The Systematic Literature Search

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This 2009 presentation contains general information on the systematic literature search.

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  • In the first part, I will discuss what a systematic literature searches is and why we conduct them. Then I will show you how to develop search strategies and conduct searches. We will look at some examples to learn how to do this in practice. At the end of the day, we will develop the search strategy, conduct the search and collect results for the Bach Flower Remedy.
  • What: a systematic approach to search for literature Why: minimize bias Should be: thorough, objective and reproducible How: often conducted in several phases, using various sources
  • The, what I would call, main three databases that we search are PubMed, Cochrane, and EMBASE. Access to PubMed free and it contains Medline citations. (Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online) is the U.S. National Library of Medicine's premier bibliographic database that contains over 16 million references to journal articles in life sciences with a concentration on biomedicine. In some cases, specialized databases should be searched. For example, if the question deals with a drug intervention, a pharmaceutical database should be searched. Since our topic, Bach Flower Remedies, falls within complementary medicine, we will also search AMED.
  • Two phases of the literature search which will not be addressed today are the grey literature search and the manual literature search. The grey literature search is a search for publications not published commercially or indexed by major databases. The manual search is the final phase of the literature search. In the 4. session I will come back to the manual search.
  • If necessary, the concepts included in the question should be discussed with reviewers.
  • If necessary, the concepts included in the question should be discussed with reviewers.
  • Begin either with a clinical question and use it to form a PICOTS question or begin with a PICOTS question. The PICOTS structure is especially suitable to the literature search because it identifies the main concepts and indicates how the concepts are related. ---HANDOUT----
  • Begin either with a clinical question and use it to form a PICOTS question or begin with a PICOTS question. The PICOTS structure is especially suitable to the literature search because it identifies the main concepts and indicates how the concepts are related. ---HANDOUT----
  • Begin either with a clinical question and use it to form a PICOTS question or begin with a PICOTS question. The PICOTS structure is especially suitable to the literature search because it identifies the main concepts and indicates how the concepts are related. ---HANDOUT----
  • If necessary, the concepts included in the question should be discussed with reviewers.
  • * Zahnfleisch The terms are read from left to right. Do NOT use NOT in a systematic review!!
  • Again, terms are read from left to right.
  • Some special characters vary from database to database. Take care with Latin roots (e.g. pharma). American / British spelling. Hypens not readable in EMBASE. Use OR for pluralization.
  • If necessary, the concepts included in the question should be discussed with reviewers.
  • If necessary, the concepts included in the question should be discussed with reviewers.
  • Each articles is read by two experts in the specific area who assign the article MeSH terms.
  • Each articles is read by two experts in the specific area who assign the article MeSH terms.
  • Each articles is read by two experts in the specific area who assign the article MeSH terms.
  • Why use free text and MeSH
  • Why use free text and MeSH
  • Why use free text and MeSH
  • I would recommend to create a word document and save it in the project folder under a folder called “Literature Search”.
  • If necessary, the concepts included in the question should be discussed with reviewers.
