Extending The Growing Season 2009 Asia Conference (No Text)

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  • My name is Danny Blank. I have been with ECHO since 1994. ECHO is an organization that equips international development workers with agriculture resources and skills to improve the lives of the poor.
  • Today, I want to speak about Extending the Growing Season. This is a talk about the significance of year round production for farmers in the tropics. how to move toward year-round production through perennial crops and innovative farming practices the significance of year round productin ideas of innovative farming practices and
  • We are now producing corn, beans, bananas, yuca and forage. We have fruit trees and we have dozens of individual trees that have benefitted from the soil and water conservation resulting from using SALT.
  • We are now producing corn, beans, bananas, yuca and forage. We have fruit trees and we have dozens of individual trees that have benefitted from the soil and water conservation resulting from using SALT.
  • We are now producing corn, beans, bananas, yuca and forage. We have fruit trees and we have dozens of individual trees that have benefitted from the soil and water conservation resulting from using SALT.
  • We are now producing corn, beans, bananas, yuca and forage. We have fruit trees and we have dozens of individual trees that have benefitted from the soil and water conservation resulting from using SALT.
  • Five years ago, this one acre plot was mostly abandoned and only produced a bit of pasture grass for the Center’s oxen.
  • We are now producing corn, beans, bananas, yuca and forage. We have fruit trees and we have dozens of individual trees that have benefitted from the soil and water conservation resulting from using SALT.
  • We are now producing corn, beans, bananas, yuca and forage. We have fruit trees and we have dozens of individual trees that have benefitted from the soil and water conservation resulting from using SALT.
  • We are now producing corn, beans, bananas, yuca and forage. We have fruit trees and we have dozens of individual trees that have benefitted from the soil and water conservation resulting from using SALT.
  • We are now producing corn, beans, bananas, yuca and forage. We have fruit trees and we have dozens of individual trees that have benefitted from the soil and water conservation resulting from using SALT.
  • Extending The Growing Season 2009 Asia Conference (No Text)

    1. 1. Extending the Growing Season Ideas on how to move toward year-round production through perennial crops and innovative farming practices. Danny Blank, ECHO Farm Manager ECHO Asia Conference, 2009
    2. 4. Percentage of Population Undernourished
    3. 5. <ul><li>Main Themes of Presentation </li></ul><ul><li>Current challenges facing small-scale farmers </li></ul><ul><li>2) Risk of depending on rainy season production alone in tropics </li></ul><ul><li>3) Strategies for extending the season beyond the rainy season  yr. round production </li></ul><ul><li>4) Encourage you to help others expand their vision! </li></ul>
    4. 7. <ul><li>Small scale farms and farm families </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually less than 2 ha. (1 ha. = 2.5 acres ). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dependent largely on the food they grow for sustenance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually have limited capital </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poverty and food insecurity common </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use fuelwood or crop residues for cooking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physically demanding lifestyle </li></ul></ul>
    5. 21. Average Maize Production in tons/ha <ul><li>Countries/ Regions of interest: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Italy 9.6 t/ha </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. 8.3 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Argentina 5.3 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>China 4.9 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mexico 2.4 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Africa 1.6 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C.A.+ Carib. 1.4 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Malawi 1.4 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Honduras 1.3 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mozambique 0.9 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Haiti 0.8 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>World aver. 4.3 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(2000 CIMMYT World Maize Facts and Trends) </li></ul></ul>
    6. 22. Example of risk when depending upon rainy season production alone for year food supply in tropics <ul><li>One hectare farm example (Africa, Asia average farm size 1.6 ha): </li></ul><ul><li>Farm sizes are small, limiting overall production potential </li></ul><ul><li>Minimum of 1.2 tonnes maize per year needed to feed family </li></ul><ul><li>If farmer yields 1.5 t/ha. (average for Africa, Central America, and Caribbean), barely achieve minimum of 1.2 t needed </li></ul><ul><li>If average is 1.5 t/ha, many farmers achieving well below average </li></ul><ul><li>What about drought, pestilence, post harvest loss, income needs, etc.? </li></ul><ul><li>The margin of error is small … and this is one reason families struggle repeatedly to move beyond subsistence-level, especially when production is confined to mainly the rainy season. </li></ul><ul><li>Food aid can further complicate the situation leading to further degradation of self worth and family values </li></ul>
    7. 23. <ul><li>How are more safety nets created and encouraged? </li></ul><ul><li>Enabling farmers to improve rainy season production. </li></ul><ul><li>We want to help farmers find innovative ways to produce food and income during the dry season </li></ul><ul><li>3. Enabling farmers through perennial based systems to take greater advantage of the entire 12 months. </li></ul><ul><li>It means greater diversity, a strong dependence on perennials, and integration on small farms –extending the growing season to year round production. </li></ul><ul><li>It also means dealing with the very real challenges </li></ul>
    8. 24. Limited availability of water
    9. 25. Free ranging animals
    10. 26. Fire
    11. 27. Other reasons may include cultural and personal; off-season jobs such as thatching, construction, brick making; weddings and social activities; and lack of knowledge and capital.
