Practical Test Standards - Simple Version for PPL

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  • 1. >Areas of Operation< Preflight Preparation Task B-C-E-G-J By: Edwin Pitty Sanchez
  • 2. VFR Day: A nti-collision lamps T achometer O oil pressure gauge M anifold pressure gauge A irspeed indicator T emperature gauge O il teperature gauge F uel level gauge L anding gear position indicator A ltimeter M magnetic heading indicator E mergency locator transmitter S eat belts
  • 3. VFR Night: F uses L anding lights A nticollision lamps P osition indicator lamps S ource of power
  • 4. MMEL (TC) > MEL (STC) = Safety 1988> to allow the publication of a (MEL) 14 CFR 91.213 =/ 91.205
  • 5. FAA Form 8130-6 is used to make application and FAA Form 8130-7 , special airworthiness certificate, is issued to approve each flight.
  • 6. • ƒ Flying the aircraft to a base where repairs, alterations, or maintenance are to be performed, or to a point of salvage • ƒ Delivering or exporting the aircraft • ƒ Production flight testing new production aircraft • ƒ Evacuating aircraft from areas of impending danger • ƒ Conducting customer demonstration flights in a new production aircraft that have satisfactorily completed production flight tests • ƒ To authorize the operation of an aircraft at a weight in excess of its maximum certificated takeoff weight
  • 7. FAA Form 8130-6 will indicated: 1. Purpose of the flight 2. Proposed itinerary 3. Crew required to operate the aircraft 4. The ways, if any, in which the aircraft does not comply with the applicable airworthiness requirements
  • 8. Airworthiness Directives: An airworthiness directive (commonly abbreviated as AD) is a notification to owners and operators of certified aircraft that a known safety deficiency with a particular model of aircraft, engine, avionics or other system exists and must be corrected.
  • 9. Aiworthiness Directives: In detail, the purpose of an AD is to notify aircraft owners: • that the aircraft may have an unsafe condition, or • that the aircraft may not be in conformity with its basis of certification or of other conditions that affect the aircraft's airworthiness, or • that there are mandatory actions that must be carried out to ensure continued safe operation, or • that, in some urgent cases, the aircraft must not be flown until a corrective action plan is designed and carried out.
  • 10. AD’s categories: • Those of an emergency nature requiring immediate compliance prior to further flight, and • Those of a less urgent nature requiring compliance within a specified period of time.
  • 11. Compliance Records
  • 12. The choice of aircraft ownership/operation is one that brings along responsibilities for airworthiness. Airworthiness has many elements, but the primary responsibility lies with the owner/operator. The owner/operator also is responsible for ensuring that maintenance personnal make appropriate entries in the aircraft maintenance records indicating the aircraft has been approved for return to service. It is the responsibility of the owner and operator to have maintenance performed that may be required between scheduled inspections. A prudent owner will ensure that the company’s standard operating procedures (SOPs) or management company (if used) dictate how maintenance is to be completed and properly logged per FAA regulations. Audits of the maintenance records are strongly recommended to ensure compliance.
  • 13. Maintenance Checks An A-check is a light routine inspection. On the opposite end of the spectrum, a D-check is the most intensive, long-term check. • A-checks are performed at around 500 flight hours (FH). This is a routine check, to make sure everything is functioning safely and efficiently. It can usually be completed overnight at an airport gate, and can even be delayed if an aircraft meets certain predetermined conditions. • B-checks are more extensive than A checks, but can also be completed overnight.
  • 14. Maintenance Checks • C-checks require aircraft to be docked at a hangar or repair station for detailed inspections. These are generally performed every 12-18 months, depending on the type of aircraft and the manufacturer’s specifications. • D-checks are done approximately every 4-5 years, and are the most intensive, time-consuming aircraft inspection. The aircraft needs to have every fastener, nut, wire, hinge, and component inspected, repaired, maintained, or replaced.
  • 15. Inspections: The operating rule also states that no person may operate an aircraft unless the required inspections are performed. In addition, the rule offers inspection options an operator can choose from in order to maintain aircraft airworthiness. The rule emphasizes that the inspection/maintenance must be performed in accordance with a manufacturer’s maintenance.
