• Frederick Blalock is not a Doctor and the
information disclosed is for information use
• Any treatment should be preformed by a
Medical Doctor only.
• Anything in this power point is for research
proposes only, nothing else.
2. Heart Disease and Heart Attack
Scope of Power Point
• 1. Problem
• 2. Cause
• 3. Remedy
3. Heart Disease and Heart Attack
This is a personal study of this subject.
On 12/21/2012 I started having heart attack
symptoms and on 12/25/2012 I went into
Oklahoma Heart Hospital South Campus and
was diagnose with having a heart attack.
On 12/27/2012 I went into surgery for a triple
coronary artery bypass.
I wrote this paper to understand.
A personal study of the heart and heart attacks
5. 1# Cause of Death in America
Heart Attack/Heart Disease 1# Killer
• 2008 - 616,828
• 2009 - 599,413
• 2010 - 597,689
• 2011 - 596,339
6. What is the heart?
• The chambered muscular organ in vertebrates
that pumps blood received from the veins into
the arteries, thereby maintaining the flow of
blood through the entire circulatory system.
7. What is a heart attack?
A heart attack is the death of, or
damage to, part of the heart muscle
because the supply of blood to the heart
muscle is severely reduced or stopped.
8. What is a heart attack?
9. Are there different levels of a Heart Attack
• Heart Attack: An Acute Coronary Syndrome
• Acute Coronary Syndrome is a name given to
three types of coronary artery disease that are
associated with sudden rupture of plaque inside
the coronary artery:
• Unstable angina
• Non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction
or heart attack (NSTEMI)
• ST segment elevation myocardial infarction or
heart attack (STEMI).
10. Are there different levels of a Heart Attack
• The location of the blockage, the length of
time that blood flow is blocked and the
amount of damage that occurs determines the
type of acute coronary syndrome. These life-
threatening conditions require emergency
11. Are there different levels of a Heart Attack
• Unstable Angina
• Unstable angina is a new symptom or a change
from stable angina. The angina may occur more
frequently, occur more easily at rest, feel more
severe, or last longer. Although this angina can
often be relieved with oral medications, it is
unstable and may progress to a heart attack.
Usually more intense medical treatment or a
procedure is required. Unstable angina is an
acute coronary syndrome and should be treated
as a medical emergency.
12. Are there different levels of a Heart Attack
• This heart attack, or MI, does not cause
changes on an electrocardiogram (ECG).
However, chemical markers in the blood
indicate that damage has occurred to the
heart muscle. In NSTEMI, the blockage may be
partial or temporary, and so the extent of the
damage relatively minimal.
13. Are there different levels of a Heart Attack
• ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI)
• This heart attack, or MI, is caused by a
prolonged period of blocked blood supply. It
affects a large area of the heart muscle, and
so causes changes on the ECG as well as in
blood levels of key chemical markers.
14. How did Doctors know that I was
having a heart attack.
15. What are cardiac Enzymes
• Definition: Cardiac enzymes are proteins from
heart muscle cells that are released into the
bloodstream when heart muscle is damaged,
such as during a myocardial infarction (MI). By
measuring blood levels of cardiac enzymes,
doctors can tell whether heart muscle damage
has recently occurred. Therefore, measuring
cardiac enzymes is often an important step in
16. What are Chemical Makers
• There are two types of enzymes that
are measured, and generally we
measure both of them. They're
enzymes that are released by heart
muscle when it's being damaged.
17. What are Chemical Makers
• What happens is Doctors draw the blood and
measure them. One's called Troponin and the
other is called CK. And if either, or both, of
those are up or going up, it's indicative that's
there's heart muscle being actively damaged.
18. What is troponin
• Troponin (T) is released into the bloodstream
2 to 6 hours after heart cell damage, and
blood levels peak in 12 to 26 hours. Elevated
levels of T are regarded as a more reliable
indicator of heart muscle damage than
elevated CK levels.
19. What is CK
• CK creatine kinase is released into the
bloodstream 4 to 6 hours after heart cell
damage occurs, and peak blood levels of CK
are seen after 24 hours.
20. Picture of a health heart
21. Every year, more than 1 million Americans have a heart attack --
a sudden interruption in the heart's blood supply. This happens
when there is a blockage in the coronary arteries, the vessels
that carry blood to the heart muscle. When blood flow is
blocked, heart muscle can be damaged very quickly and die.
