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Power point final
Power point final
Power point final
Power point final
Power point final
Power point final
Power point final
Power point final
Power point final
Power point final
Power point final
Power point final
Power point final
Power point final
Power point final
Power point final
Power point final
Power point final
Power point final
Power point final
Power point final
Power point final
Power point final
Power point final
Power point final
Power point final
Power point final
Power point final
Power point final
Power point final
Power point final
Power point final
Power point final
Power point final
Power point final
Power point final
Power point final
Power point final
Power point final
Power point final
Power point final
Power point final
Power point final
Power point final
Power point final
Power point final
Power point final
Power point final
Power point final
Power point final
Power point final
Power point final
Power point final
Power point final
Power point final
Power point final
Power point final
Power point final
Power point final
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Power point final

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  • 1. Disclaimer • Frederick Blalock is not a Doctor and the information disclosed is for information use only. • Any treatment should be preformed by a Medical Doctor only. • Anything in this power point is for research proposes only, nothing else.
  • 2. Heart Disease and Heart Attack Scope of Power Point to Identify • 1. Problem • 2. Cause • 3. Remedy
  • 3. Heart Disease and Heart Attack This is a personal study of this subject. On 12/21/2012 I started having heart attack symptoms and on 12/25/2012 I went into Oklahoma Heart Hospital South Campus and was diagnose with having a heart attack. On 12/27/2012 I went into surgery for a triple coronary artery bypass. I wrote this paper to understand.
  • 4. http://health.bwmc.umms.org/graphics/images/en/9367.jpg A personal study of the heart and heart attacks
  • 5. 1# Cause of Death in America Heart Attack/Heart Disease 1# Killer • 2008 - 616,828 • 2009 - 599,413 • 2010 - 597,689 • 2011 - 596,339
  • 6. What is the heart? • The chambered muscular organ in vertebrates that pumps blood received from the veins into the arteries, thereby maintaining the flow of blood through the entire circulatory system. • http://www.thefreedictionary.com/heart
  • 7. What is a heart attack? A heart attack is the death of, or damage to, part of the heart muscle because the supply of blood to the heart muscle is severely reduced or stopped. http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/heart+attack
  • 8. What is a heart attack?
  • 9. Are there different levels of a Heart Attack • Heart Attack: An Acute Coronary Syndrome • Acute Coronary Syndrome is a name given to three types of coronary artery disease that are associated with sudden rupture of plaque inside the coronary artery: • Unstable angina • Non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction or heart attack (NSTEMI) • ST segment elevation myocardial infarction or heart attack (STEMI).
  • 10. Are there different levels of a Heart Attack • The location of the blockage, the length of time that blood flow is blocked and the amount of damage that occurs determines the type of acute coronary syndrome. These life- threatening conditions require emergency medical care.
  • 11. Are there different levels of a Heart Attack • Unstable Angina • Unstable angina is a new symptom or a change from stable angina. The angina may occur more frequently, occur more easily at rest, feel more severe, or last longer. Although this angina can often be relieved with oral medications, it is unstable and may progress to a heart attack. Usually more intense medical treatment or a procedure is required. Unstable angina is an acute coronary syndrome and should be treated as a medical emergency.
  • 12. Are there different levels of a Heart Attack • Non-ST • This heart attack, or MI, does not cause changes on an electrocardiogram (ECG). However, chemical markers in the blood indicate that damage has occurred to the heart muscle. In NSTEMI, the blockage may be partial or temporary, and so the extent of the damage relatively minimal.
  • 13. Are there different levels of a Heart Attack • ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) • This heart attack, or MI, is caused by a prolonged period of blocked blood supply. It affects a large area of the heart muscle, and so causes changes on the ECG as well as in blood levels of key chemical markers.
  • 14. How did Doctors know that I was having a heart attack. By Cardiac Enzymes
  • 15. What are cardiac Enzymes • Definition: Cardiac enzymes are proteins from heart muscle cells that are released into the bloodstream when heart muscle is damaged, such as during a myocardial infarction (MI). By measuring blood levels of cardiac enzymes, doctors can tell whether heart muscle damage has recently occurred. Therefore, measuring cardiac enzymes is often an important step in diagnosing MIs.
  • 16. What are Chemical Makers • There are two types of enzymes that are measured, and generally we measure both of them. They're enzymes that are released by heart muscle when it's being damaged.
  • 17. What are Chemical Makers • What happens is Doctors draw the blood and measure them. One's called Troponin and the other is called CK. And if either, or both, of those are up or going up, it's indicative that's there's heart muscle being actively damaged.
  • 18. What is troponin • Troponin (T) is released into the bloodstream 2 to 6 hours after heart cell damage, and blood levels peak in 12 to 26 hours. Elevated levels of T are regarded as a more reliable indicator of heart muscle damage than elevated CK levels.
  • 19. What is CK • CK creatine kinase is released into the bloodstream 4 to 6 hours after heart cell damage occurs, and peak blood levels of CK are seen after 24 hours.
