2. Today’s agenda• Welcome and Introductions• What are others doing: Social media use around the world• Why do it? Benefits and barriers to social media adoption• Managing social media: Initiative level• Managing social media: organizational level• Adjourn
3. Who are we?• Foster public sector innovation, enhance capability, generate public value, and support good governance.• Applied research, knowledge sharing, and Policy collaborative problem solving• Look at the intersection of policy, management, and technology. Management Technology
4. Who are you?• Your name• Your position• What do you hope to learn during this training?
5. Social Media Landscape
6. What is social media? Differences between Web 1.0 & 2.0 & Social media* Web 1.0 Web 2.0 Social media Content creators few Anyone can be a content User-generated content Technologies static creator (video, text, or audio) Technologies dynamic Technologies feature and interactive strong social component (user profiles, friend links, comments, tags, ratings) Networks of people Example Example Example Craig’s list is essentially an e– Web 2.0 sites allow users to Facebook is driven by user- mail list server, and has no do more than just retrieve profiles, friends, linking, and public user profiles, or fancy information (e.g., transactions) interaction. It has a section for dynamic pages. pictures, for micro-blogging Amazon.com started in the (called The Wall), and allows late 1990s with ratings and users to embed videos and voting. links.For a more in-depth discussion about the differences between Web 1.0 and Web 2.0 see Cormode, G. & Krishnamurthy, B. "Keydifferences between Web 1.0 and Web 2.0,” First Monday [Online], Volume 13 Number 6 (25 April 2008). * Table was created andadapted by referencing this text.
7. Social media types• Blogs (e.g., WordPress)• Social Networks (e.g., Facebook)• Microblogs (e.g., Twitter)• Wikis (e.g., Wikipedia)• Video (YouTube)• Podcasts• Discussion Forums• RSS Feeds• Photo Sharing (e.g., Flickr)• Crowdsourcing
8. Trends - Social media around the world
9. Trends - Social media around the world
10. Global social media trends – 96 % of the US Millennial have joined a social network site. – 17.84% of Moldova internet users have joined Facebook – Fastest growing segment on Facebook is 55 – 65 year old females. – In Europe, people join on average 1,9 social networks. In USA it’s 2,1; Brazil 3,1 and India 3,9. – Youth (between the ages of 15 and 29) make up around 70% of Facebook users in the Arab region, indicating a slight increase in the number of users over 30 years old since the end of 2010.Sources: Socialnomics – Social media blog, August 11, 2009 at http://socialnomics.net/2009/08; Steven Van Belleghem, InSiteConsulting, Social Media Around the World, 2011; Arab Social Media Report, Vol. 1, No.2, May 2011, Dubai School of Government;World Usage Patterns & Demographics at http://www.newmediatrendwatch.com/world-overview/34-world-usage-patterns-and-demographics?start=3; Pew Research Center, December 2011, Global Digital Communication: Texting, Social Networking PopularWorldwide
11. Global social media trends – Facebook tops Google for weekly traffic in the US. – YouTube is the 2nd largest search engine in the world, reporting 2 billion video views per day as of May 2010. – More than 70% of Facebook users come from outside the United States. – Israel (53%) and the U.S. (50%) top the list with the highest percentage of adults who say they use online social networking sites. – Russia is the only country where nearly all internet users are on social networking sites. – In lower income countries the percentage of users tends to be low because majorities do not use the internet at all; however, among those who do use the internet, more are using social networking sites than not. – Older people are consistently much less likely to engage in social networking than adults under the age of 30.Sources: Socialnomics – Social media blog, August 11, 2009 at http://socialnomics.net/2009/08; Steven Van Belleghem, InSite Consulting, SocialMedia Around the World, 2011; Arab Social Media Report, Vol. 1, No.2, May 2011, Dubai School of Government; World Usage Patterns &Demographics at http://www.newmediatrendwatch.com/world-overview/34-world-usage-patterns-and-demographics?start=3; Pew ResearchCenter, December 2011, Global Digital Communication: Texting, Social Networking Popular Worldwide