22. •Heart Attack Symptoms
Pain or pressure in the chest
Discomfort spreading to the back, jaw, throat, or arm
Nausea, indigestion, or heartburn
Weakness, anxiety, or shortness of breath
Rapid or irregular heartbeats
23. Heart Attack Symptoms in Women
Women don't always feel chest pain with a heart attack. Women
are more likely than men to have heartburn, loss of appetite,
tiredness or weakness, coughing, and heart flutters. These
symptoms should not be ignored. The longer you postpone
treatment, the more damage the heart may sustain.
24. Inside a Heart Attack
The plaque deposited in your arteries is hard on the outside and soft and
mushy on the inside. Sometimes the hard outer shell cracks. When this
happens, a blood clot forms around the plaque. If the clot completely blocks
the artery, it cuts off the blood supply to a portion of the heart. Without
immediate treatment, that part of the heart muscle could be damaged or
25. Signs of Coronary Artery Disease
This narrows the arteries, making it more difficult for blood to flow through.
Many people don't know they have CAD until a heart attack strikes. But there
are warning signs, such as recurring chest pain caused by the restricted blood
flow. This pain is known as angina.
26. Checking for blockages
• In cardiac catheterization a very
small hollow tube, or catheter, is
advanced from a blood vessel in the
groin or arm through the aorta into
27. How blockages occurs
Blockages are caused by plaque buildup which is
in the LDL cholesterol.
White blood cells stream in to digest the LDL
cholesterol. Over years, the toxic mess of
cholesterol and cells becomes a cholesterol
plaque in the wall of the artery
28. • Your liver is the primary organ responsible for the
production of cholesterol in your body, although a
small amount is made by the lining of the small
intestine and the individual cells of the body.
• Cholesterol is a soft, waxy, fatty compound that is a
type of steroid. It is an important nutrient that is
essential in the formation and maintenance of cell
membranes, and in the production of the sex
hormones progesterone, testosterone, estradiol,
and cortisol. It is also used by the body to produce
bile salts that are used in the digestive process to
break down food. Its last major task is its conversion
into vitamin D when the skin is exposed to sunlight.
29. • Cholesterol Level Chart
• Total Cholesterol Desirable< 200
• Borderline (high)200-240
• High Risk > 240
• Triglycerides Desirable< 150
• Borderline (high)150-500
• High Risk> 500
• Low Density Cholesterol Desirable< 130
• Borderline (high)130-160
• High Risk > 240
• High Density Cholesterol Desirable > 50
• Borderline (high)50-35
High Risk <35
30. Plaque buildup or Atherosclerosis
Cholesterol is a type of fat found in your body.
Your total cholesterol includes LDL (low-
density lipoprotein) and HDL (high-density
LDL is called “bad” cholesterol because it can
build up in the walls of your arteries and form
plaque. Plaque build-up in the arteries can
reduce blood flow and increase your risk of
31. What is Atherosclerotic Plaque
• An atherosclerotic plaque-is a deposit of
harmful fats, or lipids, on the blood
vessel wall. When the plaque ruptures,
globules resembling chunks of oatmeal
break loose and suddenly clog a blood
vessel, causing heart attack or stroke.
32. What is Atherosclerotic Plaque
• Cardiology experts noted the crucial
difference between gradual narrowing of
arteries, versus the sudden, fatal blockage of a
main coronary artery by ruptured
atherosclerotic plaque on the vessel wall.
Because about half of people who have a
heart attack have no symptoms before the
acute event, it is critical that they are
recognized and treated before it is too late.
33. What does Atherosclerosis plaque damage
The smooth, delicate lining of blood vessels is
called the endothelium. High
cholesterol, smoking, high blood pressure,
or diabetes can damage the endothelium,
creating a place for cholesterol to enter the
34. Damaged endothelium
36. Damaged endothelium
37. Damaged endothelium
39. Medical ways to correct Atherosclerosis
40. Don't Wait to Be Sure
The best time to treat a heart attack is as soon as symptoms
begin. Waiting to be sure can result in permanent heart damage
or even death. If you think you may be having a heart attack, call
911. And don't try driving yourself to the hospital. When you call
911, the EMS staff can start emergency care as soon as they
41. Sudden Cardiac Death
Sudden cardiac death (SCD) accounts for half of all heart disease deaths
in the U.S., but it's not the same as a heart attack. SCD occurs when the
heart's electrical system goes haywire, causing it to beat irregularly and
dangerously fast. The heart's pumping chambers may quiver instead of
pumping blood out to the body. Without CPR and restoration of a
regular heart rhythm, death can occur in minutes.
