The Montreal Protocol is forcing the industry to replace ozone depleting substances with ozone friendly alternatives. For example, CFC and HCFC refrigerants need to be replaced with non ozone depleting refrigerants, such as HFCs. (pointer to Developing Countries **) For the developing countries a more strict step down plan has been established on 19th September this year. This was necessary because of the increasing sales of R22 air conditioners in fast growing markets such as China. (pointer to EU *) The European Union is much stricter than the Montreal Protocol and has stopped sales of R22 air conditioners already at the end of 2003.
01 Daikin Non Hcfc Alternatives For Ac Split System Hilde Dhont
Alternatives for HCFCs in single split type (room) air conditioners Prepared by DAIKIN Industries Ltd. Presented by Daikin Europe N.V Joint Network Meeting for Europe and Central Asia (ECA) and South Asia (SA) Networks of Ozone officers Istanbul, 26-30 April 2010
Scope <ul><li>- Single split air conditioners </li></ul><ul><li>(stationary types, “room” air conditioners) </li></ul><ul><li>- many also with heating function (reversible) </li></ul><ul><li>Turkish market appr. 500,000 pcs/year </li></ul><ul><li>mainly residential & light commercial use </li></ul>
1996 2004 2010 2015 2020 2030 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 65% 25% 10% 0.5% Consumption cap reduced from 35% to 25% in 2010 2013 2020 2025 2030 2040 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 65% 32.5% 2.5% 2015 90% Current: Consumption cap steadily reduced starting in 2015 Previous: Consumption capped at 2015 levels until 2040 Phase Out Schedule – Developed (A2) Countries (some countries, incl EU are more strict) Phase Out Schedule – Developing (A5) Countries Consumption Consumption Freeze Note: green shows new schedule Montreal Protocol HCFC Accelerated Phase Out – MOP 19 September 2007 Montréal EU
To phase-out HCFCs, alternatives to HCFCs should be chosen carefully through overall evaluations: 1) Energy efficiency 2) Total emission 3)Safety 4) Economic aspects. <ul><li>There are several candidates. </li></ul><ul><li>HFO1234yf : Low GWP and not efficient </li></ul><ul><li>HFC32 : Intermediate (Medium) GWP and efficient </li></ul><ul><li>Propane(R290) : Natural and efficient but highly flammable </li></ul><ul><li>CO2(R744) : Natural but poor in efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>HFC410A : High GWP but applications are widely commercialized </li></ul>This presentation shows the results of overall evaluations for alternatives to HCFCs for single split air-conditioning applications. From the comprehensive points of view, we recommend R32 as the best alternative to new single split air-conditioners for the time being. Abstract
3 1) Energy-efficiencies 2) Total emissions 3) Safety measures 4) Costs 5) Summary 2. Evaluation of alternatives 1. Properties of Alternative Refrigerants Contents 3. Conclusion
In case of Residential A/C Commercial A/C Candidates for preventing global warming HCFC22 Single HFC410A Azeotrope R32 Single HFC Propane (R290) Single Natural CO2(R744 ) Single HFC407C Zeotrope HFO1234yf Single Refrigerant physical properties Cond. Press. MPa Capacity R22 ratio COP R22 ratio ODP GWP (IPCC4) Life Year Flamm- ability Toxicity 1.73 100 100 0.05 1810 11.9 No Low 2.72 141 92 0 2090 - No Low 160 97 0 675 5 Low Low 1.53 83 98 0 ＜ 3 - High Low 10.00 243 41 0 1 120 No Low 1.86 102 99 0 1770 - No Low 1.16 57 90 0 4 Low ? 7day HFO mixture ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Low ? 2.80 Under investigation 1. Properties of Alternative Refrigerants Following table shows properties of alternative refrigerants to HCFC22. Red areas show unsuitable properties as an alternative refrigerant. Note: Ammonia is not considered as a candidate refrigerant for small air-conditioners due to its high toxicity Ammonia (R717) Single 1.78 116 106 0 0 0 Low High
2.1 Energy-efficiencies R410A (1.4kg) R744 (1.05Kg) R290 (0.49kg) R32 (1.2kg) HFO1234yf (1.2 kg) <ul><li>Annual efficiency (APF) comparison </li></ul><ul><li> (R410A ratio) Case of 4kW Room A/C by JRAIA </li></ul>Consideration: As for annual efficiency of APF, CO2 is the worst, HFO needs further optimization, and the rest of the candidates are equivalent to R410A. Efficiency ratio <ul><li>Peak power comparison </li></ul><ul><li>(R410 ratio) under cooling condition </li></ul><ul><li>Outside 35°C, room 27°CDB/19.5° CWB </li></ul>Consideration: A big difference exists in the peak power under cooling condition. HFO and CO2 will cause the peak power problem in large cities. Calculation conditions: HFO1234yf A/C is modified to improve efficiency, such as an increase in the pipe size of heat exchanger. Power ratio
2.2 Total Emissions R410A (1.4kg) R744 (1.05Kg) R290 (0.49kg) R32 (1.2kg) HFO1234yf (1.2kg) LCCP comparison (4kW Room A/C) JRAIA; in China 09.4.4 Precondition: refrigerant recovery rate is 30% which is current rate in Japan. LCCP (Life Cycle Climate Performance) means the sum of "the warming impact during refrigerant production” (which is negligible compared to HCFC22) , “ the warming impact according to energy consumption during operation in life cycle” and "the warming impact by emission of refrigerant“. Consideration: LCCP of R32 and propane are less in terms of total emissions. The charge volume of R32 can be reduced by 40% compared to R410A. HFO1234yf needs to be improved in efficiency to be practical. KgCO2 Total emissions = Indirect emissions+Direct emissions+Emissions during producing refrigerant (Refrigerant charge) Indirect impact Direct impact
