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Dyslexia Action Report

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    Dyslexia Action Report Dyslexia Action Report Document Transcript

    • Dyslexia Still MattersDyslexia in our schools today:Progress, challenges andsolutions
    • Dyslexia Still MattersDyslexia Still Matters:progress, challenges and solutionsThis Dyslexia Action report looks at the situation for children with dyslexia and literacydifficulties in our schools today. It explores the progress that has been made and examineswhat still needs to be done to ensure school is positive and rewarding. In the light of plannedreforms of the Special Educational Needs system and considering other key changes, we putforward positive suggestions and solutions, based on our review of what is currently workingwell in schools. This evidence of effective practice will be useful to all schools as they take onmore responsibility for delivering effective interventions and support for children with dyslexiaand literacy difficulties. The challenge of improving literacy standards in the UK is great, andwe believe that our input can make a big contribution. We are calling for a National Dyslexiaand Literacy Strategy to enable the best evidence and solutions to be brought forward to putan end to the negative and unrewarding experiences of school that are still being reported bythe parents of dyslexic children.Action is manifestations of dyslexia but that it is equally effective for children with ‘high-incidence, lower-needed now severity’ needs. The Report provides valuable examples of effective practice in support of its A  call for action - recommendations; these are worthy of serious Sir Jim Rose, former attention if we are to take further decisive action Chief Inspector on dyslexia. for Schools and Jim Rose (June, 2012) author of the Independent Review The need for this on Identification and report Support for Pupils with Kevin Geeson, ChiefDyslexia and Literacy Difficulties. Executive of DyslexiaTrue to its name and purpose, ‘Dyslexia Action’ Actionhas consistently focused on responding directly Have we done dyslexiato the challenge of supporting children who need - been there and got theto overcome the debilitating effects of dyslexia. t-shirt? Are we ready to move on? Do we haveAs it is not a singular condition, dyslexia has all the answers and know exactly what dyslexiato be tackled by skilled teaching designed to is and how to identify it? Do we know whatcounter the different degrees of its severity that we should be doing so everyone with dyslexiaimpact upon children’s learning. can enjoy school and succeed in life? Are weIn this timely report, Dyslexia Action rightly claims confident it is working?that good progress has been made to meet the Dyslexia Action has been around for 40 yearsneeds of children in these respects. In reforming and there is no doubt that progress has beenthe Special Educational Needs system, the made and dyslexia is now widely recognised.report therefore urges policymakers to sustain However, evidence tells us there is still a greatthat momentum by making sure any new deal to be done to ensure all dyslexic children inarrangements are sufficiently flexible, not only schools have a better chance to succeed. Thefor children with the most severe and complex level of understanding of dyslexia in schools2
    • Dyslexia Action, June 2012varies considerably and we are a long way off are far from making such high quality practiceembedding good practice in all parts of our universal.education system. This report sets the scene fordyslexia and highlights that ‘Yes’, Dyslexia Still The main focus of the proposed reforms is onMatters, but there are still major challenges to children with the most severe and complexaddress to ensure every child with dyslexia and needs. Obviously, securing the best possible,other literacy difficulties can succeed. affordable provision for these children is cruciallyDyslexia Action is calling for dyslexia to remain important. However, the new system must alsoat the top of the agenda, otherwise we will fail secure equally effective provision for childrenmany children year on year. We need to draw with high-incidence, lower-severity needs.together the best expertise, materials and Because of time constraints the ‘SEN pathfinders’services to ensure what we know, as literacy are struggling to work out how to implement theand dyslexia specialists, can be transferred reforms and there is a risk that reliable ways tointo consistently good practice to achieve improve existing provision may not be found, thusthe best outcomes for all. In this report, we leaving all those with special needs considerablygive the findings of two surveys that look at worse off than they would have been had thethe experiences of adults, and of parents with previous system been left in place.children, who have dyslexia. We also look at theexperiences and views of teachers and what In this report Dyslexia Action offers ways forwardinterventions they find successful. We examine to help to overcome these difficulties. Thethe factors affecting children in the education need to wait for pathfinders is questioned onsystem and how proposed changes provide a the grounds that a great deal is already knownmix of hope and concern. We explore the current about how best to deliver effective support forchanges to exam access arrangements and why, children with dyslexia and literacy difficulties andwe believe, special arrangements should remain those with other specific learning and languagein place to allow people to demonstrate what difficulties. We have given many examples ofthey are capable of achieving. such practice in this report.Kevin Geeson Dyslexia Action fully appreciates that the economic climate creates pressure to find low A window of cost solutions for special educational needs and opportunity - educational provision in general. The effective John Rack, Head practice that we highlight in this report is not of Research, costly, especially in relation to the high, long- Development and term costs of failing to get it right for those with Policy for Dyslexia literacy difficulties. We also question the value of Action ‘pathfinding’ routes that are already well-trodden.The Government’s reform of the SpecialEducational Needs system presents a not-to- Our main message to Government is that:be missed opportunity to build on the sound we don’t have to wait - there are positive andplatform of evidence which shows how all kinds affordable things that can be done now; so let’sof schools deliver highly effective education work together and put an end to the sufferingfor learners who suffer from various aspects of and sense of failure that is still felt by too manydyslexia and stubborn problems with learning to children with dyslexia and literacy difficulties in ourread and write. Much to their credit, work of high schools today.quality is being done in some local authorities, John Rackin some schools and in some projects but we 3