42. Now for the fun stuff
Foods you cannot eat
43. Now for the fun stuff
Foods you cannot eat
Sugar and White flour
44. Now for the fun stuff
Foods you cannot eat
• table sugar,
• brown sugar
• high fructose corn syrup, are refined carbohydrates
• While naturally occurring sugar,
• found in fruits
• dairy products
• Are harmless
45. Now for the fun stuff
Foods you cannot eat
Foods and beverages high in added sugars include
• soda, candy, pastries, pies, cakes,
• cookies, jellies, frostings,
• blended coffee drinks,
• canned fruit in heavy syrup,
• pancake syrup and
• many breakfast cereals.
• Additional sources of added sugars include honey,
dextrose, molasses, maltose, sucrose and cane syrup.
46. Now for the fun stuff
Foods you cannot eat
• Enriched Flour, Pasta and Rice
whether white or wheat, is a processed grain that
contains few nutrients and less fiber than whole-grain
flours and unprocessed whole grains.
Foods made with enriched flour, such as breads, baked
goods and snack foods, can spike your blood sugar
level and leave little room in your diet for nutritious
47. Now for the fun stuff
Foods you cannot eat
If the word "enriched" is among
the top ingredients or the food
contains little fiber, an alternate
whole grain-based food is
48. Now for the fun stuff
Foods you cannot eat
• Fried foods provide saturated and trans fats --
unhealthy fats linked with obesity, Type 2 diabetes and
• Fried carbohydrates,
• such as doughnuts,
• potato chips and
• deep-fried chicken,
• provide refined carbohydrates and unhealthy fats -- a
double nutritional whammy.
49. Make lifestyle changes
Make changes to your diet. Most of the cholesterol you need is made by your body. However,
food products from animals contain additional cholesterol as well. The foods include meats,
poultry, shellfish, eggs, butter, cheese, and milk. Any type of food that contains saturated or
trans fat causes your body to make more cholesterol.
50. Make lifestyle changes
Keep your intake of fat between 25 and 35% of your daily calories. Limit your intake of
cholesterol from food to less than 300 mg a day. If your cholesterol is high, the recommended
amount is less than 200 mg per day.
51. Make lifestyle changes
Whole grains, fruits, vegetables, and legumes are good sources of fiber. Oatmeal and
oat bran are good sources of soluble fiber, which reduces your LDL cholesterol and
reduces the absorption of cholesterol in your intestines. Soluble fiber is also found in
kidney beans, apples, pears, barley, and prunes.
52. Make lifestyle changes
Eat complex carbohydrates. Eat whole wheat bread and brown rice instead of their white
counter parts. This will raise your level of HDL cholesterol as well as lower your level of
triglycerides, which are another cause of heart disease.
53. Make lifestyle changes
Walnuts and almonds are rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids and have noted for keeping blood
vessels healthy and elastic. Be careful not to eat too many nuts though. They are high in
calories, so just one handful will be enough. As with any food, eating too much of it can make
you overweight, and being overweight puts you at higher risk for heart disease. The key, just like
with anything else, is to find a balance.
54. Make lifestyle changes
Fish and omega-3 fatty acid reduce blood pressure and the risk of blood clots. Doctors
recommend having at least 2 servings of fish each week. The fish with the highest levels of
omega-3 fatty acid are in mackerel, lake trout, herring, sardines, albacore tuna and salmon. To
maintain the health benefits of fish, you’ll need to grill or bake the fish. If you don’t like fish, you
can also get omega-3 fatty acids from foods like ground flaxseed or canola oil.
55. Make lifestyle changes
Olive oil contains antioxidants that can lower your LDL (“bad”) cholesterol without changing
your HDL (“good”) cholesterol. The FDA recommends about 2 tablespoons, or 23 grams, of olive
oil a day to benefit from its heart-healthy benefits. Some research suggests that the cholesterol-
lowering effects of olive oil are even better if you choose extra-virgin olive oil.
56. Make lifestyle changes
Foods fortified with plant sterols or stanols, which are found in plants and help block the
absorption of cholesterol, can help reduce LDL cholesterol by more than 10%.
57. Make lifestyle changes
Remember that moderation is key with foods that are high in saturated fat, such as meat and
some dairy products.
58. Make lifestyle changes
59. Make lifestyle changes
Jogging or Running
60. Make lifestyle changes
61. Make lifestyle changes
• Level of IntensityRPEPhysical Cues
• LightEasyDoes not induce sweating unless it's a hot,
humid day. There is no noticeable change in breathing
• Moderate Somewhat hard Will break a sweat after
performing the activity for about 10 minutes. Breathing
becomes deeper and more frequent. You can carry on
a conversation but not sing.
• HighHardWill break a sweat after 3-5 minutes.
Breathing is deep and rapid. You can only talk in short
62. Final Statement
• Do not become a statistic
• Make life changing choices
• Be there for your family
• Serve God among the living