    12. 28. We must really understand what are the major constraints to dry season activity and year round production systems before we can promote sensible, sustainable solutions.
    13. 29. Extending the Growing Season • Farming practices • Fuelwood • Fencing • Forage • Fruit • Foliage– perennial greens
    14. 30. <ul><li>Farming Practices that Extend the Season </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Soil Coverage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mulching </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>GM/CC </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Succession and/or relay plant </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Water storage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Irrigation technologies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sunken gardens/ fields </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tire gardens </li></ul></ul></ul>
    15. 31. 1. Soil Coverage
    16. 32. Mulch, Mulch, Mulch!!!
    17. 36. Fourfold increase in maize since moving to no-till and no burning
    18. 38. Rock mulch, ECHO
    19. 39. Brian Oldreive No-till, mulch based farming: Foundations for Farming (FFF)
    20. 40. Former way of farming ... Burning and tillage High cost Declining yields Low profit margin Results ultimately in a wasteland! Foundations For Farming… Zero Tillage Mulching Biblical Training Management - excellence - on time - no waste Results in abundance!
    21. 41. Permanent planting stations
    22. 42. God’s blanket
    23. 43. Leave crop residue, reopen planting station during dry season and “give back to receive.” (i.e. soil cover, fertilizer, manure, and/or termite hill soil)
    24. 44. Manure and/or fertilizer is added to planting station
    25. 45. Plant into improved planting station and mulch blanket
    26. 46. Also known as CF or Conservation Farming. National policy of Lesotho. Hired by World Bank and FAO– has instructed in 12 African nations.
    27. 47. Farmer in Mozambique
    28. 48. FOUNDATIONS FOR FARMING TRADITIONAL
    29. 49. FOUNDATIONS FOR FARMING TRADITIONAL
    30. 50. FFF training center, Harare, Zimbabwe 7.2X 7.5 m demo. plot—2004 season 11.2 t/ha average
    31. 51. Green manure/ Cover crops, ECHO
    32. 52. Velvet bean cover crop residue, Honduras
    33. 55. Annual undersowing of Pigeon Pea at ECHO Showed no negative impact on maize yield in 1st year at ECHO vs. same size plot w/out pigeon pea.
    34. 56. Annual undersowing of pigeon pea planted at the same time as maize. Zambia
    35. 57. 2. Succession or relay plant with drought tolerant crops Seven year lima bean Pigeon Pea Lab lab Tepary Bean
    36. 58. 3. Water Storage
    37. 67. 4. Irrigation Technologies
    38. 68. Drip irrigation, Ethiopia
    39. 71. Treadle Pump with sunken basins, ECHO,November 2, 2006
    40. 72. December 21, 2006
    41. 73. Second cropping of maize in dry season
    42. 74. 4 Farmers share this pump on 2 acres rented land
    43. 75. They irrigate one full day a week
    44. 77. 5. Sunken beds and fields This approach involves planting in depressions. Advantages include: 1. Plants are protected from drying winds 2. There is increased soil moisture when planting lower 3. What rain does fall or irrigation added is better conserved 4. Organic matter accumulates in depressions so there can be more fertility ** Compaction is an important consideration
    45. 78. Meet Mr. Chinkhuntha, a brilliant farmer, who has truly extended the seasons.
    46. 80. Sunken fields
    47. 89. 6. Tire Gardens
    48. 98. <ul><li>Farming Practices that Extend the Season </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Soil Coverage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mulching </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>GM/CC </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Succession and/or relay plant </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Water storage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Irrigation technologies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sunken gardens/ fields </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tire gardens </li></ul></ul></ul>
    49. 99. Extending the Growing Season • Farming practices • Fuelwood • Fencing • Forage • Fruit • Foliage– perennial greens
    50. 105. Fuel Wood Usage per household/yr: (in metric tonnes) South Africa 5.3 mt India 2.8 China 4.5 Bhutan 12 Ethiopia 5.5
    51. 106. 1. Coppicing Woodlot
    52. 107. Gmelina arborea, Malawi
    53. 108. Acacia spp., Ethiopia
    54. 109. Eucalyptus spp., El Salvador
    55. 111. Senna, Leucaena, Neem woodlot, Haiti
    56. 112. Senna siamea, great coppicing tree.