    • Dyslexia Still MattersAcknowledgementsDyslexia Action would like to thank all the people who responded to the YouGov andDyslexia Action surveys, everyone who assisted with the research and all the teachersand practitioners who provided case-study materials and information about effectiveinterventions and support. Thanks also to the many people who have been involvedin the writing and production of this report, especially to Stephanie Anderson, KerryBennett and John Rack.4
    • Dyslexia Action, June 2012ContentsReport purpose 02Dyslexia Still Matters - Summary of findings and recommendations  07Positive and negative findingsAction neededA call for actionA way forwardSection 1: Dyslexia  11What is dyslexia?Definition of dyslexia - Rose Review (2009)Dyslexia and literacyThe dyslexia journeySection 2: Where are we now? 15The views of parentsWhat parents think should be doneThe views of adults and young people with dyslexiaSocial mediaWhere are we now? Assessment and special arrangementsExamination access arrangementsYear 1 phonics screening checkStatutory KS2 grammar, punctuation and spelling testSection 3: Literacy is a big issue for the UK 25Literacy and dyslexiaThe challengeConsequences of poor literacy - the figures speak volumesWe ‘could do better’Section 4: Interventions and models of good practice 29What works: interventions and good practiceOFSTED (2010) ‘A Statement is Not Enough’Models of good practiceSection 5: Government reform 51The current SEN systemProposed reformPathfindersSection 6: Conclusions and recommendations 55ConclusionsRecommendations and Dyslexia Still Matters reportAppendices:  60http://www.dyslexiaaction.org.uk/dyslexia-still-matters-appendices 5
    • Dyslexia Still Matters6
    • Dyslexia Action, June 2012Dyslexia Still Matters –Summary of findings andrecommendationsThe main findings of this Dyslexia Action report are both positiveand negative.Positive findings Include: 4. Dyslexia is now clearly ‘on the map’. Although1. Good, effective provision exists in a wide there are still teachers (and others) who dorange of schools enabling children with dyslexia not like to use the term, there is no longerand literacy difficulties to thrive and succeed. controversy about whether it exists and how toThis provision can be seen in some mainstream define it.schools as well as specialist and someindependent settings. Negative findings Include: 1. Knowledge, understanding and expertise is2. Teachers in some schools and specialist patchy and Dyslexia Action too often still hearsdyslexia centres are doing a fantastic job for accounts of parents struggling to have theirchildren with dyslexia. The characteristics of this concerns recognised and addressed at school.‘best practice’ are outlined in our report alongwith links to further sources of information and 2. Parents continue to report that:guidance. a)  ifficulties in their children’s learning are not D3. The most effective practice involves a picked up early enough.combination of the four key elements of support b)  he possibility of dyslexia is usually raised by Tthat we have identified from our survey of them and not the school.practice and from previous reports: c) Expertise and resources in schools are hard  to access.a) A whole school ethos that respects  d)  yslexic children’s experience of school is D individuals’ differences, maintains high often negative. expectations for all and promotes good communication between teachers, parents 3. Adults and young people with dyslexia and pupils. confirm that:b) Knowledgeable and sensitive teachers who  understand the processes of learning and the a)  ccessing help at school is difficult. A impact that specific difficulties can have on b)  lack of understanding of the nature of A these. dyslexia leads to unhelpful and damagingc) Creative adaptations to classroom practice  comments from some teachers which have enabling children with special needs to learn a long lasting detrimental effect. inclusively, but meaningfully, alongside their peers.d) Access to additional learning programmes  and resources to support the development of key skills and strategies for independent learning. 7
    • Dyslexia Still Matters4) The issue of dyslexia, as a disability, hasnot been fully grasped across education and Action neededchanges to systems for assessment andexamination are in danger of leaving those with Trainingdyslexia at a severe disadvantage. Dyslexia All children with dyslexia need to have accessAction appreciates that no ‘reasonable to good teaching in all lessons. A co-ordinatedadjustment’ can take away the difficulties that plan is needed to improve awareness anddyslexic people will have – to varying degrees – understanding of dyslexia for people in all roleswhen they are required to read and write under in education. This should include:time pressure. But this disability, just like a moreobvious physical disability – should not condemn •  compulsory model on Special Educational Athem to low achievement. Systems that are there Needs to include dyslexia as part of initialto assess ability and understanding should be teacher training.accessible to those with disabilities on equalterms but we haven’t got to this stage yet. •  requirement for all teachers to access A Continuing Professional Development (CPD)National Dyslexia Strategy in the area of SEN to include dyslexia.Proposed changes to the SEN system arewelcome but we are concerned that the situation •  aking special needs a higher priority in the Mwill get worse for learners with dyslexia as the training and professional development forcurrent mechanisms to support learners and those in leadership and governance roles.schools is changed or withdrawn. •  plan, with resources behind it, to ensure that ADyslexia Action believes that the focus of the all schools have access to a specialist teacherSEN pathfinders is too narrow and the timescale who has a postgraduate diploma in dyslexiatoo tight to work out the details needed for the and literacy.SEN reforms. However, we have a solution forthis which is to use the information we already •  scheme to enable more teaching assistants Ahave about what works for children with dyslexia to receive training in specific interventionsand other high-incidence low-severity needs. and methods of support as well as a career structure allowing them to undertake moreThe knowledge and expertise is there, to specialist roles as their skills and knowledgedevelop, advise and deliver on, a National increase.Dyslexia and Literacy Strategy to help rollout effective practice throughout the country. •  roducing guidance and advice for use by PHowever, we cannot succeed with this unless inspectors in relation to effective support andwe have the commitment and support of the interventions for those with dyslexia.Government.8