12. Global social media trends • Growth – Race to 50 million (radio 38 years; TV 13 years; Internet 4 years; Ipod 3 years). – Facebook growth: 2004 – 1 million users, 2005 – 5.5 million, 2006 – 12 million, 2007 – 50 million, 2008 – 100 million, 2009 – 350 million, 2010 – 500 million, 2011 – 800 million. – More than 1 billion people (>70% of internet population) use social networks. • Attitudes – 60% does not want any new social networks. – 93% are happy with what they have and won’t in- or decrease.Sources: Socialnomics – Social media blog, August 11, 2009 at http://socialnomics.net/2009/08; Steven Van Belleghem, InSiteConsulting, Social Media Around the World, 2011; Arab Social Media Report, Vol. 1, No.2, May 2011, Dubai School of Government;World Usage Patterns & Demographics at http://www.newmediatrendwatch.com/world-overview/34-world-usage-patterns-and-demographics?start=3; Pew Research Center, December 2011, Global Digital Communication: Texting, Social Networking PopularWorldwide; Steven Van Belleghem, InSite Consulting, Social Media Around the World, 2011
13. What do users preferences look like?Retrieved from: Rich’s Blog http://www.richsblog.com/files/40a33566f6df449d356cfe003293bdb7-132.html (10/2010)
14. What do users preferences look like? Moldovan US users users?Retrieved from: Rich’s Blog http://www.richsblog.com/files/40a33566f6df449d356cfe003293bdb7-132.html (10/2010)
15. What are others doing?Social media in public space
16. Most frequently used social media tools by governments
17. • Social networking site – allows registered users to interact with other users for social purposes.• Launched in February 2004.• As of December 2011, Facebook had more than 800 million active users.• Users may create a personal profile, add other users as friends, and exchange messages, including automatic notifications when they update their profile.• Additionally, users may join common-interest user groups, organized by workplace, school or college, and categorize their friends into lists, such as "People From Work".
18. and government
19. helpful starting ideas•Connect to and integrate your Facebook site with your agencywebsite• Use Facebook’s network to drive people to your website forinformation•Take advantage of Facebook’s mobile platform to sendmessages to smart phone users•Create Facebook groups for more targeted marketing andcommunication strategies• Utilize Facebook Share, a button on your website that makesit easier to share Facebook content
20. • Micro blogging service that enables its users to send and read text-based posts of up to 140 characters, informally known as "tweets", and images.• Created in March 2006.• Has over 200 million users as of 2011.
21. and government
22. helpful starting ideas•Keep citizens updated on “up-to-the-minute” type events (suchas snowstorms, parking changes, community events, or schoolclosings)• Streamline communication with the press (you follow them,they follow you)•Receive instant feedback from individuals – pose a question, seewhat kind of information you get in response•Learn the “tweeting” language (@ = public, DM = private, RT =retweet)
23. • YouTube is a video-sharing website on which users can upload, share, and view videos.• Created in February 2005.• Users can freely upload their own video content to the site, as long as it is less than 10 minutes in length and the file is less than 100MB in size.• A video can be made either public or private. It also includes other features such as the ability to comment on videos.
24. and government
25. helpful starting ideas•Change up your content based on demographics, publish avideo about “teenage drinking” instead of a manual.•Host a contest, get citizens involved, high school students, orlocal college students to create video content for you.•Post videos of town meetings, special community events, orother participation-like events to increase your transparency.•Use it as a less expensive way to publish public serviceannouncements (e.g., H1N1).•Make sure content uploaded is not copyrighted.
26. • Flickr is an online photo management and sharing application that allows users to post, share and organize photos and videos to the public.• The service is widely used by bloggers to host images that they embed in blogs.• Flickr has a total of 51 million registered member and 80 million unique visitors.• In August 2011, it reported that it was hosting more than 6 billion images
27. and government
28. • A type of website maintained by an individual or organization with regular entries about events, news, or other material such as graphics or video.• Most blogs are interactive, allowing visitors to leave comments and even message each other via widgets on the blogs and it is this interactivity that distinguishes them from other static websites.• A typical blog combines text, images, and links to other blogs, Web pages, and other media related to its topic.