  • 16. 100-Hour Inspection Reciprocating-engine-powered and single-engine turbojet/turboprop-powered aircraft (12,500 pounds and under) used to carry passengers for hire (e.g., air charter) or used for flight instruction should be inspected within each 100 hours of time in service by an FAA certificated A&P mechanic, an FAA certificated repair station that is appropriately rated or the aircraft manufacturer. An annual inspection is acceptable as a 100-hour inspection, but the reverse is not true.
  • 17. Annual Inspection Any reciprocating-engine-powered or single-engine turbojet/turboprop-powered small aircraft (12,500 pounds and under) flown for business or pleasure is required to be inspected at least annually by an FAA certificated A&P mechanic holding an inspection authorization (IA), by an FAA certificated repair station that is appropriately rated or by the manufacturer of the aircraft. The aircraft may not be operated unless the annual inspection has been performed within the preceding 12 calendar months.
  • 18. Progressive Inspections Some airplanes may be inspected in accordance with a progressive inspection (FAR 91.409(d)) or an accepted inspection program (FAR 91.409( f)) wherein portions of the aircraft are inspected and maintained according to a predetermined schedule. For example, large and turbine- powered aircraft and aircraft in fractional operations are on a continuous maintenance/inspection program derived by reliability data, in-service experience and utilization analysis.
  • 19. Appropriate Record Keeping: An owner/operator has three categories of records to manage: • Aircraft maintenance records: these document the airworthiness, care and maintenance of the aircraft. • Pilot logbook(s): these document flight experience and endorsements, PIC currency and insurance compliance • Expense records: these support tax deductions or other accounting needs.
  • 20. ASEL and ASES METAR: is a format for reporting weather information. A METAR weather report is predominantly used by pilots in fulfillment of a part of a pre-flight weather briefing, and by meteorologists, who use aggregated METAR information to assist in weather forecasting. Raw METAR is the most popular format in the world for the transmission of weather data. It is highly standardized through International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) 1 January 1968
  • 21. TAF is a format for reporting weather forecast information, particularly as it relates to aviation. TAFs apply to approximately five statute miles (about 4.3 nautical mails or 8km) radius from the center of the airport runway complex. Generally, TAFs apply to a 24-hour period.
  • 22. FA The aviation area forecast (FA) gives a picture of clouds, general weather conditions, and visual meteorological conditions (VMC) expected over a large area encompassing several states. There are six areas for which area forecasts are published in the contiguous 48 states. Area forecasts are issued three times a day and are valid for 18 hours. This type of forecast gives information vital to en route operations as well as forecast information for smaller airports that do not have terminal forecasts.
  • 23. Surface Analysis Chart Surface weather analysis is a special type of weather map that provides a view of weather elements over a geographical area at a specified time based on information from ground-based weather stations. Weather maps are created by plotting or tracing the values of relevant quantities such as sea level pressure, temperature, and cloud cover onto a geographical map to help find synoptic scale features such as weather fronts.
  • 24. Radar Summary Chart Is a computer-generated graphical display of a collection of automated radar weather reports (SDs). This chart displays areas of precipitation as well as information about type, intensity, configuration, coverage, echo top, and cell movement of precipitation. Severe weather watches are plotted if they are in effect when the chart is valid.
  • 25. Winds And Temperature Aloft Chart Winds Aloft, officially known as the Winds and Temperatures Aloft Forecast, is a forecast of specific atmospheric conditions in terms of wind and temperature at certain altitudes, typically measured in feet (ft) above mean sea level (MSL). The forecast is specifically used for aviation purposes.
  • 26. Winds and Temperatures Aloft Chart The components of a Winds and Temperatures Aloft Forecast are displayed as: DD ss +/- TT. • Wind Direction (DD) and Wind Speed (ss), displayed as a 4-digit number, e.g. 3127, indicating a wind direction of 310 degrees True North and a wind speed of 27 knots. Note that wind direction is rounded to the nearest 10 degrees and the zero is excluded. • Temperature (TT), displayed as a +/- two-digit number, e.g. -12, which means -12 degrees Celsius.
