Government innovation through cloud computing arthur riel
Government Innovation Through Cloud Computing Advantages for developing countries Arthur Riel February 14, 2013This material is a product of the staff of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank. The findings, interpretations, and conclusions expressed in this presentation do not necessarily reflect the views of the Executive Directors of The World Bank orthe governments they represent. The World Bank does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this work. This material should not be reproduced or distributed without The World Banks prior consent.
Cloud: The Sweet Spot The virtualization and commoditization of infrastructure has benefited numerous organizations Data center decentralization has become very inexpensive, benefiting larger countries Data center centralization has become very inexpensive (e.g. Indonesia) Servers, storage and bandwidth are now priced like electricity Many large organizations are effectively using cloud to run 100% of their operations: Netflix, Four Square.
Cloud: Benefits to Government Pay as you go servers can be cheaper than providing data centers, especially in countries with poor infrastructure Hosting mobile applications in the cloud can eliminate the need for intermediate servers, e.g. cloud to smart phone. No large capital upfront fee No hardware/technology refresh to strategize As businesses and citizens increase usage there is no extensibility planning required
eGovernment in the Cloud eGovernment services are ideally hosted in the cloud The EU is benchmarking member countries as part of the EU2020 Digital Agenda on eGovernment services Hosting in the cloud allows for countries to focus on data cleanup (always a big problem) and service implementation solely As the number of services is increased (and the associated added transactions) the cloud allows for nearly infinite scale at a linear or better cost model
20 Basic Public eGovernment Services Business Community Citizen Based Based • Income taxes • Social contributions • Job search • Corporate tax • Social security contributions (3 • VAT out of 4) • Company Registration • Personal documents • Statistical data • Car registration • Customs declarations • Application for building • Environment-related permits permission • Public procurement • Declaration to the police • Public libraries • Certificates • Enrolment in higher education • Announcement of moving • Health related services
eGoverment Maturity Model: FourStage Framework 4. Full on- line 3. Two-Way transactions Interaction including delivery and payment 2. One Way Interaction 1: Posting of Information On-Line
eGovernment in the Cloud eGovernment services provide better service to clients, e.g. birth/death/move reporting, tax payments, building permits eGovernment services provide better service to business, e.g. company registration, tax payments, permit requests, building permits eGovernment services provide for more productive and efficient government agencies through streamlined, automated processes.
Mobility in the Cloud By implementing the mobility infrastructure in the cloud we achieve all the benefits of scalability, decentralization and technology independence. Mobility can be exploited for a number of purposes for developing countries Agricultural Extension Services Educational Services Crowd Sourcing, e.g. healthcare issues, project management, corruption monitoring
Document Management in the Cloud By managing government documents in a public cloud they are highly accessible at much lower cost (one popular vendor offers a low end solution at 18 cents per GB/year and high end at less than 90 cents per GB/year) Sensitive documents can be stored in a virtual private cloud for not much higher costs Scalability, backup and technology replacement are no longer government issues What about security?
Email and Collaboration in the Cloud There are many vendors offering collaboration solutions that are cloud-based No need for capital upfront expenditures Fast initiation and setup Scalability, backup and technology replacement are no longer government issues
A Caveat for the Cloud There is little case law in cross border cloud disputes and issues As the cloud obscures where data and solutions exist, as well as the number of instances and jurisdictions, there are possible complexities Some governments implement their own internal cloud to avoid these legal issues Others use a virtual private cloud with encryption at rest technologies The World Bank has an issue on privileges in the cloud These types of issues are not new to the cloud, US/EU email case study