  • 20. Picture of a health heart
  • 21. Every year, more than 1 million Americans have a heart attack -- a sudden interruption in the heart's blood supply. This happens when there is a blockage in the coronary arteries, the vessels that carry blood to the heart muscle. When blood flow is blocked, heart muscle can be damaged very quickly and die.
  • 22. •Heart Attack Symptoms Pain or pressure in the chest Discomfort spreading to the back, jaw, throat, or arm Nausea, indigestion, or heartburn Weakness, anxiety, or shortness of breath Rapid or irregular heartbeats
  • 23. Heart Attack Symptoms in Women Women don't always feel chest pain with a heart attack. Women are more likely than men to have heartburn, loss of appetite, tiredness or weakness, coughing, and heart flutters. These symptoms should not be ignored. The longer you postpone treatment, the more damage the heart may sustain.
  • 24. Inside a Heart Attack The plaque deposited in your arteries is hard on the outside and soft and mushy on the inside. Sometimes the hard outer shell cracks. When this happens, a blood clot forms around the plaque. If the clot completely blocks the artery, it cuts off the blood supply to a portion of the heart. Without immediate treatment, that part of the heart muscle could be damaged or destroyed.
  • 25. Signs of Coronary Artery Disease This narrows the arteries, making it more difficult for blood to flow through. Many people don't know they have CAD until a heart attack strikes. But there are warning signs, such as recurring chest pain caused by the restricted blood flow. This pain is known as angina.
  • 26. Checking for blockages • In cardiac catheterization a very small hollow tube, or catheter, is advanced from a blood vessel in the groin or arm through the aorta into the heart.
  • 27. How blockages occurs Blockages are caused by plaque buildup which is in the LDL cholesterol. Plaque formation. White blood cells stream in to digest the LDL cholesterol. Over years, the toxic mess of cholesterol and cells becomes a cholesterol plaque in the wall of the artery
  • 28. • Your liver is the primary organ responsible for the production of cholesterol in your body, although a small amount is made by the lining of the small intestine and the individual cells of the body. • Cholesterol is a soft, waxy, fatty compound that is a type of steroid. It is an important nutrient that is essential in the formation and maintenance of cell membranes, and in the production of the sex hormones progesterone, testosterone, estradiol, and cortisol. It is also used by the body to produce bile salts that are used in the digestive process to break down food. Its last major task is its conversion into vitamin D when the skin is exposed to sunlight.
  • 29. • Cholesterol Level Chart • Total Cholesterol Desirable< 200 • Borderline (high)200-240 • High Risk > 240 • Triglycerides Desirable< 150 • Borderline (high)150-500 • High Risk> 500 • Low Density Cholesterol Desirable< 130 • Borderline (high)130-160 • High Risk > 240 • High Density Cholesterol Desirable > 50 • Borderline (high)50-35 High Risk <35
  • 30. Plaque buildup or Atherosclerosis Cholesterol is a type of fat found in your body. Your total cholesterol includes LDL (low- density lipoprotein) and HDL (high-density lipoprotein) cholesterol. LDL is called “bad” cholesterol because it can build up in the walls of your arteries and form plaque. Plaque build-up in the arteries can reduce blood flow and increase your risk of heart disease.
  • 31. What is Atherosclerotic Plaque • An atherosclerotic plaque-is a deposit of harmful fats, or lipids, on the blood vessel wall. When the plaque ruptures, globules resembling chunks of oatmeal break loose and suddenly clog a blood vessel, causing heart attack or stroke.
  • 32. What is Atherosclerotic Plaque • Cardiology experts noted the crucial difference between gradual narrowing of arteries, versus the sudden, fatal blockage of a main coronary artery by ruptured atherosclerotic plaque on the vessel wall. Because about half of people who have a heart attack have no symptoms before the acute event, it is critical that they are recognized and treated before it is too late.
  • 33. What does Atherosclerosis plaque damage Damaged endothelium. The smooth, delicate lining of blood vessels is called the endothelium. High cholesterol, smoking, high blood pressure, or diabetes can damage the endothelium, creating a place for cholesterol to enter the artery's wall.
  • 34. Damaged endothelium
  • 35. Atherosclerosis
  • 36. Damaged endothelium
  • 37. Damaged endothelium
  • 38. Atherosclerosis
  • 39. Medical ways to correct Atherosclerosis
  • 40. Don't Wait to Be Sure The best time to treat a heart attack is as soon as symptoms begin. Waiting to be sure can result in permanent heart damage or even death. If you think you may be having a heart attack, call 911. And don't try driving yourself to the hospital. When you call 911, the EMS staff can start emergency care as soon as they reach you.
  • 41. Sudden Cardiac Death Sudden cardiac death (SCD) accounts for half of all heart disease deaths in the U.S., but it's not the same as a heart attack. SCD occurs when the heart's electrical system goes haywire, causing it to beat irregularly and dangerously fast. The heart's pumping chambers may quiver instead of pumping blood out to the body. Without CPR and restoration of a regular heart rhythm, death can occur in minutes.