2.3 Safety measures to use flammable refrigerants (2) Charge limits for DX-AC set by IEC Standard, without ventilation fan. <ul><li>Current status of Safety standards to use flammable refrigerants </li></ul><ul><li>[International] ISO5149 and ISO817 are being drafted, IEC 60335-2-24, 40 and 89 are published </li></ul><ul><li>[European] EN378 is published </li></ul><ul><li>[U.S.] ASHRAEstd. 34 is published, and ASHRAEstd. 15 is now under a discussion. </li></ul><ul><li>[Japan] High Pressure Gas Safety Law </li></ul>Flammable refrigerants are limited in charge amount of DX-AC in IEC standard. Maximum charge amount depends on LFL and installation height. In the case of wall mounted type, the charge amounts stipulated in the std can be feasible for small and medium sized ACs except when using R290. When charge volume exceeds the limits, leak detector and mechanical ventilation become mandatory. R32 HFO1234 R290 R744 In the case of 10m2 room Propane <0.24kg HFO1234< 3.02kg R32 <3.24kg Room area(m2) Charge amount(kg) R32 Floor setting Wall mounted Wall mounted Wall mounted
(3) Consideration on the use of 2L refrigerants classified by ASHRAE34 1. Class 2L is similar to ammonia which caused no flammable accidents. Consideration is on going to clarify the safety requirements to use 2L refrigerants 2. Refrigerators, Commercial refrigeration and MAC(wrong use) which employed R290 caused fire accidents in the fields. Beer cooler incident in Australia 10/19/95, CA: charging while engine was still hot 8/18/96, MS: low pressure hose from evaporator blew off 9/27/96, AR: torch used on truck AC unit after venting refrigerant Source: US-EPA in Bogota 2008 <Fire accident examples> Fire accident ｓ in case of HC use for cooking & heaters : ave.68/yr, death: ave.1.3/yr (01-06) ,:Source METI Japan Refrigerators Explosion in UK and South Korea Propane explosion in a New Zealand supermarket. 2.3 Safety measures to use flammable refrigerants Source: EFCTC newsletter Source Telegraph.co.uk Propane (R290) R152a HFO 1234 R32 Ammonia (Toxic) CO2(R744 ) R410A R22 Class3 (High flammable and higher heat of combustion) Class2 (Low flammable limit with high burning velocity) Class 2L (Low flammable limit with low burning velocity) Class 1 (non-flammable)
2.4 Costs (1) Factors of Cost Fluctuation The example of Room A/C Component which increases cost Consideration: CO2 requires significant cost for performance improvement. Consideration: Propane requires additional cost when taking safety measures in application and handling. Required in Japan Necessary Unnecessary Unnecessary Unnecessary Unnecessary Necessary Special joint Sealing etc. Unnecessary Unnecessary Necessary Special joint Sealing etc. Unnecessary Unnecessary Important (ex.230g) Special joint Sealing etc. Necessary Necessary Cost for safety Charge reduction Joint Electronic parts Leak detector Ventilation Modified facility Qualification Qualified person Qualified person Modification Two-stage comp. High-pressure etc. Cheap CO2(R744) Larger comp. Larger pipe etc. Near as R410 Same as R410 Modification required Same as R22 Cost for performance Compressor, EX, etc. Modified facility Modification Modification Modification Modification Expensive HFO1234yf Cheap Cheap Refrigerant price Modified facility Modification Modification Modification Modification Special facility Qualification Qualified person Qualified person Qualification Cost for handling Manufacture Supply chain Installation Service Disposal R32 Propane (R290)
2.5 Summary 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 R22 R410A CO2 Propane HFO1234 R32 The warming impact of refrigerants Assumption: When R32 is used, the charge volume is reduced by 25%. R410-ratio. Note: ○ = Suitable △ = Poor × = Not Suitable O x △ △ x Application cost Economy O x x O O Infrastruc-ture cost High GWP Low efficiency Higher flammable Lower flammable Not commercialized Issues O x O O x Peak power Annual efficiency x O O △ O O x O 2090 HFC410A O x x 1 CO2 x O O 3 Propane △ O O 675 HFC32 △ △ △ 4 HFO1234 yf Safety Total emission (LCCP) Energy efficiency Refrigerant GWP Alternatives
3. Conclusion 1. To evaluate not only GWP but also the total emissions. 2. Higher flammable refrigerants have bigger risks, esp due to handling under poor quality control, or by wrong use. 4. HFC32 is the most practical solution for the time being. When charge volume is small, we recommend to use class A2L refrigerants, by taking measures in accordance with IEC60335-2-40. 3. Use of efficient refrigerants brings economical benefits. When charge volume is large, we recommend to use class A1 refrigerants for the moment. HFO mixture could be a candidate; however, it needs further improvement to become practical. Higher peak power will cause problems for energy supply. CO2 application requires significant cost for performance improvement, and it can be used for limited applications. In case of R32, higher efficiency and less refrigerant charge will lead to lower emissions. Additional leakage prevention measures will contribute to emission reduction further.