    57. 113. Senna siamea woodlot, Haiti
    58. 114. Simarouba glauca woodlot, Haiti
    59. 116. Woodlot demonstration at ECHO, Leucaena
    60. 118. 2. Planting borders
    61. 119. Planting a single line of trees on the border of 1 ha at 2 meter apart is around 1/3 the density of a solid 1 ha. plantation planted at 4 m. If you can achieve 30 ton/ha/yr average, then it might be possible to achieve 10 ton/yr by planting the border alone, well above most family’s yearly need.
    62. 122. 3. Trees on farm
    63. 123. Heavily pruned next to corn field
    64. 127. Extending the Growing Season • Farming practices • Fuelwood • Fencing • Forage • Fruit • Foliage– perennial greens
    65. 128. Live and dead wood fencing for animal exclusion and other valuable products
    66. 134. An underestimated source of wood and forage
    67. 135. Mixed species fence protecting nursery on right, Haiti
    68. 136. Vetiver, sisal, and yucca fence and trench for goat and pig exclusion, C.A.R.
    69. 137. Cactus and barbed wire, Nicaragua
    70. 138. Livestock enclosure formed by a living fence of a thorny and unpalatable Caesalpinia sp. http://ppathw3.cals.cornell.edu/mba_project/livefence.html
    71. 139. Gumbo Limbo and barbed wire, Costa Rica www.tripsource.com/.../Emma/CostaRica/11.htm
    72. 140. Fencing is such a critical part of extending the growing season. When animals rule the landscape, scarcity is common and the land’s productive potential rarely achieved.
    73. 142. Extending the Growing Season • Farming practices • Fuelwood • Fencing • Forage • Fruit • Foliage– perennial greens
    74. 143. Intensifying animal production with perennial forages
    75. 144. Forage bank of Calliandra , dry season, Zimbabwe
    76. 145. Nacedero, Rancho Ebenezer, dry season, 2004
    77. 146. Nacedero, Rancho Ebenezer, rainy season, 2008
    78. 147. Gliricidia, dry season, Honduras
    79. 148. Guazuma ulmifolia, dry season, Honduras
    80. 149. Hibiscus– an excellent forage
    81. 150. Tropical highland forage species, Ethiopia
    82. 151. Mulberry, Ethiopia,
    83. 153. Tree and Shrub Forage bank at ECHO <ul><li>Leucaena leucocephala 5. Desmodium rensonii 9. Opuntia sp. </li></ul><ul><li>Leucaena diversifolia 6. Trichantera gigantea 10. Moringa oleifera </li></ul><ul><li>Calliandra calothrysus 7. Desmanthus virgatus 11. Guazuma ulmifolia </li></ul><ul><li>Gliricidia sepium 8. Bursera simaruba 12. Spondias mombin </li></ul>
    84. 156. Rancho Ebenezer, Nicaragua
    85. 158. Same slope 3-4 years later
    86. 160. Extending the Growing Season • Farming practices • Fuelwood • Fencing • Forage • Fruit • Foliage– perennial greens
    87. 162. Fruits provide diverse food options
    88. 163. danny80 Fruits are perennial providing long-term food production …Congolese village sustained by fruits during war
    89. 164. They provide valuable nutrition
    90. 165. They provide income
    91. 166. Fruits enhance the quality of life
    92. 167. They offer hope… This gentleman in Central African Republic was so proud to show the young jackfruit tree bearing fruit .
    93. 171. danny34 Home Garden with mango, breadfruit, ambarella, canistel, and jackfruit, Congo
    94. 172. World Vision project Tacuba, El Salvador. Promoting backyard fruit production
    95. 173. And small-scale fruit production. World Relief Project, Nicaragua Helping farmers damaged by Hurricane Mitch with new crops such as grapes
    96. 174. 2. The planning stage… Discovering options– Network! Botanical gardens Roadside markets International organizations Local discoveries Government & Universities NGOs & commmercial enterprises
    97. 175. danny77 Minister of Agriculture and missionaries, Central African Republic, 2001
    98. 176. 3. Fruit Resources
    99. 177. Mango– a true gift from God Mango– a true gift from God Begin with in-country resources Don’t forget common fruits and their potential for improvement
    100. 178. Extending the season with early and late maturing varieties
    101. 179. Avocado… the importance of different cultivars
    102. 180. Variety ‘Haas’–1,500 meters Nicaragua
    103. 181. Carambola
    104. 183. Papaya– enormously productive and underutilized
    105. 184. danny119 On 1.4 hectares, 110,000 kg. in 18 months
    106. 185. Bananas– ideas for improvement Mulched bananas, height of dry season Mozambique
    107. 187. Trench or deep planting of bananas… another simple means of improvement.