    • Dyslexia Action, June 2012Identification and assessment Sharing best practiceThis is an area of practice where improvements Best practice can be delivered in practice (asare badly needed. More information needs to highlighted in this report’s Intervention Tableget to practitioners so they are more confident p.38-49), but this needs to be shared andabout making the first observations of children communicated more widely. We need to:who may be having difficulties, assessingthe nature of those difficulties and making •  evelop and maintain forums for exchange of Dan appropriate response. This could include practice locally, nationally and virtually.determining the need for special arrangements •  nsure that expertise from the voluntary sector Efor formal examinations. Current discussions and from those engaged in research is fullyaround the use of the Phonics Check and exam utilised.access arrangements reveal worrying levels of •  evelop and evaluate new intervention models Dignorance about the use of assessment tools in schools and specialist centres so they canto support improved learning and achievement. learn what works.There needs to be: School improvement•  etter tracking and monitoring of children B It is encouraging that OFSTED has been asked as they progress from pre-school through to to focus now on what schools are doing for the adulthood. pupils in the bottom 20% and that programs•  clear policy on where the responsibility A such as Achievement for All are being adopted for this monitoring and identification sits and more widely. However, the pace of change here better use and co-ordination of centrally-held must increase and further action and support is data along with individual observations to avoid needed so that schools can produce credible the unacceptable delays in identifying those Local Offers under the new SEN reforms. who need extra help.•  etter advice and guidance around the Year 1 B •  chools need to demonstrate, through the S Phonics Check, especially about the actions local offer and in other ways, what they are that should follow from low scores. doing to support children with dyslexia and•  etter access to easily-administered screening B literacy difficulties. assessments and a clearer policy about how •  chools need to show that they have engaged S information is shared with colleagues and with ‘best practice’ as highlighted in this parents. report’s Intervention Table.•  raining for all teachers, at all levels, so that T •  unding arrangements for schools need to F they can identify signs of Dyslexia-SpLD reflect that developing an effective local offer and know what to do in terms of further is a priority and they should be encouraged to assessment and advice. draw widely on expertise, including that from the voluntary sector to help develop and deliver these plans. •  FSTED needs to require schools to include O these plans and their success in implementing them as part of school inspections. 9
    • Dyslexia Still MattersA call for action The very real risk that things will be made worse arises because the main focus of current reforms is on the smaller number of children with theSharing knowledge most severe and complex needs and insufficientThe proposed Children and Families Bill, time has been given to developing the practicalbuilding on the SEN Green Paper, provides details here. At the same time, the SENthe opportunity to deliver comprehensive pathfinders appear not to be fully addressing theimprovements in literacy throughout the system. aspects of reform related to those with high-Intervention strategies to improve literacy skills incidence, lower-severity needs. The dangerare likely to fail however, unless the Government is that the new system will leave all those withincorporates specific provisions for those with special needs considerably worse off than theydyslexia and other specific learning difficulties. would have been had the previous system been left in place.Building on reports and reviews such as those A way forwardof Lamb (2010), Rose (2009) and OFSTED(2010), the Government has signalled itsintention to create a system which is:• less adversarial In this report, Dyslexia Action is offering a way• ess bureaucratic l forward that could help to avoid this disaster. We•  ives parents a greater say in decision making g suggest that it is not necessary for pathfinders• puts resources in the hands of practitioners to work out how best to deliver effective support for those dyslexia, literacy difficulties and specificThe goal is to find ways of sharing knowledge learning and language difficulties. We are talkingand spreading effective practice of systems that here about the vast majority of those, with thework. high-incidence, low-severity needs, for special provision. Why do we say this? Simply, becauseFew would argue with the Government’s we believe we already have the answers, asaspirations, but there is a very real danger detailed in this report.that proposed reforms will, at best, miss anopportunity and at worst, make matters a great Making this good practice more widespread willdeal worse. The opportunity is there to build on require commitment and resources. In short, thethe very solid platform of evidence that shows Government must put muscle and money intohow all kinds of schools can deliver effective this aspect of special needs provision. Dyslexiaeducation for learners who have dyslexia and Action is calling for individuals and organisationsstruggle with literacy. This is already being done to come together to help develop, advise on andin some authorities, in some schools and in some deliver a National Dyslexia and Literacy Strategy.projects, but that effective practice is far fromuniversal. We urge Government to take on board the recommendations of this report and to work with the NDLS team at this critical time - together we can improve the UK’s literacy standards.10
    • Dyslexia Action, June 2012Section 1:Dyslexia 11