  • 27. Significant Weather Prognostic Charts Are available for low-level significant weather from the surface to FL240 (24,000 feet), also referred to as the 400 millibar level, and high-level significant weather from FL250 to FL600 (25,000 to 60,000 feet). The primary concern of this discussion is the low-level significant weather prognostic chart. The low-level chart comes in two forms: the 12- and 24-hour forecast chart, and the 36 and 48 surface only forecast chart.
  • 28. AWOS The Automated Weather Observing System (AWOS) units are operated and controlled by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) in the United States, as well as by state and local governments and some private agencies. These systems are among the oldest automated weather stations and predate ASOS. They generally report at 20-minute intervals and do not report special observations for rapidly changing weather conditions.
  • 29. AWOS CATEGORIES: • AWOS I: wind speed and direction in knots, wind gust, variable wind direction, temperature, dew point in degrees Celsius, altimeter setting, density altitude • AWOS II: AWOS I + visibility, and variable visibility • AWOS III: AWOS II + sky condition, and cloud coverage and ceiling up to twelve thousand feet • AWOS III-P: AWOS III + present weather, and precipitation identification • AWOS III-T: AWOS III + thunderstorm and lightning detection • AWOS III-P-T: AWOS III + present weather, and lightning detection.
  • 30. ASOS These systems generally report at hourly intervals, but also report special observations if weather conditions change rapidly and cross aviation operation thresholds. They generally report all the parameters of the AWOS-III, while also having the additional capabilities of reporting temperature and dew point in degrees Fahrenheit, present weather, icing, lightning, sea level pressure and precipitation accumulation.
  • 31. ATIS Automatic Terminal Information Service, or ATIS, is a continuous broadcast of recorded noncontrol aeronautical information in busier terminal. Contain essential information, such as weather information, which runways are active, available approaches, and any other information required by the pilots, such as important NOTAMs. Pilots usually listen to an available ATIS broadcast before contacting the local control unit, in order to reduce the controllers' workload and relieve frequency congestion.
  • 32. SIGMETs SIGnificant METeorological information are in-flight advisories concerning non-convective weather that is potentially hazardous to all aircraft. They report weather forecasts that include severe icing not associated with thunderstorms, severe or extreme turbulence or clear air turbulence (CAT) not associated with thunderstorms, dust storms or sandstorms that lower surface or in-flight visibilities to below 3 miles, and volcanic ash. NOVEMBER - YANKEE
  • 33. AIRMETs Are examples of in-flight weather advisories that are issued every 6 hours with intermediate updates issued as needed for a particular area forecast region. The information contained in an AIRMET is of operational interest to all aircraft, but the weather section concerns phenomena considered potentially hazardous to light aircraft and aircraft with limited operational capabilities
  • 34. AIRMETs SIERRA is the airmet code used to denote instrument flight rules (IFR) and mountain obscuration TANGO is used to denote turbulence, strong surface winds, and low-level wind shear. ZULU is used to denote icing and freezing levels.
  • 35. PIREPs Pilot weather reports provide valuable information regarding the conditions as they actually exist in the air, which cannot be gathered from any other source. When unexpected weather conditions are encountered, pilots are encouraged to make a report to an FSS or ATC. When a pilot weather report is filed, the ATC facility or FSS will add it to the distribution system to brief other pilots and provide in- flight advisories.
  • 36. The world's navigable airspace is divided into three- dimensional segments, each of which is assigned to a specific class. Most nations adhere to the classification specified by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO).