    108. 188. danny's pict12 Bananas in sinkhole, 45+ kg. bunch, Bahamas
    109. 189. Weeds and leaves piled high. Dry season, Zambia
    110. 190. danny82 Consider lesser known species
    111. 191. danny27 Jackfruit– an underutilized fruit The largest tree fruit in the world!
    112. 192. danny28
    113. 194. Canistel
    114. 195. Mamey Sapote
    115. 196. Santol
    116. 197. Consider even minor fruits like the Peanut Butter Fruit. This tree grows rapidly and begins bearing in about 1 year from seed
    117. 198. Barbados Cherry
    118. 199. Understanding Importance of Climate and Altitude
    119. 200. Rollinia
    120. 201. Atemoya
    121. 202. Custard Apple
    122. 203. Pulusan
    123. 204. Rambutan
    124. 205. danny131 Lychee
    125. 206. Genep
    126. 208. Apples at 1800 meters (6,000 feet), Zimbabwe
    127. 209. Peaches at 1800 meters, Zimbabwe
    128. 211. Identify species and cultivars with high potential for improvement and success
    129. 212. Improved giant Jujube from Thailand
    130. 213. Macadamia
    131. 215. danny44 4. The Importance of Fruit Collections
    132. 216. Citrus Collection, Malawi
    133. 217. Fruit resource center for World Relief, Nicaragua Approximately 1500 meters (5,000’)
    134. 218. 5. Observation and Evaluation
    135. 221. 6. Nursery program and infrastructure
    136. 222. Some may require special propagation techniques such as grafting
    137. 225. 7. Distribution and Promotion
    138. 226. 8. Training people… in how to care and plant
    139. 227. How to propagate and start your own fruit tree nurseries
    140. 228. Training in fence construction
    141. 229. Or protecting individual trees
    142. 230. Extending the Growing Season • Farming practices • Fuelwood • Fencing • Forage • Fruit • Foliage– perennial greens
    143. 231. Chaya, Bahamas
    144. 232. Chaya hedgerow, ruminant feed and delicious cooked green, ECHO
    145. 233. Chaya, Zimbabwe
    146. 234. Moringa oleifera, Mozambique
    147. 235. Moringa leaf production, Zimbabwe
    148. 236. Moringa leaf production, MPP, Haiti
    149. 240. <ul><li>Moringa leaf powder has a great impact on malnourished children, pregnant, or women who are nursing </li></ul><ul><li>For example, 3 rounded tbsp. can have 42% of the protein a child needs for the day. </li></ul><ul><li>Over 100% of child’s need for calcium </li></ul><ul><li>Over 300% of vitamin A </li></ul><ul><li>Moringa is a fantastic source of nutrition and protein </li></ul>
    150. 241. Garlic chives, ECHO
    151. 243. Malabar spinach, Mozambique
    152. 245. Basket Vine, Trichostigma octandrum , Edible leaf, also good rabbit forage
    153. 246. Extending the Growing Season • Farming practices • Fuelwood • Fencing • Forage • Fruit • Foliage– perennial greens
    154. 247. Summary 1) Current challenges facing small-scale farmers… Small farms, declining fertility, low yields, huge wood needs, poor landcare practices, etc. 2) Risk of depending on rainy season alone in tropics. 3) Importance of extending the season beyond the rainy season. * Innovative farming practices Mulch, irrigation cisterns, drip irrig., tire gardens *Emphasis on year round cropping with perennials Fuel, fences, forage, fruit, foliage * Diversification, intensification, and integration of small scale farms 4) Encourage you to help others expand their vision!
    155. 248. My people perish for lack of vision
    156. 249. God bless you as you communicate the vision of God’s intended abundance for people’s lives and in their land.
    157. 251. Extending the Season with Fruits
    158. 252. <ul><li>ECHO is a resource for you and I encourage you to contact us to receive our free publications and seeds. </li></ul><ul><li>My prayer is that more farmers through the tropics will realize their potential as they become wise stewards of their farms and embrace those principles that sustain and prosper life </li></ul><ul><li>And that you will both experience and be apart of communicating this vision of God’s intended abundance for your lives and in your land. </li></ul><ul><li>God bless you </li></ul>
    159. 253. God bless you as you communicate the vision of God’s intended abundance for people’s lives and in their land.
    160. 254. Remember even with the common fruits to think about extending the season with early and late maturing varieties
    161. 255. Pitaya, also known as Dragonfruit

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