    • Dyslexia Still MattersWhat is Definition of dyslexia - Rose Review (2009)dyslexia? Dyslexia is a learning difficulty that primarily affects the skills involved in accurate andDyslexia has now been clearly defined, reflecting fluent word reading and spelling.a considerable growth in knowledge andunderstanding over the past 40 years. The Characteristic features of dyslexia aredefinition was agreed by the Expert Advisory difficulties in phonological awareness, verbalGroup for Sir Jim Rose’s independent review memory and verbal processing speed.commissioned by the Secretary of State for Dyslexia occurs across the range ofEducation as detailed (right). All the dyslexia intellectual abilities.organisations in the UK have endorsed thisdefinition. It is best thought of as a continuum, not a distinct category, and there are no clear cut-off points. Co-occurring difficulties may be seen in aspects of language, motor co-ordination, mental calculation, concentration and personal organisation, but these are not, by themselves, markers of dyslexia. A good indication of the severity and persistence of dyslexic difficulties can be gained by examining how the individual responds or has responded to well-founded intervention. This definition reflects our understanding that dyslexia is a language-based difficulty which makes it harder to learn to read and spell. Other kinds of difficulties may accompany dyslexia, but it is the difficulty in dealing with word sounds (phonics) that hampers the acquisition of literacy skills. As has been known for some time, dyslexia is nothing to do with general intelligence although other abilities and difficulties affect the impact of dyslexia which contributes to its severity. Appendix 1, associated with this report, provides more information about dyslexia and how it might affect someone living with it (See list of appendices available at www.dyslexiaaction.org.uk).12
    • Dyslexia Action, June 2012Dyslexia and literacyThe information in Appendix 1(www.dyslexiaaction.org.uk) shows dyslexia isnot just a problem with literacy. It can:•  ffect the ability to remember spoken A information within the short term memory system•  ake it harder to retrieve words from long term M memory•  ccur alongside other difficulties e.g. O concentration, arithmetic and motor co- ordinationHowever, the biggest challenge that dyslexia The dyslexia journeycauses in education and in working life Dyslexia is a subject that has caused muchis with reading and writing. It is therefore debate over the years. The first descriptionsunderstandable that the primary focus of – from over a hundred years ago – used theinterventions and support for people with term ‘word blindness’, reflecting the view thatdyslexia is on reading and that we all agree such difficulties in reading were caused by problemssupport is better provided as early as possible in in visual perception. It was not until the 1970sa child’s education. that the role of language processing was recognised and only in the last 20 years has thatHow important is it that those with dyslexia been accepted as the primary feature of dyslexia.are identified from amongst those with generalliteracy-learning difficulties? This is an issue While controversy and debate continued, itthat has sparked much controversy with some was easier for some in professional practice toeducators arguing passionately that there is ignore the issue and harder to argue for specificno need to make any distinctions and that all approaches and methods. Instead, those livingthose with literacy difficulties will respond to the with dyslexia were often wrongly labelled assame kind of support. Others have argued that ‘slow’, ‘thick’ and/or ‘lazy’, with school reportsthose with dyslexia must be identified because warning parents not to expect much from theirthey need a different kind of support. Dyslexia son/daughter!Action’s view on this issue is as follows: Controversy has also given fuel to the fires of•  ot all children with literacy difficulties respond N alternative treatments and ‘miracle cures’. If to the same approaches equally well. mainstream/establishment services have nothing•  he kind of literacy support that is effective for T to offer, it is no surprise that people will turn to those with dyslexia is also likely to be effective alternatives. Almost always, these alternatives for all children with literacy difficulties. are untested and often based on dubious•  hen it comes to early reading support, it is W theories and claims. Whilst elements of some therefore NOT critical to identify those who may be effective for some people, on the whole, show characteristics of dyslexia, provided all they do not prove worthwhile. receive the form of teaching which we know works for people with dyslexia. 13
    • Dyslexia Still MattersThe Rose Report (2009) reflected a high pointon the dyslexia journey and one motivation forDyslexia Action’s report now, is to ensure we donot lose that ground.Other significant milestones on the journeyare when:•  yslexia was recognised under the Disability D Discrimination Act in 1995 and is still specifically mentioned in the more recent Equalities Act (2010). This means that educational and workplace settings have a duty to make reasonable adjustments to ensure that those affected by dyslexia are not disadvantaged compared to their peers.•  yslexia became recognised as a Special D Educational Need (SEN) and was mentioned as an example in the 1997 Code of Practice.•  ecretaries of State for Education, notably S Kenneth Clarke, David Blunkett, Ed Balls and Michael Gove made public statements about the issue of dyslexia and its importance. In March this year (2012), Education Minister Michael Gove announced on Daybreak television that one in ten children are dyslexic.14
    • Dyslexia Action, June 2012Section 2:Where are we now? 15
    • Dyslexia Still MattersThe views of parents Recognition The survey showed there still appears to be resistance to the concept of dyslexia and an apparent unwillingness to take the issue seriously. Parental quotes included: • Schools need to accept that children have ‘ dyslexia instead of trying to ignore it’ • ‘The school refused to recognise dyslexia’ • ‘My child was constantly expelled from school’ • My son had to go to a special school because ‘ the school he went to would not help him or accept he had any difficulties’ Parental concerns The responses from the YouGov survey typify comments that Dyslexia Action regularly receives from parents who come to us for support. ForDyslexia Action commissioned YouGov example, one told us that after making enquiriesto conduct an independent survey of a with the SENCO, the headteacher called therepresentative sample of parents who had parents in to reprimand them for bullying thechildren with dyslexia (sample of 464). The SENCO. Another parent in the YouGov surveyfield samples were collected from the 5th- said:30th April, 2012. More detail can be found inAppendix 3 (http://www.dyslexiaaction.org.uk/ • Schools need to take notice of parental ‘dyslexia-still-matters-appendices) but some of concerns and not become defensive whenthe key findings from this independent survey are parents do raise concerns. I had my childdetailed in the sections below. Note that these assessed privately and when I took the reportresults reflect a more optimistic view because to her primary school to discuss if any extrathey are based on a sample where dyslexia has support could be given the headteacher saidbeen identified. We know that there are many very sarcastically: ‘What do you want memore families where children are struggling with to do with that and then proceeded to dodifficulties which have not been identified or nothing until my daughter’s KS3 SATs, whenhave been mis-identified as a behaviour problem miraculously a teaching assistant read thefor example. questions for her. I’m sure this was only done to improve the school SAT results!’Identification•  0% of parents surveyed said their child was 6 Another parent said that the school did not want diagnosed before secondary school to admit they had ‘the problem’ (dyslexia) in their•  6% said the school was the first to identify a 2 school. One parent commented: problem•  5% said teachers failed to recognise a 5 problem with their child’s development•  lmost two-thirds felt dyslexia was not A recognised across the system16