29. and government
30. Social media in the public sphere• Used by civil society to influence the public and government• Used by media to inform the public• Used by political figures to communicate their message• Used by government agencies to communicate with their citizens• Used by governments to engage and collaborate with their citizens• Used by governments to facilitate services to their citizens
31. Social media in the public sphereUsed by civilsociety toinfluencegovernmentactions andpolicies
33. Transparency and accountability by trackinginfluence of money in politics
34. Used by media to inform the publicJournalists use social media to:• Finding Leads, Noticing Trends (Iran revolution)• Finding Sources (Virginia Tech shooting)• Crowdsourcing (US Airways flight 1549)• Sharing/Vetting Stories• Creating Communities/BrandingHow Journalists are Using SocialMedia for Real Results, Brenna Ehrlich
35. Used by media to inform the publicInvestigative journalism is changing – with largequantities of data becoming freely available, wesee arrival of data journalismWhat is it?Data journalism is based on analyzing andfiltering large data sets for the purpose ofcreating a new story
36. Guardian Data Bloghttp://datajournalism.stanford.edu/
37. “Presenting a pile of factsand numbers withoutdirecting people towardany avenue ofunderstanding is notuseful.” (Amanda Cox)
38. Social media in the public sphereUsed by politicalfigures tocommunicatetheir agenda
39. Social media in the public sphereUsed bygovernmentagencies tocommunicate withtheir citizens
40. Social media in the public sphereUsed by governments toengage and collaboratewith their citizens
41. Social media in the public sphereUsed by governmentsto facilitate services totheir citizens
42. Use of social media in US government “As of July 2010, we identified that 22 of 24 major federal agencies had a presence on Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube.” - Challenges In Federal Agencies Use of Web 2.0 Technologies - Statement of Gregory C. Wilshusen, Director Information Security IssuesRetrieved from: NASCIO Friends, Followers, and Feeds: A National Surveyof Social Media Use in State Government September 2010http://www.nascio.org/publications/surveys.cfm (10/2010)
43. Social media in the public sphere
44. Social media in the public sphere “Please put the contact number in the common home page and also please put information about the required documents for the various services offered by General Directorate of Nationality, Passports and Residence Hamid Abualfath Blog Owner Reply: excellent idea will be applied soon, God willing .. Thank you very much”
45. Social media continuum Modest Moderate ElaborateOne or two social More than one social Several social mediamedia channels in use media channel used in channels used inForm of content is an integrated fashion interconnected fashionusually limited to text Form of content is Forms of content areEngagement efforts are more diverse varied including text,simple, generally Engagement initiatives video, photosinvolving solicitation of are more advanced, Elaborate engagementcomments involving voting and initiatives involvingUpdates are done comment strategies voting, rewardregularly but frequency Updates are done systems, and intenseis relatively low more frequently, monitoring generally every few Updates are done on days frequent basis, several times a day
46. Social media toolkits
47. What are your organizations doing with social media? Do you know of any examples of government entity using social media channels?
48. The focus of this training• Our focus is on use by government agencies for communication, engagement and service provision purposes• We will not focus on use of social media for political campaign purposes or use of social media by civil society
49. What are social media good for?• Information sharing and dissemination• Soliciting feedback and input from citizens• Engaging citizens in a conversation• Soliciting citizens’ assistance• Assessing community’s reactions/state of mind
50. Challenges to social media use by government• Service delivery models limited• Monopolization of conversation in cyber space• Low level of interest in engaging with government• Low level of trust in social media• Trade-offs when social media replaces others channels of communication
51. Why do it?Benefits and barriers to using social media in government
52. What benefits might governmentorganizations in Moldova gain by using social media? What benefits might citizens ofMoldova gain through government use of social media?
53. Perceptions from the field: Social media benefits• Reaching new audiences through information access, dissemination, and sharing• Provides new channel for communication and thus enhancing reach of traditional media already in place
54. Perceptions from the field: Social media benefits• Enhanced engagement and collaboration opportunities with stakeholders• Reducing routine questions to agencies and getting more citizen feedback
55. Perceptions from the field: Social media benefits• Having more control and tools available for communicating with the public• Improving public perception of government• Cost savings
56. Retrieved from: NASCIO Friends, Followers, and Feeds: A National Survey of Social Media Use in State Government September 2010http://www.nascio.org/publications/surveys.cfm (10/2010)
57. What obstacles might government organizations in Moldova face to using social media? What obstacles might government organizations in Moldova face tousing social media to engage citizens?
