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A new paradigm for international higher education: Universal Design | 2012 EAIE Summer Forum
 

A new paradigm for international higher education: Universal Design | 2012 EAIE Summer Forum

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Joan McGuire and Femke ten Bloemendal examine a new way of educating which aims to level the playing field in international higher education to ensure that no matter what the (dis)ability or ...

Joan McGuire and Femke ten Bloemendal examine a new way of educating which aims to level the playing field in international higher education to ensure that no matter what the (dis)ability or background, every student has a fair chance to succeed. www.eaie.org/forum

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    A new paradigm for international higher education: Universal Design | 2012 EAIE Summer Forum A new paradigm for international higher education: Universal Design | 2012 EAIE Summer Forum Document Transcript

    • Discussing international educationGAINING PERSPECTIVE FROM BEYOND HIGHER EDUCATION AN INTERVIEW WITH MARTHA NUSSBAUM CHARMS OF THE IRISH LANGUAGE UNIVERSAL DESIGN IN INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION SUMMER 2012
    • FORUM THIS ISSUE 03 Summer issue highlights12“We need to broaden and deepen our imagination.”MARTHA NUSSBAUM, PHILOSOPHER18“Irish writers have been willing to push the boundaries of literary conventions.”CHARMS OF THE IRISH LANGUAGE24“It’s wise to view Universal Design as a process which aims to level the playing field.”JOAN MCGUIRE AND FEMKE TEN BLOEMENDAL31“Cooperation is the underlying fundament of almost everything we do in internationalisation.”GAINING PERSPECTIVE FROM BEYONDHIGHER EDUCATION
    • 04 FORUM THIS ISSUEContentsEAIE UPDATES SPOTLIGHTS FEATURESNews from the Association Regularly occurring themes Investigating hot topics02 EDITORIAL 08 THE FUTURE OF DIGITAL 22 SUCCESSFULLY 28 STUDENT INITIATIVES FOR STUDENT DATA PORTABILITY IMPLEMENTING A STRATEGIC GLOBAL HEALTH06 MEMBER NEWS A ground-breaking seminar INTERNATIONAL PLAN A new voice Essay contest; EAIE Elections Challenges and advice 12 MARTHA NUSSBAUM 31 GAINING PERSPECTIVE FROM07 BOOKS & WEBSITES  An interview 24 A NEW PARADIGM FOR BEYOND HIGHER EDUCATION INTERNATIONAL HIGHER Driving forces of cooperation35 CALENDAR 16 WHAT WILL YOU BE TALKING EDUCATION ABOUT IN DUBLIN Universal Design EAIE Conference conversation starter 18 CHARMS OF THE IRISH LANGUAGE A literary journey 34 TALKING HEAD An interview with Steve WestPublished by AdvertisingEuropean Association for International Education Contact geraghty@eaie.org for more information.PO Box 11189, 1001 GD Amsterdam, the Netherlands The EAIE welcomes requests for advertising space fromtel +31-20-344 51 00, fax +31-20-344 51 19 companies and organisations whose aims and values aree-mail info@eaie.org, www.eaie.org compatible with those of the Association and its mem- bers. Acceptance of advertising does not imply endorse-Editor Michael Cooper ment by the EAIE.Publications Committee Michael Cooper (Chair), Printed by Drukkerij Raddraaier, AmsterdamLinda Johnson, Laura Howard, Timo Ahonen,Frank Wittmann, Jill Archer, Mary Bishop Copyright © 2012 by the EAIE All rights reserved. Extracts from Forum may be re-Marketing & Communications Manager Elise Kuurstra produced with permission of the Editor. Unless statedGraphic Designer Nhu Nguyen otherwise, opinions expressed by contributors do notPublications Coordinator Sarah Fencott necessarily reflect the position of the EAIE.e-mail publications@eaie.orgCover photography Andrew Rich (istock) ISSN 1389-0808
    • 24 FORUM FEATURE A NEW PARADIGM FOR INTERNATIONAL HIGHER EDUCATION: UNIVERSAL DESIGNPhoto: Philip Barker (istock)
    • FORUM FEATURE 25 Joan McGuire and Femke ten Bloemendal examine a new way of educating which aims to level the playing field in international higher education to ensure that no matter what the (dis)ability or background, every student has a fair chance to succeed.G one are the days that higher educa- people with disabilities is not only time thought that applying the principles would tion institutions catered for the consuming and costly but is also, in a sense, be beneficial for other groups of students young, well to do, able-bodied, na- counterproductive and does not lead to a such as language learners and studentstional male. Changes towards more cultur- truly inclusive environment. with a different cultural background.ally diverse societies and greater equal rights A movement to create more inclusive Is it reasonable to suggest that thelegislation have led to a much more diverse physical environments called Universal De- principles of UD and UDI might providepopulation in higher education. This grow- sign (UD) has been evolving since the 1970s. a template for international educators anding diversity impacts everybody working in UD is defined as the process of designing administrators to meet the needs of cultur-higher education, but notably educators. It products and environments that are usable ally and linguistically diverse students?changes the services that students need and by all people to the greatest extent possible The table overleaf includes the principlesit will impact internationalisation. without the need for retrofitting changes.1 of UD and UDI, definitions, and exam- ples that are drawn from teachers who are THERE IS A STRONG DRIVE