  • The Systematic Literature Search

    1. 1. The Systematic Literature Search Andrea Chapman Workshop Systematic Reviews March 11, 2009
    2. 2. Overview <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Search Strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Conduct the Search </li></ul><ul><li>Collect and Manage the Results </li></ul>
    3. 3. The Systematic Literature Search <ul><li>a systematic approach to find as many relevant studies as possible </li></ul><ul><li>to minimize bias </li></ul><ul><li>thorough, objective and reproducible </li></ul><ul><li>conducted in several phases, using various sources </li></ul>
    4. 4. The Primary Search <ul><li>online databases </li></ul>general specific
    5. 5. Further Phases <ul><li>grey literature search </li></ul><ul><li>manual literature search </li></ul>
    6. 6. Search Steps clinical / PICOTS question search strategy search databases collect results
    7. 7. Adjusting the Question clinical / PICOTS question search strategy search databases collect results
    8. 8. PICOTS <ul><li>P opulation </li></ul><ul><li>I ntervention </li></ul><ul><li>C omparison </li></ul><ul><li>O utcome </li></ul><ul><li>T ime </li></ul><ul><li>S etting </li></ul>
    9. 9. Example Question <ul><li>Should you give patients with </li></ul><ul><li>periodontal disease doxycycline </li></ul><ul><li>to decrease gum bleeding? </li></ul>
    10. 10. Example Question <ul><li>P patients with periodontal disease </li></ul><ul><li>I doxycycline </li></ul><ul><li>C none </li></ul><ul><li>O decrease in gum bleeding </li></ul><ul><li>T none </li></ul><ul><li>S none </li></ul>
    11. 11. Developing the Search Strategy clinical / PICOTS question search strategy search databases collect results
    12. 12. Boolean Logic <ul><li>AND includes all the search terms </li></ul><ul><li>OR includes at least one of the search terms </li></ul><ul><li>NOT excludes the term from search result </li></ul>
    13. 13. Boolean Logic <ul><li>gum AND bleeding gum bleeding </li></ul><ul><li>2090 </li></ul><ul><li>gum OR bleeding </li></ul><ul><li>290109 </li></ul><ul><li>gum NOT bleeding </li></ul><ul><li>7281 </li></ul>
    14. 14. Combing Terms <ul><li>gum bleeding AND periodontal disease </li></ul><ul><li>1924 </li></ul><ul><li>gum bleeding AND (periodontal disease OR oral hemorrhage) </li></ul><ul><li>1956 </li></ul><ul><li>gum bleeding AND periodontal disease OR oral hemorrhage </li></ul><ul><li>7678 </li></ul>
    15. 15. Special Characters <ul><li>“ ” </li></ul><ul><li>“ gum bleeding” </li></ul><ul><li>searches exact phrase </li></ul><ul><li>* </li></ul><ul><li>diseas* </li></ul><ul><li>searches disease, diseases, etc. </li></ul>
    16. 16. Basic Search String <ul><li>P patients with periodontal disease </li></ul><ul><li>I doxycycline </li></ul><ul><li>C none </li></ul><ul><li>O decrease in gum bleeding </li></ul><ul><li>T none </li></ul><ul><li>S none </li></ul><ul><li>gum bleeding AND periodontal disease AND doxycycline </li></ul>
    17. 17. Expanding the Basic Search <ul><li>gum bleeding AND periodontal disease AND doxycycline </li></ul>other ? other ? other ?
    18. 18. Expanding the Basic Search <ul><li>“ gum bleeding” AND periodontal diseas* AND (doxycycline OR vibramycin) </li></ul>
    19. 19. clinical / PICOTS question search strategy search databases collect results
    20. 20. Searching Pubmed
    21. 21. PubMed and the Search Strategy search strategy search PubMed
    22. 22. PubMed Search <ul><li>gum bleeding AND doxycycline </li></ul>
    23. 23. PubMed Features <ul><li>Go </li></ul><ul><li>History </li></ul><ul><li>Combining </li></ul><ul><li>Limits </li></ul>
    24. 24. Enter the search term and press Go .
    25. 25. <ul><li>Drug search </li></ul>Search a second term.
    26. 26. View the History
    27. 27. Combine searches using number in the History. doxycycline
    28. 28. Limit searches.
    29. 29. Limits <ul><li>Publication Date </li></ul><ul><li>Human or Animal </li></ul><ul><li>Male or Female </li></ul><ul><li>Languages </li></ul><ul><li>Publication Type </li></ul><ul><li>Ages </li></ul>
    30. 30. Result!
    31. 31. clinical / PICOTS question search strategy search databases collect results
    32. 32. Can We Do Better? <ul><li>“ gum bleeding” AND periodontal diseas* AND (doxycycline OR vibramycin) </li></ul>MeSH term ? MeSH term ? MeSH term ?