    • Dyslexia Action, June 2012• They (the school) never listened to me ‘ There were positive comments from the survey when I expressed anxiety that my child had however, that mentioned things such as: dyslexia and actually told me that he didn’t, on numerous occasions, until I had to get him •  ritten text being given in advance of the w diagnosed privately to prove it. I was told my lesson son may have dyslexia but it was better not to •  etting support when needed g get him tested as then he would be labelled for • extra time in exams the rest of his life and he would be better off • being given a laptop learning coping strategies. He has since been •  8% said that their dyslexic child had received 5 tested and given extra help such as readers help and support with their dyslexia and scribes and extra time in exams’. •  2% reported their child had received extra 5 help and made progress in reading andIn summary, parents today still report resistance spellingto the concept of dyslexia and often their •  5% of parents reported their child does 7perception is that problems are acknowledged well and feels proud of their achievementsvery late. in subjects and activities that don’t involve reading and writing •  1% reported they had a good group of 7 friends •  5% said they had positive relationships with 7 particular teachers Parents’ views appeared strongest when they felt that schools and teachers failed to understand the problem including: • My stepdaughter still believes she is thick ‘ because of early experiences despite being quite the reverse!’ • Sadly, as my son was not statemented, he ‘Help and support: received no help’While parents did highlight positive aspects of • The school didn’t seem to understand that a ‘practice, the overwhelming view is that schools child with ‘Above Average IQ’ could also have aoffer ‘too little, too late’. Also: specific learning difficulty such as dyslexia’•  1% of respondents said that their children did 6 A number of parents told YouGov that they had not receive any help and support until a whole moved their child from state to private education year after they were diagnosed; with 14% of because their child was not getting the right parents saying they are still waiting support. Others were financing additional•  ome 50% of parents felt that the school did S support outside of school. One parent said: not recognise or develop individual pupil ability ‘Nobody was qualified to teach him. I then•  nly 40% said that their school had an O paid for an independent tutor to help him appropriately trained teacher to support their through school’. child’s needs•  4% felt that schools do not do enough to 6 help children with dyslexia 17
    • Dyslexia Still MattersSocial impact Case Study 1Dyslexia Action knows from its work with dyslexicadults, that it is the social and emotional impactof dyslexia which can be hardest to deal with.Sadly, the YouGov survey showed that childrenwith dyslexia today are still having a hard time atschool and sometimes feel isolated or bullied.Survey results showed:•  ore than 50% of parents said there are times M when their child does not want to go to school•  7% of parents surveyed felt their child had a 5 negative experience at school because of their Gavin (44) and Seanna (13) dyslexia Both Gavin and his daughter Seanna are•  3% reported their child felt different to their 5 dyslexic. Gavin was involved in a dyslexic peers intervention project in Hackney, London, when•  7% said that their child had been bullied or 4 he was 14 years old but apart from this, due to picked on at some point financial constraints, the support he received•  7% of parents reported teachers made 3 was very patchy. He has therefore fought hard unhelpful comments like ‘try harder’, which then to get a Statement for his daughter to fund her had a negative impact on self-esteem specialist one-to-one support alongside her•  5% of parents said that a teacher had made 1 mainstream schooling. public comments about their child’s difficulties and 11% said that a teacher had made fun of Gavin talks about his dyslexia and the support mistakes or wrong answers he did receive: “Dyslexia isn’t just about learning, it’s a part of everything I do. In ourWhile these unhelpful comments and reactions society if you can’t read, you can’t thrive.from teachers were not reported by all parents When I was fourteen I was lucky enough to beand clearly do not apply to all teachers, we part of a project that was funded by Hackneyregard it as unacceptable that any teacher Council and I used to go to Dyslexia Actionshould conduct themselves in this way, which once a week for support. But the funding rancan only be the result of a lack of understanding out once I started college. It was at this pointof the impact that a specific learning difficulty that I lost my way. I knew I wasn’t stupid; Isuch as dyslexia can have. knew I wasn’t a low life; I loved education but education didn’t love me; it just didn’t soak inOther disturbing comments from respondents for some reason.included that a teacher ripped up a piece ofher child’s written work in front of the class and “I did lots of jobs earning the minimum wageput it in the bin; a parent said that the teacher but it was when my daughter Seanna wascontinued to make their child copy off the board born that I had a wake-up call. My uncle is awhen this was difficult for them and another said cabbie and he said to me: ‘Gavin you can doher child was shouted at by a teacher because anything you put your mind to’. He encouragedthey were unable to complete a task. me to do ‘The Knowledge’ to become a London cabbie. This was not something that I thought I could do because of having to pass exams so I put it off.18