58. Barriers to social media adoption• Governance of social media engagement within the organization• Legal and regulatory ramifications stemming from agency using social media tools
59. Barriers to social media adoption• Possibility of negative perception by the public• Security threats reaching organization through social media tools
60. Barriers to social media adoption• Lack of organizational resources to build and sustain effective social media engagement• Information overload of citizens
61. Barriers to social media adoption• Making a business case to executives• Accessibility of social media tools
62. Risks and obstacleshttp://www.nascio.org/publications/documents/NASCIO-SocialMedia.pdf
63. Today’s agenda• Welcome and Introductions• What are others doing: Social media use around the world• Why do it? Benefits and barriers to social media adoption• Managing social media: Initiative level• Managing social media: organizational level• Adjourn
64. Managing social media in government
65. Why should you manage social media?Risks of IT innovation• Public sector environment – divided authority, multiple stakeholders• Organizational factors – alignment, support & acceptance• Work-associated risks – business process design• Technology-related risks – too much hope, too little knowledge
66. Sources of risk• Misidentifying the problem• Underestimating complexity• Underestimating costs• Lack of trust (and trustworthiness)• Design shifts/technological change• Lack of champions & sponsors• Inadequate amounts & kinds of communication• Overvaluing novelty
67. 3 ways to mitigate risks– thoroughly understand the problem to be solved and its context– identify and test the possible solutions to the problem– evaluate the results of those tests against your service and performance goals
68. Managing social media in government1. Initiative level • Developing an objective and a strategy • Managing agency-generated content creation • Managing of citizen engagement on government social media channels • Managing expectations2. Organizational level • Management of social media accounts • Management of employee use of social media • Development of a social media policy
69. Management of social media on initiative level
70. Managing social media in government1. Initiative level • Developing an objective and a strategy • Managing agency-generated content creation • Managing citizen engagement on government social media channels • Managing expectations2. Organizational level • Management of social media accounts • Management of employee use of social media • Developing social media policy
71. Developing a social media objective and strategy
72. How will developing a strategy help me?• Laying out clearly what is the aim of your initiative• Gaining understanding of who your stakeholders are• Making a case to your executives• Building support among your colleagues• Communicating to interested people
73. Steps to developing a strategy1) Determine an objective2) Identify your stakeholders3) Analyze effect on existing business processes4) Assess amount of time and resources available both to launch and to sustain5) Conduct an environmental scan6) Assess SM tools
74. 1) Determine an objectiveStart with a good problem or good opportunity• Avoid the “everybody else is doing it” syndrome.• What problem is your agency trying to solve?• Do you see an opportunity in using social media and if so, what is it?
75. Examples of good problems or opportunities• A public health agency is trying to reach the target population of parents and the elderly with information about a flu epidemic.• Ministry of environmental protection is planning to implement a new environmental regulation and wants to gather feedback from the public on its potential effects.• Ministry of transportation is faced with budget constraints that prevent them from properly surveying route conditions during the winter months.
76. Assignment 1: What problem oropportunity is your agency facing that could be addressed by social media?
77. A Service Objective What is it? And why use it?• A structured way to express your intent• To get team members to agree on the intent• To get everyone using the same words to describe the intent• To use as a foundation for future planning efforts
78. A Madlib exercise To provide (who) with (what) thatallows them to (action) so that (outcomes).
79. Service objective example“To provide at risk population including parentswith small children and elderly citizens with 24X 7, on-line access to the updated informationon availability of flu vaccines and related healthinformation that allows them to identify thenearest health provider that has access to fluvaccines so that they can secure necessary fluvaccination to protect their health or health oftheir loved ones.”
80. Assignment 2: Considering the problem oropportunity described earlier, what should be the objective of your social media effort?
81. 2) Identify your stakeholders– Stakeholders are individuals and groups who are affected by or have influence over your initiative– Anyone who has a “stake” or interest in what you are doing
82. Identifying stakeholders• All users who are • Organizations or affected by the project government agencies• Special interest groups that will be impacted impacted by the by the project project • Intermediaries to the• Advocates of the project project • All users who may be• Direct customers of the negatively affected by project the project• Indirect customers of the project
83. Know your audience• Who is your target audience/your key stakeholder?• What are their interests and preferences?• What is their preferred communication channel?
84. Assignment 3: Who is your key audience? What are their interests?How would you best reach them?
85. 3) Identify effects on existing business processes• Looking at how work is done now.• What functions will be affected by adopting of social media?• How will these functions be affected?
