Capturing images & sounds; working with actors--lighting, sets, costumes, movement, music, sound effects
Editing, motion graphics, color correction, sound mix, score, Foley, etc
Distribution and Marketing
Film festivals, Markets, Theatrical, Online, DIY, Transmedia
“ Transmedia storytelling represents a process where integral elements of a fiction get dispersed systematically across multiple delivery channels for the purpose of creating a unified and coordinated entertainment experience.” Henry Jenkins
Hope is Missing -- a social media driven ARG
Ways that a film uses filmmaking techniques:
Films that are produced within a particular period and/or nation and that share significant traits of style and form.
Filmmakers who operate within a common production structure and who share certain assumptions about filmmaking.
Eadweard Muybridge 1878
Stanford, governor of CA, wanted to see if all four hooves of horse came off the ground at same time. EM set up series of cameras with trip wires across the track.
Women in Motion
Muybridge studied the body (particularly the woman’s body) in motion… Was it science? Was it art? Something else?
Independents in CA by 20s--Famous Players Lasky (Paramount), MGM, Fox, Warner Bros, Universal
Development of continuity system
Axis-of-action (180 degree rule)
Match on action
Ex: Record a conversation at table
German Expressionism 1919-1926
Emphasis on mise-en- scene--distorted shapes, heavy makeup, exaggerated movements.
“ The film image must become graphic art.” Hermann Warm, designer of “Caligari” “Film must be drawings brought to life.”
“ The revolutionary meaning of the story reveals itself unmistakably at the end, with the disclosure of the psychiatrist as Caligari: reason overpowers unreasonable power, insane authority is symbolically abolished.” Siegfried Kracauer, 1947
French Impressionism & Surrealism 1918-1930
Emphasis on internal psychology, dreams, flashbacks, emotion.
Point of view shots, distorted images, new lenses, cameras on roller skates--mobile frames.
Surrealist Salvador Dali, Luis Bunuel--anti-narrative, anti-rational. (“Un Chien Andalou,” 1928)
Soviet Montage 1924-1930
Vertov, Kuleshov, Pudovkin, Eisenstein
“ Of all the arts, for us the cinema is the most important.” Lenin 1922
Emphasis on editing and action
Eisenstein’s intelectual montage--juxtaposing images to create a concept--often a revolutionary “collision” between a “collective hero”--the proletariat--and the enemy--the bourgeoisie
“ Conflicts within the form, with the shot…as well as between colliding shots or montage”:
2. Conflict of planes
3. Conflict of volumes
4. Spatial conflict
5. Light conflict, tempo conflict, etc…
Dialectical thinking=synthesis from conflict
(thesis +antithesis=synthesis) Sergei Eisenstin, 1929
“ Only the impassive lens, stripping its object of all those ways of seeing it, those piled-up preconceptions, that spiritual dust and grime with which my eyes have covered it, is able to present it in all its virginal purity to my attention and consequently to my love.” Andre Bazin 1967
"A chain of events linked by cause and effect and occurring in time and space.”
Protagonist/Antagonist--conflicting goals and motivations
CHC--Cause/effect structure with closure?
Bordwell-- Forms of Cinematic Meaning Story and Plot
Referential --constructed world of film
Explicit --abstract, thematic meaning, stated
Implicit --thematic meaning, not stated overtly
Symptomatic --meaning unknown to filmmaker
Other terms to know:
Diegesis; Extra-diegesis (Look them up…)
The sum of all the parts of the film, shaped by patterns:
Repetition and Variation
Ferdinand de Saussure (1907) Linguistics and Meaning