FOR INCLUSIVE INSTITUTIONS thinking inclusively about their teaching WELCOMING A DIVERSE STUDENT POPULATION and the diverse learning needs of students. For clarification/illustration purposes, theTraditionally, international educators and An underlying assumption of UD is human principles are applied to the case studyadministrators have been apt to working diversity and an awareness of a variety of below.with cultural differences and to dealing with needs. Examples of UD are plentiful: rampslanguage barriers. However, when it comes and electronic doors to facilitate entry to CASE STUDY: JENNIEto other forms of diversity, for example, buildings, captioning on television screens Jennie, an American student, is acceptedstudents with disabilities, students from to provide text of narrative, large print or onto an MA programme at a Europeannon-traditional backgrounds, and second pictorial signage. An unanticipated outcome university. She has indicated that shecareer (mature) students, there is not that of intentional design is that many people, has a learning disability. The institutionsame level of comfort among educators. At not only those with disability-related accom- promised to do its utmost to help her to bethe same time, there is a strong drive for modation needs, benefit – as witnessed by a successful. Upon arrival, she shows the listinclusive institutions welcoming a diverse parent pushing a baby stroller who can easily of the accommodations and adjustmentsstudent population. access a space using a ramp or somebody she received at her former US institution: delivering a heavy package who can use the extended exam time, use of a laptop, and aUNIVERSAL DESIGN electronic door. note taker. She is insecure about disclosingWhen new legislation in the 60s and 70s Recently, the notion of UD has been her disability and stressed about doing wellcalled for accessible buildings, it entailed expanded to the instructional environment and finishing the programme in time.changing original constructions. Similarly, via a concept called Universal Design for The aim of any higher education in-the call for equal opportunities in education Instruction (UDI). 2,3 UDI is an approach stitution would be for this student to feelfor people with disabilities necessitated spe- to teaching that consists of the proactive welcome and, most importantly, to succeedcial arrangements to ensure these students design and use of inclusive instructional academically. The institution would prob-received the same opportunities as able- strategies that benefit a broad range of ably come up with a special arrangementbodied students. The approach of retrofitting learners including students with dis- to accommodate Jennie. Nevertheless,buildings and instruction to accommodate abilities. From the outset of UDI, it was it is expected that Jennie will encounter
    • 26 FORUM FEATUREPhoto: ayzek (shutterstock)additional issues as illustrated in the table in the classroom. It is evident that many no- far from the base of proactive inclusiveness,opposite. Using the UDI principles, the tions on teaching internationally and ideas rather than develop practical solutions forinstitution would be looking at some of the on achieving an international institution specific higher education areas.recommendations and actions in the forth already fit the UD(I) principles. It is wise to view UD(I) as a processcolumn of the table to better assist Jennie rather than a product, a process which aimsduring her studies. LIMITATIONS to level the playing field so that everybody In this case study, the focus is on the Any shift in a paradigm must be carefully has a fair chance to succeed. Its aim is toteaching environment, but many sugges- and critically examined for its efficacy before create a welcoming, open campus that trulytions are easily transferable to administra- its adoption can be touted. UD in physical allows for a diverse student body includingtive procedures. UDI aims to proactively environments is a widely accepted principle students with disabilities and internationaldiminish barriers by anticipating and de- though not without debate. Although ef- students alike. UD(I) may be seen simplysigning for a diverse population. Designing forts are underway to consider the impact of as principles for good practice, but whatinstruction and administrative procedures instruction that is intentionally designed to distinguishes its principles from other simi-for a diverse population gives users options be inclusive, it takes time to gather evidence lar standards is that they were created withinstead of limitations. UD changes at an that universally designed instruction leads inclusion at their core as the one unifyinginstitutional level will limit the need for to differences in student learning outcomes. goal that binds them together.5 Universalspecific accommodations and parallel serv- It is critical that research efforts continue in Design in international education mightices for ‘special’ student groups. a deliberate manner so that the movement give us a framework to rethink our ideas and for inclusive teaching rests upon a sound move internationalisation forward.MARRIAGE OF CONCEPTS foundation. Multi-site approaches toRecommendations in the table opposite will implementing UDI principles includingbe familiar to many teachers and admin- international education would go a long 1. Center for Universal Design. (2011, July 9). Retrievedistrators in international higher education. way toward expanding the evidence base for from www.ncsu.edu/project/design-projects/udi/cent- er-for-universal-design/history-of-universal-design. 