  • 37. Minimum Pilot Qualifications: Instrument Rating VFR Entry and Equipment Requirements: IFR Flight Plan and IFR Clearance Required ATC Services: All aircraft separations
  • 38. VFR Minimum Visibility: 3SM VFR Minimum Distance from Clouds: Clear of Clouds Minimum Pilot Qualifications: Private Pilot Certificate-Student Pilot Certificate Endorsement VFR Entry and Equipment Requirements: ATC Clearance – Transponder with Mode C ATC Services: All aircraft separations
  • 39. VFR Minimum Visibility: 3SM VFR Minimum Distance from Clouds: 500 ft B – 1000 ft A – 2000ft H Minimum Pilot Qualifications: Student Pilot Certificate VFR Entry and Equipment Requirements: Establish 2way Radio– Transponder with Mode C ATC Services: IFR/IFR Separation IFR/VFR Separation VFR traffic Advisories
  • 40. VFR Minimum Visibility: 3SM VFR Minimum Distance from Clouds: 500 ft B – 1000 ft A – 2000ft H Minimum Pilot Qualifications: Student Pilot Certificate VFR Entry and Equipment Requirements: Establish 2way Radio ATC Services: IFR/IFR Separation VFR traffic Advisories
  • 41. VFR Minimum Visibility: Below 10000ft > 3SM At or Above 10000MSL > 5SM VFR Minimum Distance from Clouds: Below 10000ft 500 B-1000 A – 2000 H At or Above 10000MSL 1000 B – 1000 A – 1SM H Minimum Pilot Qualifications: Student Pilot Certificate ATC Services: IFR/IFR Separation VFR traffic Advisories
  • 42. VFR Minimum Visibility: Below 10000ft > Day 1SM(Clear of Clouds) Night 3SM(500B-1000 A- 2000H) At or Above 10000MSL > 5SM Above 1200ft AGL VFR Minimum Distance from Clouds: Below 10000ft 500 B-1000 A – 2000 H At or Above 10000MSL 1000 B – 1000 A – 1SM H Minimum Pilot Qualifications: Student Pilot Certificate ATC Services: VFR traffic Advisories
  • 43. Is a delimited airspace in which radar and air traffic control services are made available to pilots flying under instrument flight rules or (optionally) visual flight rules for the purposes of maintaining aircraft separation. TRSAs are most often encountered surrounding busy U.S. airports. In recent years many of them have gradually been replaced by Class B or Class C airspace.
  • 44. Is an area designated for operations of a nature such that limitations may be imposed on aircraft not participating in those operations. Often these operations are of a military nature. The designation of SUAs identifies for other users the areas where such activity occurs, provides for segregation of that activity from other users, and allows charting to keep airspace users informed of potential hazards. SUA's are usually depicted on aeronautical charts.
  • 45. Is a block of airspace in which military training and other military maneuvers are conducted. MOAs usually have specified floors and ceilings for containing military activities. VFR are not prevented from flying through active MOAs, but it is wise to avoid them when possible.
  • 46. Is airspace of defined dimensions, extending from 3nM outward from the coast of the United States, that contains activity which may be hazardous to nonparticipating aircraft. Over domestic or international water or both.
  • 47. Often have invisible hazards to aircraft, such as artillery firing, aerial gunnery or guided missiles. Permission to fly through restricted areas must be granted by the controlling agency.
  • 48. Are established for security or other reasons associated with national welfare and contain airspace within which the flight of aircraft is prohibited. You must obtain permission from the controlling agency to operate within a prohibited area.
  • 49. Are established at locations where there is a requirement for increased security and safety of ground facilities. You are requested to voluntarily avoid flying throught an NSA. NOTAM is issued to advise you of any changes in an NSA’s status.
  • 50. Extend 10 statute miles from airports where there is a flight service station located on the field and no operating control tower. You normally will contact the FSS on the plublished CTAF frequency of 123.6MHz prior to entering the airport advisory area. LAA, which includes advisories on wind direction and velocity, favored runway, altometer setting, and reported traffic within the area.
  • 51. MTRs below 10000ft MSL for operations at speeds in excess of 250knots. Below 1500ft AGL are designed to be flown under VFR, and above 1500ft AGL flown under IFR.
  • 52. Are imposed by the FAA to protect persons or property on the surface or in the air from a specific hazard or situation. The objectives are to provide a safe environment for rescue/relief operations and to prevent unsafe congestion .
  • 53.
  • 54.  Primary Flight Controls
  • 55.  Primary Flight Controls
  • 56.