    • Dyslexia Action, June 2012“My mum never let me give up and in the end What parents think shouldI got back in touch with Dyslexia Action. The be done?teachers remembered me. Margaret assessed •  2% of respondents said all schools should 9me and worked with me to make sure I got have access to a specialist in dyslexiathe support I needed to get me through ‘The •  out of 10 parents of dyslexic children, who 9Knowledge’. were independently surveyed by YouGov, said all teachers should have a basic level of“It took me longer to get there but my way training in dyslexiaof learning has now clicked in my head and I •  1% of respondents were in favour of school 8have found my gift. I officially achieved ‘The improvements to include measures to trackKnowledge’ in October 2010. I now have the progress a child is making in literacya London Cab. I have found my way; I am a throughout their time at schoolsuccessful man and I am happy.” From some of the additional comments made,When Seanna was seven years old, Gavin was respondents highlighted the transition of primarytold at a parent’s evening that her reading age to secondary as being poor. One parent toldwas very low. “I knew she was dyslexic but it YouGov that their child had more help in primarytook until she was ten before she got the right school than high school. Another said secondaryhelp,” said Gavin. “I took information into the school: ‘Never followed up reports from primaryschool from Dyslexia Action and have fought school and, when advised, still did nothing – Ito get the funding for Seanna. Her Statement was advised that they could have brought thisnow pays for one lesson per week at Dyslexia to the attention of the examining boards andAction, which is great but I want her to have as a result my child’s grades would have beenmore, at least two lessons per week.” adjusted accordingly’.Seanna said: “For me dyslexia is like I know Many parents commented on the need forwhat I want to say but I can’t write it down. more 1:1 support or smaller group teaching.I can see a word in my head and remember There were also many anecdotal commentsexactly what letters are in it but I just can’t say referring to teachers needing improved levels ofwhat that word is. When I used to write I used understanding.to find it hard as I could never spell the wordsI wanted to use, but now I am able to use Parents also commented that it was verywhat I am learning at Dyslexia Action to use important for them to be involved andany word I want. The support is helping me to there needed to be a much better level ofunderstand how I learn and I am growing in communication between them and the school.confidence. It is so good to come somewhere Some said they felt ignored and that teacherswhere they get me.” needed to listen to parents and take their concerns seriously. 19
    • Dyslexia Still Matters Among the comments relating to people’s feelings on finally being diagnosed were: ‘I was worried that I was different’; ‘I cried all day’; ‘I was ashamed’; ‘my mum knew from the age of 8 but the doctors said it was just immaturity’; ‘I was bullied by a teacher and was very confused’; ‘I already knew so it just confirmed what my parents had said since I was 6’; ‘I felt stupid, angry, upset. It really knocked my confidence’; ‘I felt mixed up; my emotions were all over the place’. Most of the 16+ dyslexic respondents reportedThe views of adults and young negative experiences from their time at school;people with dyslexia with over half saying they found being dyslexicDyslexia Action conducted an online survey of frustrating. This was compounded by unhelpfulpeople over the age of 16 with dyslexia which comments from their teachers such as:asked about their experiences of being dyslexicand of education. This was something that • ‘try harder’ - reported by nearly 83% ofwe asked our own specialist Dyslexia Action respondentsCentres to promote to their learners. The sample •  0% said teachers only ever commented on 4is therefore not an independent one, in contrast spelling and never on the ideas and contentto the YouGov survey of parents which took a •  5% said teachers made them read aloud in 6representative sample. While we are only talking front of the whole class despite their difficultiesof a relatively small sample of 128 respondents, •  8.2% said their teachers made public 3the information reflects comments we hear from comments about their difficultieslearners on a daily basis. •  0% said they made fun of mistakes or wrong 3 answersLike the parents of children with dyslexia, almostall the respondents believed that teachers One respondent reported being bullied all theshould have much better training in dyslexia and time; another was told by their teacher that theythat there should be better access to specialists would never amount to anything in life, saying: ‘Iand 1:1 support. Close behind in terms of was lazy and a troublemaker’. Another reportedpriorities, the respondents felt there should be being told: ‘I was stupid and they [teachers]more measures in schools to build confidence made me stand and tell my classmates I was(85%), good access to ICT (79%) and an stupid’. Others reported being accused ofunderstanding/sympathetic school environment cheating and of being lazy.(77%). When asked about their move to secondaryAmong this sample of adults, 35% revealed school after primary, nearly 62% said theydyslexia was not diagnosed until after the struggled with the work. Worryingly, when askedage of 21. what positive experiences they remembered from their education, 20% of our respondents reported ‘none’.20
    • Dyslexia Action, June 2012Despite all their negative experiences, over half •  ore support is needed at schools and Msaid the most positive thing about going through colleges because when I was there, there waseducation with dyslexia was that they felt proud no supportof what they had achieved despite it. More than •  eachers need to understand what it is like for Thalf did say that dyslexia was better recognised a child with dyslexianow than 10 years ago but 22% believe much •  eachers need to actually spot when a child Tmore should be done to ensure people with could be dyslexic at primary school age anddyslexia can succeed at work. The majority act with support and knowledge(60%) believed they would have been more •  ll teachers need to know how to cope with Asuccessful had they received better support dyslexic children, it should be part of theirat school. 