86. Why is it important to study existing processes?• Making the implicit explicit• Inhibiting prematurely jumping to a solution• Creating a commonly understood, externalized definition of the problem• Helps better assess the overall impact on the organization• Helps better assess the non-monetary cost of change• Establishes benchmarks for measuring the impact of a particular change
87. Example of process change Department A has its own process Old Process Joan Smith in Department Intake the IT B has its feedback department ownfrom mail reviews processand online feedback andcomment sends to right Department department forms C has its own process New Process Joan Smith in Intake the IT feedback department reviews from mail feedback and and online sends to right comment department forms Finds answer and Intake responds feedback from ALL New “Social social Media” team responsible for Aggregates media uses communicating Social media (Facebook, and feedback answers and YouTube, analysis & citizen prepares a report Twitter, etc) feedback used in to agency mgmt agency “planning” team
88. What process analysis helps us discover• Information flows• Information bottlenecks• Policy issues or challenges• Roles and responsibilities• Skill set requirements• Tasks or work functions• Cross-organizational boundaries• Technology inventories
89. 4) Assess amount of time and resources available• Social media are not free• Do you have staff with the necessary skills?• Does you staff have the time to add maintenance of social media channels to their existing duties?• Do you have the technical resources and capabilities to support your initiative?
90. 5) Environmental scan• Taking a look around to see what others in a similar situations have done. Consider your own capability to do what they have done.• Designing a creative social media presence is demanding – learn from others first.• Do not focus just on what they did, learn how they did it, and where they had problems and successes, and why.
91. 6) Survey various SM tools• Review your objective• Identify functionalities that are a must for your ideal tool• Compare tools in regard to the functionalities they offer• Determine which tools are best at reaching your target audience• Consider which tools support the type of content you are planning to use
92. Managing social media in government1. Initiative level • Developing an objective and a strategy • Managing agency content creation • Managing citizen engagement on government social media channels • Managing expectations2. Organizational level • Management of social media accounts • Management of employee use of social media • Developing social media policy
93. Managing agency content
94. What is agency content?Agency content isany social mediacontent createdand posted by theagency.
95. What’s new?The type and tone ofcontentThe form of contentFrequency of updateContent generatorsPublic nature ofinteraction
96. Agency- generated contentFive required decisions:1. Content guidelines2. Type and form of content3. Frequency of posting and updates4. Responsible parties5. Technical and staff resources and training needed
97. 1. Creating content guidelines• Common sense rules about appropriate and inappropriate content• Such guidelines often follow existing employee conduct policies• Guidelines with respect to language, grammar, political endorsements, etc.
98. 2. Deciding on content• Determine the scope of your Photos objective Videos• Consider your intended Budget Events audience Meeting Data sets announc ements Services
99. What form should your content take?– Initiative’s objective– Intended audience– Agency’s resources and capabilities– Available tools
100. 3. How frequently should agency content be published?• What type of tool are you using?• What is the objective of your social media initiative?• What resources do you have available?
101. How frequently should agency content be published? BY TOOLEvery minute/ As frequently as hour Every day/week Every week/month necessary Traffic Regular data Event Emergency conditions reports announcements announcements Information Photos from Budget about services region/events documents Regular meeting Videos about Election results updates services BY PURPOSE
102. Content calendarWhat is it?• Content calendar is a plan for publishing your content.Why use it?• Helps you be organized, helps you be more regular in your updates, helps you assess what type of content seems to resonate with your audience, helps you look at the big picture, helps ensure continuity, helps you delegate responsibilityWhat form does it take?• Any form you find most helpful.
103. Creating a content calendar: getting started Brainstorm content ideas – Start with brainstorming a list of regularly occurring content (press releases, monthly reports, budget information, etc.) Start slow and small – Start with baby steps and grow in phases Think about frequency – Break it down month by month, week by week – Different tools have different timing needs Get feedback from others – Share your plan and get additional ideas from others such as your program staff, your PR staff, etc. Align with other efforts – Social media represent just one channel of communication – make sure you social media efforts are aligned with other channels of communicationAdapted from http://searchenginewatch.com/article/2136988/How-to-Create-a-Social-Media-Editorial-Calendar; How to Create a Social Media Editorial Calendar, Lisa Buyer, January 12, 2012
104. Assignment 4:Consider your objective and your needs to begin your contentcalendar. Consider the content you would want to present, in what form, how frequently?
