08 Eia Refrigerant Use In Commercial Refrigeration In Uk Fionnuala Walravens


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08 Eia Refrigerant Use In Commercial Refrigeration In Uk Fionnuala Walravens

  1. 1. Refrigerant use in commercial refrigeration in the UK Fionnuala Walravens Environmental Investigation Agency 26/04/10
  2. 2. Outline <ul><li>About EIA </li></ul><ul><li>About the Chilling Facts campaign </li></ul><ul><li>Results: In-store, transport and distribution centres </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges </li></ul><ul><li>UK government engagement </li></ul><ul><li>Next steps and conclusions </li></ul>
  3. 3. Profile <ul><li>Established 1984 </li></ul><ul><li>Offices in London and Washington DC </li></ul><ul><li>Combating environmental crime and abuse </li></ul><ul><li>Campaigns: Species in Peril, Forests for the World, Global Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Investigating illegal trade in ODS since 1997 </li></ul><ul><li>Global Environment Campaign focus </li></ul><ul><li>CFC illegal trade within developing countries </li></ul><ul><li>HCFC illegal trade threat in Europe and US </li></ul><ul><li>Climate protection through HFC global phase out </li></ul><ul><li>Illegal trade in electronic waste, from UK to developing </li></ul><ul><li>countries </li></ul>
  4. 4. Chilling Facts: The supermarket refrigeration scandal <ul><li>Launched in Jan 2009 in response to voluntary HFC phase out pledge made by supermarkets in 2007 </li></ul><ul><li>Annual survey of supermarket refrigeration policies and practices. Ongoing monitoring and opportunity to improve </li></ul><ul><li>Harnessing public and media attention to influence corporate social responsibility (CSR) </li></ul><ul><li>Wide media spread coverage: BBC radio, </li></ul><ul><li>Sky News, Guardian, online </li></ul><ul><li>Taking action: www.chillingfacts.org.uk </li></ul>
  5. 6. Why Supermarkets? <ul><li>2005: Supermarkets are biggest source of HFC emissions in UK 2 million tonnes CO2-eq </li></ul><ul><li>(LACORS: Local Authorities Coordinators of Regulatory Services ) </li></ul>
  6. 7. Survey coverage <ul><li>Direct and indirect emissions </li></ul><ul><li>Leakage rates </li></ul><ul><li>Use of natural refrigerants: in store, behind the scenes, transport refrigeration, </li></ul><ul><li>Training </li></ul><ul><li>Energy efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Future plans </li></ul><ul><li>Raising awareness </li></ul>
  7. 8. Results <ul><li>2009 </li></ul><ul><li>14 stores running on climate-friendly refrigeration </li></ul><ul><li>Morrisons and Marks and Spencer commit to </li></ul><ul><li>using climate friendly alternatives </li></ul><ul><li>2010 </li></ul><ul><li>46 running on climate-friendly refrigeration </li></ul><ul><li>Sainsbury’s (UK’s 3rd largest supermarket) and Waitrose commit to going HFC-free in all new stores and total HFC phase out by 2030 and 2020 respectively </li></ul><ul><li>Tesco, CO2 based stores in Hungary, Thailand and Korea </li></ul><ul><li>Future plans </li></ul><ul><li>Tesco: 150 HFC-free stores by 2012, still to be confirmed. CO2 trials planned in Malaysia, Turkey and USA </li></ul><ul><li>Sainsbury’s: committed to 135 HFC-free stores by 2014 </li></ul><ul><li>Marks and Spencer: total HFC phase out by 2030 </li></ul><ul><li>=> HFC-free refrigeration is both technically and commercially viable </li></ul>
  8. 9. In store refrigeration: secondary systems <ul><li>CO2 based: </li></ul><ul><li>CO2 as a heat transfer fluid and either hydrocarbons (HCs) or HFCs as the primary refrigerant. </li></ul><ul><li>Marks and Spencer intention to use HC/CO2 systems long term. </li></ul><ul><li>Morrisons’ current policy is to continue with HFC/ CO2 systems (reduced HFC charge), trialling transcritical CO2 and HC/CO2 systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Water cooled integral system: </li></ul><ul><li>Water as a heat transfer fluid HC as the primary refrigerant </li></ul><ul><li>Waitrose has developed this. Simple system design and ease of maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>Energy efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Waitrose: 20% reduction in connected electrical load </li></ul><ul><li>Marks and Spencer: most recent CO2 systems equivalent energy efficiency to HFC systems. </li></ul><ul><li>comparable or improved energy efficiency compared </li></ul><ul><li>to HFC systems. </li></ul>