  • 57.  Flaps
  • 58.  Slats
  • 59.  Krueger Flap
  • 60.  Vortex Generator
  • 61.  Stall Fence
  • 62.  Gap Seal
  • 63.  Stall Strip
  • 64.  Spoilers
  • 65.  Water Rudders
  • 66.  Powerplant
  • 67.
  • 68.
  • 69.
  • 70.  Propeller
  • 71.
  • 72.  Landing Gear
  • 73.  Fuel,Oil, Hidraulic
  • 74.
  • 75.  12V or 24V, alternator or generator, fuses or circuit breakers, Amp gauge, regulator, spare fuses, turn coordinator, lights, radios, starter. Electrical Systems
  • 76.   GPS  Nav/Com  DME (Distance Measuring Equipment)  ADF (Automatic Direction Finder)  Intercom  Audio panel  Loran (LOng RAnge Navigation)  Marker beacons Avionics
  • 77.
  • 78.
  • 79.
  • 80.  The airspeed indicator compares the ram air pressure in the pitot tube with the static pressure at the static port.  The vertical speed indicator has a calibrated bleed hole connected to the static port. A change in pressure through the bleed hole will make the needle move up or down.  The altimeter has a diaphragm that changes size with a change in static pressure. When the diaphragm changes size, it will cause the needles to move.  ice protection.  The pitot static system and the altimeter must be checked every 24 months. Pitot Static System
  • 81.  Pitot Static System
  • 82.   An engine driven vacuum pump drives the artificial horizon (attitude indicator) and directional gyro (heading indicator).  There is a filter on the inlet and a gauge to measure the vacuum pressure.  A green arc on the gauge will indicate normal operation. If there is no green arc, consult the POH for normal vacuum pressure readings. Vaccum System
  • 83.  Vaccum System
  • 84.  Heater, AC, vents. Environmental
  • 85.  Our airplanes have carburetor heat or alternate air that can be used if the air cleaner ices over.  They also have Pitot heat to keep the air speed indicator working, an alternate static source to keep the static system operating and a defroster to keep the ice off windshield.  There are other systems: Pneumatic boots on the wings and tail, weeping wings, heated props and windshields. Deicing and Anti-Icing
  • 86. Occurs when the tissues in the body do not receive enough oxygen. The symptoms of hypoxia vary with the individual. Hypoxia can be caused by several factors including an insufficient supply of oxygen, inadequate transportation of oxygen, or the inability of the body tissues to use oxygen.
  • 87. Decrease of oxygen molecules at sufficient pressure can lead to hypoxic hypoxia. Related with high altitudes during rapid decompression, and lower altitudes when you are exposed to insufficient oxygen over an extended period of time.
  • 88. When your blood is not able to carry a sufficient amount of oxygen to the cells in your body. Deficiency in the blood (anemia)
  • 89. CO2 prevents the hemoglobin from carrying oxygen to the cells. 2.5% cigarettes = smoke 4% blood saturation = 3 cigarettes
  • 90. Loss of blood that occurs during a blood donation. Effects of the blood loss are slight at ground level, there are risks when flying during this time.
  • 91. Is an oxygen deficiency in the body due to the poor circulation of the blood. Several different situations can lead to stagnant hupoxia such as shick, the heart failing to pump blood effectuvely or a constricted artery.
  • 92. The inability of the cekks ti effectively use oxygen. The oxygen may be inhaled and reach the cell in adequate amounts, but the cell is unable to accept the oxygen once it is there.
  • 93. Occurs when you are experiencing emotional stress, fright, or pain, and your breathing reate and depth increase although the carbon dioxide is already at reduced level in the blood.
  • 94. Can occur when there is a conflict between the information relayed by your central vision scanning the instruments, and your peripheral vision which has virtually no references with which to establish orientation.
  • 95. Is a condition in which a disagreement exists between visually perceived movement and the vestibular system's sense of movement. Common symptoms of airsickness are general discomfort, paleness, nausea, dizziness, sw eating and vomiting.
  • 96. Scuba Dives