105. 4. Who is responsible?• Determining who is responsible for content is key to ensuring a successful social media strategy• Why do you need to control who can post and create content? – Avoid inconsistency – Avoid inaccurate postings – Help minimize risks
106. Different models of content creation: Parallel approach Pros: Citizens & Other stakeholders •More varied content •More personal engagement •Shared burden for content Cons: •Sense of less control •Possibility of inconsistent message •Increased cost of coordinationCommunication Program Staff Staff Parallel Communication Patterns
107. Different models of content creation: Centralized approach Citizens & Pros: Other stakeholders •Centralized control over content •Consistency of message •Better chance of coherency Cons: Communication •Lost social aspect of social media Staff •Perception of censorship •Greater burden on selected individuals •Less degree of content richness Program Program Staff Staff Centralized Communication Patterns
108. Assignment 5: Considering your organization’s context, which model would you most likely use?Or would you use a different model all together?
109. 5. Technical and staff resources and training• Availability of necessary technical equipment• Technical training for new mediums• How to leverage being “social”• Training for specific social media tool
110. Content tips• Integrate different forms of content• Be engaging – create a cartoon character• Be responsive, answer all comments and all questions even if just to say thank you• Post about what otheragencies are doing• Post non-governmentinformation related to themission of your agency
111. Content tips• Use social media to drive people to your website• Use conversational tone• Become fan of other pages• Form collaborations with other agencies to like and cross-post your content• Do not take it personally• Do not post press releases
112. Social media don’ts• Do not express personal opinions• Do not embrace political campaigns• Do not have sporadic content schedule• Do not post only one-way information – try to elicit conversation• Do not post the same content everywhere• Not responding to comments or questions• Not using images and video to make your visually interesting
113. Managing social media in government1. Initiative level • Developing an objective and a strategy • Managing agency content creation • Managing citizen engagement on government social media channels • Managing expectations2. Organizational level • Management of social media accounts • Management of employee use of social media • Developing social media policy
114. Forms of citizen engagement• commentary and questions – generic comments and questions not purposely solicited by the agency.• ideas and input – ideas and input submitted in response to a specific question or request for comment initiated by the agency.• submissions to contests – content that is submitted in response to an agency -sponsored contest.
115. Why manage citizen engagement?• To maintain professional standards• To fulfill expectations of engagement• To retain certain degree of control
116. Five decisions for managing citizen engagement1. Level of engagement2. Content guidelines3. Monitoring and responding4. Using citizen content5. Training and resources
117. 1. Deciding on level of engagement IdeasScale, other Websites, Any social Any social media Wikis, tools that enable RSS feeds, media tool with tool with blogs, and citizens to actively podcasts comment comment other social evaluate and vote function turned function turned media on ideas off on One way One way Commentary and Static ideas Dynamic ideas Contestinformation channel information channel questions and input and input submissions without two-way public communication capability - Initiative’s objective - Intended audience -Agency’s resources and capabilities -Engagement can be done in stages based on comfort with tools
118. 2. Creating citizen content guidelines• What citizens can and cannot provide as content• How inappropriate content will be handled• The timeframe in which content will be published
119. 3. Monitoring and respondingMonitoring• Regular review of content posted or submitted by citizens• Modest, moderate and elaborate monitoring depending on objective, resources, and topic at handResponding• Regular posting of responses to submitted content including questions, updates and information.