  • 42. Now for the fun stuff Foods you cannot eat
  • 43. Now for the fun stuff Foods you cannot eat Sugar and White flour
  • 44. Now for the fun stuff Foods you cannot eat Added sugars • table sugar, • brown sugar • high fructose corn syrup, are refined carbohydrates • While naturally occurring sugar, • found in fruits • vegetables • dairy products • Are harmless
  • 45. Now for the fun stuff Foods you cannot eat Foods and beverages high in added sugars include • soda, candy, pastries, pies, cakes, • cookies, jellies, frostings, • blended coffee drinks, • canned fruit in heavy syrup, • pancake syrup and • many breakfast cereals. • Additional sources of added sugars include honey, dextrose, molasses, maltose, sucrose and cane syrup.
  • 46. Now for the fun stuff Foods you cannot eat • Enriched Flour, Pasta and Rice Enriched flour, whether white or wheat, is a processed grain that contains few nutrients and less fiber than whole-grain flours and unprocessed whole grains. Foods made with enriched flour, such as breads, baked goods and snack foods, can spike your blood sugar level and leave little room in your diet for nutritious carbohydrates.
  • 47. Now for the fun stuff Foods you cannot eat If the word "enriched" is among the top ingredients or the food contains little fiber, an alternate whole grain-based food is healthier.
  • 48. Now for the fun stuff Foods you cannot eat Fried Carbohydrates • Fried foods provide saturated and trans fats -- unhealthy fats linked with obesity, Type 2 diabetes and heart disease. • Fried carbohydrates, • such as doughnuts, • potato chips and • deep-fried chicken, • provide refined carbohydrates and unhealthy fats -- a double nutritional whammy.
  • 49. Make lifestyle changes Make changes to your diet. Most of the cholesterol you need is made by your body. However, food products from animals contain additional cholesterol as well. The foods include meats, poultry, shellfish, eggs, butter, cheese, and milk. Any type of food that contains saturated or trans fat causes your body to make more cholesterol.
  • 50. Make lifestyle changes Keep your intake of fat between 25 and 35% of your daily calories. Limit your intake of cholesterol from food to less than 300 mg a day. If your cholesterol is high, the recommended amount is less than 200 mg per day.
  • 51. Make lifestyle changes Whole grains, fruits, vegetables, and legumes are good sources of fiber. Oatmeal and oat bran are good sources of soluble fiber, which reduces your LDL cholesterol and reduces the absorption of cholesterol in your intestines. Soluble fiber is also found in kidney beans, apples, pears, barley, and prunes.
  • 52. Make lifestyle changes Eat complex carbohydrates. Eat whole wheat bread and brown rice instead of their white counter parts. This will raise your level of HDL cholesterol as well as lower your level of triglycerides, which are another cause of heart disease.
  • 53. Make lifestyle changes Walnuts and almonds are rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids and have noted for keeping blood vessels healthy and elastic. Be careful not to eat too many nuts though. They are high in calories, so just one handful will be enough. As with any food, eating too much of it can make you overweight, and being overweight puts you at higher risk for heart disease. The key, just like with anything else, is to find a balance.
  • 54. Make lifestyle changes Fish and omega-3 fatty acid reduce blood pressure and the risk of blood clots. Doctors recommend having at least 2 servings of fish each week. The fish with the highest levels of omega-3 fatty acid are in mackerel, lake trout, herring, sardines, albacore tuna and salmon. To maintain the health benefits of fish, you’ll need to grill or bake the fish. If you don’t like fish, you can also get omega-3 fatty acids from foods like ground flaxseed or canola oil.
  • 55. Make lifestyle changes Olive oil contains antioxidants that can lower your LDL (“bad”) cholesterol without changing your HDL (“good”) cholesterol. The FDA recommends about 2 tablespoons, or 23 grams, of olive oil a day to benefit from its heart-healthy benefits. Some research suggests that the cholesterol- lowering effects of olive oil are even better if you choose extra-virgin olive oil.
  • 56. Make lifestyle changes Foods fortified with plant sterols or stanols, which are found in plants and help block the absorption of cholesterol, can help reduce LDL cholesterol by more than 10%.
  • 57. Make lifestyle changes Remember that moderation is key with foods that are high in saturated fat, such as meat and some dairy products.
  • 58. Make lifestyle changes Exercise
  • 59. Make lifestyle changes Jogging or Running
  • 60. Make lifestyle changes Bicycling
  • 61. Make lifestyle changes • Level of IntensityRPEPhysical Cues • LightEasyDoes not induce sweating unless it's a hot, humid day. There is no noticeable change in breathing patterns. • Moderate Somewhat hard Will break a sweat after performing the activity for about 10 minutes. Breathing becomes deeper and more frequent. You can carry on a conversation but not sing. • HighHardWill break a sweat after 3-5 minutes. Breathing is deep and rapid. You can only talk in short phrases.
  • 62. Final Statement • Do not become a statistic • Make life changing choices • Be there for your family • Serve God among the living
  • 63. References • http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/ • http://www.cdc.gov/ • http://health.bwmc.umms.org/graphics/images/ en/9367.jpg • http://medical- dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/heart+attack

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