The chloroplasts in a plant cell use sunlight to change carbon dioxide + water to make sugar. The waste product of this process is oxygen. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Cell Respiration <ul><li>Cell Respiration is the process of using oxygen to release stored energy by breaking down sugar molecules. </li></ul><ul><li>The mitochondria in both plant and animal cells use oxygen to break down sugar. This produces carbon dioxide, water, and energy! As a result the waste product is carbon dioxide. This process is the reverse of photosynthesis. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Fermentation <ul><li>Fermentation occurs when there isn’t enough oxygen available. (Usually when you exercise hard.) </li></ul><ul><li>During this process sugars are partially broken down for use as energy. </li></ul><ul><li>Fermentation causes your cells to produce a by product called lactic acid. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Part 3: Cell Division What are the five stages of cell division?
  10. 10. Stage 1: Prophase <ul><li>Each chromosome makes a copy of itself. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Stage 2: Prometaphase <ul><li>Chromosomes become shorter and thicker. The chromosome copies fasten together. The nuclear membrane breaks down. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Stage 3: Metaphase <ul><li>The chromosome copies line up along the cell’s center. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Stage 4: Anaphase <ul><li>The chromosome copies split apart and are pulled to opposite ends of the cell. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Stage 5: Cytokinesis <ul><li>Chromosomes become hard to see. The cell splits, and new nuclear membranes form. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Part 4: Specialized Cells How do specialized cells work together?
  16. 16. Cell Differentiation <ul><li>Cell differentiation is the development of cells into different and specialized cell types </li></ul><ul><li>Some examples of specialized cells are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Skin cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscle cells </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Tissues <ul><li>Groups of specialized cells that work together. </li></ul><ul><li>Some examples of tissue are brain tissue, nerve tissue, and muscle tissue. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Organ <ul><li>An organ is a group of tissues that function together to do a specific job </li></ul><ul><li>A couple examples of organs are the heart and the skin. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Organ System <ul><li>An organ system is a group of organs that work together to do a job </li></ul><ul><li>An example of an organ system is your digestive system. This system includes such organs as the esophagus, the stomach, and the intestines. </li></ul>