  9. 10. In store refrigeration <ul><li>Transcritical CO2 systems </li></ul><ul><li>Tesco and Sainsbury's favour this technology </li></ul><ul><li>Tesco claims it has a TEWI reduction of 70% over its R-404A system and </li></ul><ul><li>significant cost reductions over previous HFC-free systems </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Greenfreeze’ </li></ul><ul><li>Many smaller discount stores are using hydrocarbon based ‘plug and </li></ul><ul><li>play’ systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Lidl: 1/3 of all freezers are HFC-free, in phase-out process. </li></ul><ul><li>Developing HFC-free chilled refrigerators </li></ul><ul><li>Midland’s co-operative: all new integrals will be HFC-free </li></ul>
  10. 11. Transport refrigeration <ul><li>R404a GWP 3750…….. Alternatives??? </li></ul><ul><li>Eutectic plates </li></ul><ul><li>Frozen to -24C at distribution centres allowing frozen food delivery without the need for cooling systems in the trailer. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced the number of vehicles on the road </li></ul><ul><li>Significant energy savings. </li></ul><ul><li>Lidl invested £7.5 million in this technology </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrocarbons </li></ul><ul><li>Early stages of development </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrogen </li></ul><ul><li>Some small scale trials </li></ul><ul><li>Cryogenic CO2 based technology </li></ul><ul><li>Spar Netherland: 2015 it plans to convert all refrigerated </li></ul><ul><li>trailers </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce indirect emissions </li></ul>
  11. 12. Distribution centres <ul><li>Ammonia dominant choice </li></ul><ul><li>3 retailers using 100% ammonia </li></ul><ul><li>4 others finishing transition from HCFC to ammonia </li></ul><ul><li>3 retailers using HFCs </li></ul><ul><li>Development of NH3 and CO2 based technology </li></ul>
  12. 13. Issues raised by supermarkets <ul><li>Issue: Skills shortage-lack of trained engineers </li></ul><ul><li>Solution : Training courses with support from government and supermarkets. Many UK supermarkets now carrying out training </li></ul><ul><li>Issue: Need for a government intervention, creation of level playing field to incentivise alternatives/penalise HFCs </li></ul><ul><li>Solution : HFC phase-out, using HFC taxation as </li></ul><ul><li>interim and source of funds to assist training and </li></ul><ul><li>R&D </li></ul><ul><li>Issue: A need for improved supply of components Solution : Opportunities for green business </li></ul>
  13. 14. Government engagement <ul><li>Supermarkets calling for legislation, level playing field </li></ul><ul><li>EIA calling for HFC phase-out in supermarket sector </li></ul><ul><li>Political engagement </li></ul><ul><li>MP Clive Efford </li></ul><ul><li>Private Members bill, cross party support </li></ul><ul><li>Ministerial meeting </li></ul><ul><li>UK government response </li></ul><ul><li>A matter of priority for EC F-gas </li></ul><ul><li>review </li></ul>
  14. 15. Chilling Facts campaign: Where Next? <ul><li>Expanding into Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Asda, Tesco and Carrefour: world’s top three largest food retailers. Potential to create a global technology change </li></ul>
  15. 16. Key trends in commercial refrigeration <ul><li>No clear dominant technology </li></ul><ul><li>Natural refrigerant alternatives available across sector </li></ul><ul><li>CO2 more likely in larger format stores </li></ul><ul><li>HCs useful in smaller stores </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid development, shifting market </li></ul><ul><li>Transport refrigeration needs to be addressed </li></ul>
  16. 17. EIA conclusions <ul><li>HFC-free technology is now technically AND commercially viable </li></ul><ul><li>Leap frogging HFCs will offer business competitive advantage in future </li></ul><ul><li>Need for further roll out in warmer climates </li></ul><ul><li>Shift to HFC-free must be accompanied by extra training for engineers </li></ul>