2. Scott, S. S., McGuire, J. M., & Foley, T. E. (2003). Universal design for instruction: A framework for antici- SUCCESSFULLY TEACHING INTERNATIONAL STUDENTS REQUIRES pating and responding to disability and other diverse TEACHERS TO BE EXPLICIT IN THEIR EXPECTATIONS learning needs in the college classroom. Equity & Excel- lence in Education, 36, 40–49. 3. ‘Universal Design for Instruction’ is the term we useThe principles of UD and UDI tie in with strategies that are beneficial to the growing in this article. In literature, the terms ‘Universal Designguidelines on teaching an international diversified population of students. for Education’, ‘Universal Design for Learning/Learners’ or ‘Universal Learning Design (ULD)’ are also used.classroom and even with the some of the The principles of UD and UDI have These terms refer to the same concept.ideas on Internationalisation at Home been applied to many areas including UD 4. Carroll, J. (2006). Strategies for becoming more(IaH). Successfully teaching international for student services and UD for assessment. explicit. In J. Carroll & J. Ryan (Eds.), Teaching interna-students requires teachers to be explicit in Literature on these developments can help tional students. Improving learning for all (pp. 26–34). Abingdon: Routledge.their expectations, in teaching and assess- us to understand the way UD principles 5. Higbee, J. (2008) Universal design principles for stu-ment methods,4 which matches UDI prin- work in other areas – it can teach us the pit- dent development programs and services. In Higbee,ciples 1, 3, and 4 in the table. IaH places a falls and possibilities and help us to develop J. & Goff, E. (Eds), Pedagogy and student services for institutional transformation. Implementing Universalstrong emphasis on a culturally diverse stu- UD in international higher education. At design in Higher Education (pp. 195–203). University ofdent body which matches the principles of the same time, it is important not to lose Minnesota.UD(I). Both IaH and UD(I) aim to make sight of the original principles, the holistican impact at an institutional level as well as theory behind UD and not to deviate too
    • FORUM FEATURE 27 UDI recommendations for UD Principle Definition UDI Issues faced by Jennie instruction Principle 1: Instruction is designed to be Jennie has a hard time writing Provide multiple ways of Equitable use useful and accessible for all. and reading notes. accessing notes, for example Be fair in providing means through podcasts, class notes of use. online, etc. Principle 2: Provide choice in methods of Jennie struggles to process Consider using two projectors Flexibility in use participation and presentation. the visual material in her art to be able to leave the slides history course. on longer. Allow student choice to show mastery of the material; for example through presentations, picture cata- logue, etc. Principle 3: Instruction is straightfor- Jennie takes a lab class which Provide an index card in the Simple and intuitive ward. Eliminate unnecessary uses the metrics system in all class and course syllabus. En- complexity. their calculations and reports. courage the use of an online conversion resource. Principle 4: Instruction communicates Jennie blames the mediocre Make sure to be explicit in Perceptible information necessary information and is grade of her first assignment the expectations and grading readily perceived. on her learning disability. criteria. Provide a grading scale in course syllabus. Principle 5: Instruction anticipates Jennie is used to basing her Structure a long essay into Tolerance for error variation in individual student writing on her own opinion sections or design a series of learning pace and prerequisite but this style is not valued at essays so the student can ben- skills. her new university. efit from immediate feedback. Principle 6: Instruction requires minimal Jennie is insecure about the Be clear on the rules for using Low physical effort nonessential physical effort. use of her laptop since she laptops, tape recorders and feels this will disclose her other devises. disability. Principle 7: Consideration is given to In discussions, Jennie does Use a circular class arrange- Size and space for approach appropriate size and space for not understand the non-native ment so students can face and use approach, reach, manipula- English speakers, and they do one another. Use props (like tions, and use. not understand her. stopwatches or traffic lights) to monitor the discussion. Principle 8: i Environment promotes inter- Jennie only interacts socially Switch group work between Community of learners action and communication. with other American students. national groups and multi- cultural groups. Allow time for getting to know each other and interacting. Principle 9: Instruction is welcoming and Jennies experiences a differ- A statement in the class Instructional climate inclusive. High expectations ent instructional climate with syllabus affirming the need are expressed for all students. regards to her disability. for class members to respect diversity, cultural differences and differences in strengths and abilities.i. These last two principles have been added in UDI to complement the original 7 principles of UD.