    33. 33. MeSH - Medical Subject Headings <ul><li>describe the subject of an article </li></ul><ul><li>controlled vocabulary thesaurus used for indexing articles (a classification system) </li></ul><ul><li>MeSH terminology provides a consistent way to retrieve information that may use different terminology for the same concept. </li></ul>
    34. 34. Example MeSH term <ul><li>The MeSH term for gum bleeding is Gingival Hemorrhage. </li></ul>
    35. 35. MeSH in PubMed MeSH Gingival Hemorrhage is under MeSH Periodontal Disease! hierarchy broader terms above specific terms
    36. 36. MeSH in PubMed Medications can also be a MeSH term.
    37. 37. Example MeSH term <ul><li>“ gum bleeding” AND periodontal diseas* AND (doxycycline OR vibramycin) </li></ul>Use MeSH term Use MeSH term Use free text Unnecessary ?
    38. 38. Access the MeSH database from PubMed.
    39. 39. MeSH Features <ul><li>Subheadings </li></ul><ul><li>Major Topic </li></ul><ul><li>Do Not Explode </li></ul><ul><li>Search Box </li></ul>
    40. 40.
    41. 41. Send MeSH term to search box.
    42. 42. The MeSH term is now in the search box.
    43. 43. When more than one MeSH term is found. Double click.
    44. 44.
    45. 45.
    46. 46.
    47. 47.
    48. 48.
    49. 49. Complete Search String <ul><li>&quot;Gingival Hemorrhage&quot;[Mesh] AND ( &quot;Doxycycline&quot;[Mesh] OR vibramycin) </li></ul>
    50. 50.
    51. 51. Complete Search String <ul><li>(&quot;Periodontal Diseases&quot;[Mesh] OR parodontos*) AND (&quot;Doxycycline&quot;[Mesh] OR vibramycin) AND (&quot;Gingival Hemorrhage&quot;[Mesh] OR &quot;gum bleeding&quot;) </li></ul>(&quot;Periodontal Diseases&quot;[Mesh] OR parodontos*) AND (&quot;Doxycycline&quot;[Mesh] OR vibramycin) AND (&quot;Gingival Hemorrhage&quot;[Mesh] OR &quot;gum bleeding&quot;) (&quot;Periodontal Diseases&quot;[Mesh] OR parodontos*) AND (&quot;Doxycycline&quot;[Mesh] OR vibramycin) AND (&quot;Gingival Hemorrhage&quot;[Mesh] OR &quot; gum bleeding &quot; )
    52. 52.
    53. 53. PubMed - Additional Features <ul><li>Details </li></ul><ul><li>Clear </li></ul><ul><li>Export Results </li></ul>
    54. 54. Click Details to see how Pubmed interpreted results
    55. 55. Pubmed mapped gum bleeding to the MeSH term gingival hemorrhage
    56. 56. Clear searches.
    57. 57. To Export go into Result
    58. 58.
    59. 59.
    60. 60.
    61. 61. www.pubmed.com
    62. 62. Searching Cochrane <ul><li>Advance Search </li></ul><ul><li>MeSH Search </li></ul><ul><li>Search History </li></ul><ul><li>Restrict by Product </li></ul><ul><li>Date Range </li></ul>
    63. 63. www.thecochranelibrary.com
    64. 64. Document the Search Strategy <ul><li>project name </li></ul><ul><li>search date </li></ul><ul><li>copy the search history for each database </li></ul>
    65. 65. clinical / PICOTS question search strategy search databases collect results
    66. 66. EndNote <ul><li>Creating a New Library </li></ul><ul><li>Importing Search Results </li></ul><ul><li>Changing Field Content </li></ul><ul><li>Rename Field Headings </li></ul><ul><li>Sorting </li></ul><ul><li>Output Style </li></ul><ul><li>Print Preview </li></ul>
    67. 67.
    68. 68. Importing
    69. 69. Importing
    70. 70. Change Field Content
    71. 71.
    72. 72.
    73. 73. Rename Field Headings

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