120. Strategies for monitoring and respondingDifferent strategies for monitoring and responding: – One person response team – Multiple person response team – Channeling incoming content to existing departments – Subject-specific system to channel contentHow to choose a strategy: – Objective of your engagement – Resources available – Size and current business processes of your organization
121. One person response team• One designated monitor• Often the same person who is responsible for producing content• One of the most frequently seen strategies• Often seen in smaller organizations• A good starting point CitizenPros: Citizen – Consistent responses – Limited amount of coordination needed Citizen Citizen – Limited effect on existing business Citizen processes CitizenCons: Designated monitor – Only one person trained and capable and responder – Missing “social” character – Potentially pronounced effect on selected individual
122. Multiple person response team • Several designated monitors • Generally also given permission to produce content • Often seen in larger organizations with multiple social media channelsPros: Citizen Citizen – Greater continuity for monitoring and responding Citizen Citizen Citizen – Greater feeling of “socialness” among staff Designated Designated monitor and monitor and – Ability to develop greater comfort with a responder responder specific tool Citizen Designated Citizen monitor andCons: responder Citizen – Coordination mechanisms need to be Citizen developed Citizen – Potential for inconsistent responses
123. Channeling incoming content to existing departments• Designated monitors channel questions to existing department that focuses on citizen interaction• Only seen in large departments that have intensive contact with constituents• Designated departments either respond directly or channel answer back through designated monitor CitizenPros: Citizen Citizen – Consistency of responses across different Designated channels monitor and responder – Answering many with one responseCons: – Coordination mechanisms need to be Call center developed Constituent – Adding additional responsibilities services center
124. Subject-specific system to channel content • Questions and comments sorted based on topic • Topics are given to units responsible for given topic • Responses are channeled back through a designated monitor • Generally seen in large organizations Citizen Topic B Citizen CitizenPros: To – Accuracy of responses p ic ic C A Top DesignatedCons: monitor and responder – Large degree of coordination and follow up – Creation of new business processes Unit B Unit A Unit C
125. 4. Using citizen content• Be clear about the purpose for seeking citizen content and what you plan to do with it once you have it• Identify existing processes for incorporating citizen input• Ensure sufficient transparency and accountability to incorporating citizen input
126. 5. Training needs• Applying content guidelines• Citizen engagement training• Tool specific training
127. Assignment 7:Based on your objective and content, what level of engagement do you think would be right for your organization?How do you think your agency should handle citizen content? How would you use it?
128. Managing social media in government1. Initiative level • Developing an objective and a strategy • Managing agency content creation • Managing citizen engagement on government social media channels • Managing expectations2. Organizational level • Management of social media accounts • Management of employee use of social media • Developing social media policy
129. Managing expectations
130. Why manage expectations• Addressing preconceived notions protects your initiative• It gives you freedom to try new things• It opens up communication
131. Internal expectations• Amount of time to build a community• Levels of likely citizen engagement• Prepare for the range of commentary
132. External expectations• Responsiveness• Wasting resources• Trust• Big brother
133. Managing social media in government1. Initiative level • Developing an objective and a strategy • Managing agency-generated content creation • Managing citizen engagement on government social media channels • Managing expectations2. Organizational level • Management of social media accounts • Management of employee use of social media • Developing social media policy
134. Management of social media at the organizational level
135. Management on organizational level• Social media is an organizational asset and should be treated that way• It should be viewed as both, a communication channel and a technical tool• Its uses vary and each use has different implication for an organization• Creating boundaries for employees gives them the freedom to explore these tools
136. Boundary issues & challenges Issues Challenges• Simultaneous engagement • Monitoring employee use in professional and is more difficult personal uses • Difficulty in coordinating agency message•Linked up personal and • Legal issues connected to professional identities employees’ right to privacy and free speech•Permanency of social • Change in organizational media content culture and business processes
137. Managing social media in government1. Initiative level • Developing an objective and a strategy • Managing agency-generated content creation • Managing citizen engagement on government social media channels • Managing expectations2. Organizational level • Management of social media accounts • Management of employee use of social media • Developing social media policy
138. Management of social media accountsWhy manage social media accounts?• Social media accounts are official communication channels• Integrity is key to maintaining trust• Extremely low technological barriers• Easy to open• Easy to forget
139. Steps to managing social media accounts1. Establish an account opening protocol2. Maintain a list of existing accounts and their log-on names and passwords3. Maintain list of employees with access to official agency accounts4. Periodically update passwords
140. 1. Account opening protocol What is it? – Protocol that lays out steps that need to be taken to secure a permission to open an account. Should explain who has the final decision making power and what does a unit need to do to obtain a permission.What form does it take? – Forms vary from formal business cases that lay out the objective, needed resources, etc. to more informal memos asking for permission to establish an account.What is it for? – To ensure appropriate tracking of the government’s social media presence.