62% believed they were able to get trainingbetter jobs because of skills training or further •  ur head in our local super Ofsted school Oeducation received after school and once their says: ‘it’s not a disability!’dyslexia was diagnosed. •  ecognition in all schools that this is a learning R problem and with the right support and programs it could change the lives of many children/people who are suffering, myself and my two boys included • f my son had been diagnosed and at the I very least acknowledged more in his primary setting, things would of never got so bad, and the secondary school he entered would of not had to pick up the pieces •  hroughout my daughter’s junior school she T felt stupid and would never ever put her hand up in class •  have had to fight to get my son’s dyslexia ISocial media recognised, more needs to be done by theDyslexia Action is actively involved in various teachers, they need to take more noticeforums on the web through which people •  think all children should be tested for dyslexia Iexpress their views and exchange information. as part of the school curriculum and not waitThe identification of dyslexia and getting the until the child falls well behind in reading andright support is a subject that generates very writingpassionate opinions, particularly amongst •  chool kills 99% of dyslexics - it killed me! Sparents of dyslexic children. While this evidence •  rain all teachers so they can stop saying: Tis not part of either of the surveys detailed in ‘there is something not quite right with yourthis section, there are a number of views and child’opinions that we feel are important to highlight. •  wish all teachers studied dyslexia as part of I their credentialingThe consensus view expressed in social media is •  he ‘wait to fail’ mentality is absurd Tthat the system is bureaucratic and children arebeing failed because of the lack of identificationand limited access to the right help andsupport. Some comments we have recordedfrom individuals posting on Dyslexia Action’sFacebook wall include: 21
    • Dyslexia Still MattersWhere are we now?Assessment and specialarrangementsHighlighted below are three keys areas which Changes to the current access arrangementshave had a significant impact on children with for examinations were put forward last yeardyslexia. by the Joint Council for Qualifications (JCQ) with the publication of the annual: ‘AccessExamination access Arrangements, Reasonable Adjustments andarrangements Special Consideration – General and VocationalUnder the Equality Act (2010), pupils with Qualifications’, which has caused considerabledisabilities in England and Wales are entitled concern to students, schools and parents.to apply for special arrangements in exams togive them the opportunity to demonstrate their Confusion now exists as to whether candidatesknowledge and understanding despite problems with dyslexia or other specific learning difficultieswith reading the questions, or writing the will still receive up to 25% in extra time, moreanswers, for example. For those with dyslexia in some cases, and be entitled to other supportand literacy difficulties, such arrangements such as a scribe and/or a reader. Dyslexia Actiontypically mean extra time, but other support is working with JCQ and with other stakeholdersmay be allowed such as someone reading to resolve some key issues.the questions aloud or writing the answers,depending on the individual’s specific difficulties. Dyslexia Action’s main concern is that the changes will only allow for students who have considerable difficulties, and adjustments will only be made for those who are way below22
    • Dyslexia Action, June 2012the average in absolute terms. We know that presented and about the actions that will resultDyslexia ranges in severity and that many people from its use.can develop compensatory skills and strategiesso that they can achieve well. However, when Children who fail to reach the necessary levelunder pressure of time, it is often the case that should not wait a whole year before the effectsuse of these strategies breaks down. It is also of additional actions are assessed - that will besignificant that a very able person with dyslexia too late.may have their career options limited becausethey appear to be ‘within the average range’ in Teachers should not rely only on the informationterms of literacy whereas without the impact in the check - they will have other informationof their dyslexia they could perform well above about what a child’s literacy levels are andaverage. Should special arrangements be there should already be taking action to support thoseto level the playing field, to compensate for who have been identified as struggling muchdisability and to allow people to demonstrate earlier than the end of Year 1.what they are capable of achieving? Or are theyjust to lift the lowest in literacy to the lowest level The check may serve as a useful safety net toneeded to get through the exam? pick up children who appear to be progressing well but who lack the foundations in phonicYear 1 phonics screening check skills. Teachers need to be reassured that action A new, statutory phonics screening check to support children who seem to be doing ‘ok’ isfor all pupils will be introduced in 2012 for worthwhile in terms of longer-term gains.children aged six who are getting to the endof Year 1 in primary school. The purpose of Not a ‘catch-all’ solutionthe phonics screening is to determine whether We are also concerned that the response to aindividual pupils have mastered the basics of low result on the check should not be ‘more ofphonic decoding. Pupils who have not reached the same’. It is important that schools receivethis standard at the end of Year 1 should then support on delivering additional interventionreceive support from their school to ensure they models, with the accompanying training forcan improve their phonic decoding skills and teaching staff and teaching materials.they will be checked again a year later. Our main concern about this check is that itThe check involves reading words and non- could be presented as a complete solution towords. If a child has developed good phonic- the challenge of identifying those who havedecoding skills they will be able to work out how difficulties with literacy. Dyslexia Action believesto pronounce the non-words because these that this is a step in the right direction but it iswords cannot be read ‘by sight’. not a ‘catch all’ solution. Some children with dyslexia may do well enough to pass this checkThe introduction of the phonics screening has at this stage in their education, particularlycaused considerable debate with many teachers those who are more able or have been taughtthreatening to boycott it. Dyslexia Action has exceptionally well. However, they may havesupported the use of the check because the difficulties later down the line. Similarly,difficulty in acquiring phonic decoding skills is decoding is central to reading but it is not thealmost the ‘hallmark of dyslexia’. It is therefore whole story so teachers need to be aware ofvery helpful to identify children early who have possible difficulties in other aspects of literacysuch difficulties. However, we have some and take action to develop wider literacy skillsconcerns about the way this check is being instead of focusing just on phonics. 23
