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Cancer cells

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  • 1. Cancer CellsAbout UsTopicsHome Reference
  • 2. Cancer CellsAbout UsTopicsHome Reference Content: What are cancer cells? How cancer cells are different? Grade and Cancer Cells How Cancer Starts? Treatment of Cancer
  • 3. Cancer CellsAbout UsTopicsHome Reference Cancer Cells are • are cells gone wrong — in other words, they no longer respond to many of the signals that control cellular growth and death. • appear to the body’s immune system to be normal cells, therefore the body’s defenses will not attack them. • cell that has achieved a sort of immortality.
  • 4. Cancer CellsAbout UsTopicsHome Reference Cancer Cells Vs. Normal Cells • Growth – Normal cells grow as a part of growth and development, or to repair injured tissue. Cancer cells continue to grow (reproduce) even when further cells are not needed. Cancer cells also fail to listen to signals that tell them to stop growing or commit cell suicide (apoptosis) when the cells become old or damaged.
  • 5. Cancer CellsAbout UsTopicsHome Reference • Ability to invade nearby tissues – Normal cells respond to signals from other cells which tell them they have reached a boundary. Cancer cells do not respond to these signals, and extend into nearby tissues often with finger-like projections. • Ability to spread (metastasize) to other regions of the body – Normal cells make substances called adhesion molecules that cause them to stick to nearby cells. Cancer cells, lacking the stickiness caused by these adhesion molecules can break free and float to other regions of the body.
  • 6. Cancer CellsAbout UsTopicsHome Reference • Immortality – Normal cells, like humans, have a lifespan. When they reach a certain age, they die. Cancer cells, in contrast, have developed a way to “defy” death. On the end of our chromosomes is a structure known as a telomere. Every time a cell divides, its telomeres becomes shorter. When the telomeres become short enough, the cells dies. Cancer cells have figured out a way to restore their telomeres so that they don’t continue to shorten as the cell divides, thus, in a way, making them immortal.
  • 7. Cancer CellsAbout UsTopicsHome Reference
  • 8. Cancer CellsAbout UsTopicsHome Reference Grade and Cancer Cells • A low grade cancer cell looks more like a normal cell • A high grade cancer cell looks more abnormal and is less well developed than a normal cell • The grade of a cancer is different to the stage of a cancer. The 'stage' describes how big the cancer is and if it has spread or not. Prostate Cancer Cell
  • 9. Cancer CellsAbout UsTopicsHome Reference • Doctors and scientists now know that each cancer starts with changes in one cell or a small group of cells. Usually, many years before you can feel a lump, or a doctor can see it on a scan, the cells have started to divide and reproduce uncontrollably. • You can see from the differences between normal cells and cancer cells that the cancer cell seems to lose a number of vital control systems. This happens because some of the genes in the cell have been damaged or lost. Scientists call this 'mutation'. How cancer starts
  • 10. Cancer CellsAbout UsTopicsHome Reference The organs in our body are made up of cells. Cells divide and multiply as the body needs them. When these cells continue multiplying when the body doesn't need them, the result is a mass or growth, also called a tumor. These growths are considered either benign or malignant. Benign is considered non-cancerous and malignant is cancerous. Benign tumors rarely are life threatening and do not spread to other parts of the body. They can often be removed. Malignant tumors, however, often invade nearby tissue and organs, spreading the disease.
  • 11. Cancer CellsAbout UsTopicsHome Reference Treatment of Cancer There are four standard methods of treatment for cancer: surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and immunotherapy/biologic therapy. When initially diagnosed with cancer, a cancer specialist (called an oncologist) will provide the patient with cancer treatment options. He or she will recommend the best treatment plan based on the type of cancer, how far it has spread, and other important factors like age and general health.
  • 12. Cancer CellsAbout UsTopicsHome Reference References • http://www.cancerresearchuk.org/cancer- help/about-cancer/what-is-cancer/cells/how- cancer-starts • http://cancer.about.com/od/newlydiagnosed/ a/whatcancer.htm • http://lungcancer.about.com/od/Biology-of- Cancer/a/Cancer-Cells.htm
  • 13. Cancer CellsAbout UsTopicsHome Reference Prepared by: Den Mark B. Galapir Melbourne Padirayon