141. 2. Maintain a list of existing accounts and their log-on names and passwords3. Maintain list of employees with access to official agency accounts4. Require periodic updating of passwords
142. Managing social media in government1. Initiative level • Developing an objective and a strategy • Managing agency-generated content creation • Managing citizen engagement on government social media channels • Managing expectations2. Organizational level • Management of social media accounts • Management of employee use of social media • Developing social media policy
143. Management of employee use of social mediaThree aspects to managing social media useby employees: 1. Access 2. Acceptable use 3. Employee conduct
144. 1. AccessAccess decisions are decisions regarding who, ifanyone, within the organization will be allowed to access social media sites for personal, professional or agency use.Three access strategies:• Open access• Access based on position• Access based on tool
145. Open access strategyWhat is it?All employees of the government organization areallowed to access social media sites. This does not implyability to post content on behalf of agency, only ability toaccess it from place of work.Pros: – Satisfaction of employees – Employees able to take advantage of information exchange on social media.Cons: – Less control over employee time – Greater chances of negative public reaction – Possible security implications for government infrastructure
146. Access management based on positionWhat is it?Access to social media sites is given based on function or role of aparticular employee within an agency. Generally such employeeshave responsibility for communication functions or are positionedhighly in the organization. Governments should develop guidelinesas to what constitutes legitimate need for use.Pros: – More control over employees time. – Lesser possibility of inappropriate use by government employee on government time.Cons: – Limiting access to important tool for acquiring knowledge – Stifling creativity of its employees
147. Access management based on selected toolsWhat is it?Access is granted to all or most employees but only toselected tools. This selection is generally done based onperceived value of the tool or some other selectioncriteria.Pros: – Access to selected tools allows employees to use these tools to enhance their skills and knowledge.Cons: – One shoe generally does not fit all. – Greater security and use implications for organizational infrastructure.
148. 2. Acceptable useAcceptable use policies outline how employees are expected to use agency resources, restrictions on use for personal interests, and consequences for violating the policy. – Generally follows other already established rules for technologies such as internet. – Need to differentiate between personal and professional use
149. 3. Employee conduct Employee conduct addresses what is “right” and “wrong” in terms of employees’ behavior whenengaging with social media tools or on social media platforms as an employee of a particular agency. There are two aspects to employee conduct: a. Conduct while officially representing government b. Conduct as a private citizen
150. a. Conduct while officially representing government• Closely mirrors guidelines to creating content on official social media channels.• Should also apply to representing government organization on social media channels that are not owned by the given government. For instance, responding on behalf of the Environmental Protection Agency to a blog post of a private citizen on his or her private blog regarding environmental concern.• The guidelines generally follow generic conduct policies regarding offensive language, misrepresentation of government information and so on.
151. The blurry line: private and official conduct “[The] lines between public and private, personaland professional are blurred. By identifying yourself as a State employee, you are creating perceptions about your expertise and about the State by legislative stakeholders, customers, business partners and the general public…Be sure that allcontent associated with you is consistent with your work and with the State’s values and professional standards.” ~ State of Utah
152. b. Conduct as a private citizen• Very difficult issue in some countries given the legal restrictions on the extent to which a government can limit self-expression of their employees in their private life.• Governments do feel the need to make clear the separation between their employees and official government positions by requiring disclaimers on any private sites of their employees.• Governments do restrict their employees conduct on social media.
154. Why manage employee use of social media?• Protects the organization• Gives employees clear boundaries of what is and what is not acceptable• Gives employees freedom to explore and innovate• Sets clear rules for potential disciplinary action
155. Managing social media in government1. Initiative level • Developing an objective and a strategy • Managing agency-generated content creation • Managing citizen engagement on government social media channels • Managing expectations2. Organizational level • Management of social media accounts • Management of employee use of social media • Developing social media policy
156. Why do governments need a social media policy?• Inform and educate employees• Set internal and external expectations• Define proper use and procedures• Prevent problems from happening in the first place• Establish and maintain legitimacy
159. SecuritySecurity policy outlines security procedures employees have tofollow when using social media tools. Security considerations: ● Behavioral versus technical issues ● Employee education ● Fast pace of technological changes ● Some policies utilize existing security policies for Internet use, others are more specific to social media environment
160. Legal issuesLegal issues connected to agency and employee use ofsocial media tools. Legal considerations: ● Policy environment has not caught up to technology ● Policies reviewed took two approaches – make reference to users abiding by existing laws or detail specific laws to abide by ● Issues that seem to be most pressing in the United States: Terms of Service Records management Freedom of speech Citizen privacy
161. Creating a policy – getting started• Determine goals and objectives for using social media tools.• Bring together a multi-functional team including all stakeholders from communication, legal, technology, human resources, and program units.• Identify existing policies that apply to the use of social media tools.• Discuss conflicts or inconsistencies between proposed and existing policies and procedures.