    • Dyslexia Still MattersStatutory KS2 grammar, Summarypunctuation and spelling test This short review on current issues inA new statutory test of grammar, punctuation assessment highlights that the issue of dyslexia,and spelling will be introduced for children at as a disability, has not been fully grasped acrossthe end of Key Stage 2 from May 2013. This education. Dyslexia Action appreciates thatfollows the Government’s decision to improve no ‘reasonable adjustment’ can take away thethe assessment of English writing. This decision difficulties that dyslexic people will have – towas informed by Lord Bew’s recommendation varying degrees – when they are required to(DfE, 2012) that writing composition should read and write under time pressure. But thisbe subject to teacher assessment only, with disability, just like a more obvious physicalthe more ‘technical’ aspects of English - such disability – should not condemn them to lowas punctuation and spelling - assessed via an achievement. Systems that are there to assessexternally marked test. The introduction of this ability and understanding should be accessiblenew test reflects the Government’s beliefs that to those with disabilities on equal terms but wechildren should have mastered these important haven’t got to this stage yet.aspects of English by the time they leave primaryschool and that appropriate recognition shouldbe given to good use of English throughout theirschooling.As with the Phonics Screening Check for 6-year-olds, some have objected strongly, including theNUT (2012) which says the ‘pass/fail test for sixyear olds is wrong’ and the National Associationof Head Teachers which believes the new testswere ‘a waste of taxpayers’ money’ (Sellgren,2012).Dyslexia Action has a more neutral view onthis. We would rather see an explicit test ofspelling punctuation and grammar than have anassessment of other subjects ‘polluted’ by therequirement to mark down candidates in thesesubjects who have poor spelling and grammar.We regard it as totally unacceptable thatsomeone who spells badly should be denied thechance to gain top marks in, for example, historyor geography.24
    • Dyslexia Action, June 2012Section 3:Literacy is a big issuefor the UK 25
    • Dyslexia Still MattersLiteracy and dyslexiaDyslexia may have only just got on the map in It is well documented (Stewart, 2005) thateducational terms, but literacy has been there there are huge social and financial costs as afor a long time. Those who campaign for the result of illiteracy. There are implications bothimportance of literacy may have some different for the individual that struggles to read and ourperspectives and terminology but they tend to economy as the result of underemployment,share the same overall goals as those who are unemployment and crime. These are directlyconcerned with dyslexia. Dyslexia Action has related to literacy problems as the result of poorworked closely and productively with various academic achievement, vocational training andorganisations such as The National Literacy reduced employment opportunities.Trust (www.literacytrust.org.uk) and we havefound much common ground on issues such as Appendix 2 (http://www.dyslexiaaction.org.uk/engaging boys in reading, home reading habits, dyslexia-still-matters-appendices) details thementoring and improving access to high quality trends in literacy standards across the UK overresources for teachers. the last 5-10 years based on SAT results and GCSEs (DfE, 2011). On average there has beenMany, but not all, literacy organisations and an improvement. In 1995 only 49% of childrenspecialists accept the issue of dyslexia and at KS2 were meeting expected levels in literacyrecognise that specific training support and (Level 4) but this has improved to 81% (KS2adaptations are needed if the wider world of results for 2011). But it is those with the poorestliterature is to be opened for them. At a more skills that remain static. Approximately 20% offundamental level however, Dyslexia Action is children are still not meeting expected levels inarguing that no strategy to address the challenge reading.of ‘universal literacy’ will succeed unless itacknowledges dyslexia and incorporates specific According to the Department for Business,measures for people with dyslexia. Innovation and Skills (BIS, 2010) ‘Skills for Life Survey’ the number of people with relativelyGetting it right for those with dyslexia will poor literacy skills has declined, whilst thetherefore do a great deal to lift overall standards number with the poorest skills has not changedin English language and could help lift the significantly.UK from its lowly position in the internationalcomparison league-tables. Figures from the European Commission’s Eurostat (2011) put the UK 19th out of 33The challenge countries ranked according to the proportionTrends in literacy standards through SAT results of the population aged 25 - 64 with an ‘upper(Jama & Dugdale, 2012) at the end of Key secondary education’ (equivalent to A-levels).Stage 2 (KS2) show us that approximately one Just 76.1% of Britons are educated to A-levelin five school aged children are still not meeting standard compared to 92% in Lithuania forexpected levels in literacy. This means that there example.are approximately1.62 million children in Englishschools who are prevented from accessing theschool curriculum because they are unable toread well enough. These children are at a hugedisadvantage and are affectively excluded fromengaging in classroom activities.26
    • Dyslexia Action, June 2012Consequences of poor literacy –the figures speak volumesDepartment for Education Ministry of JusticeThe latest figures from the Department According to the Ministry of Justice (2011)for Education (DfE, 2011) show that an the prison population at 31 March 2012 wasestimated 5,740 children and young people are 87,531 offenders in England. Dyslexia Action’spermanently excluded from primary, secondary own research demonstrated that there is anand all special schools. Pupils with SEN overrepresentation within the prison populationstatements are around eight times more likely to compared to the UK population as a whole ofbe permanently excluded than those pupils with those with literacy difficulties and those whono SEN. According to the DfE, 75% of all school have dyslexia/SpLD. Around 50% of the prisonexclusions, some 4,260 children are permanently population, which is 30% above the populationexcluded. norm, have poor literacy skills and 20% of offenders were found to be dyslexic, which isNational Foundation of 10% above the population norm. According toEducational Research (NFER) the NOMS Annual Report and Accounts 2010-The NFER (The Dyslexia Institute, 2006) noted 11 the cost on average per prisoner is just underthat the additional cost of provision for a child £27,000 per year. The UK tax payer is thereforethat is permanently excluded is approximately paying in excess of £710 million per annum just£10,000 per annum. The cost of supporting for the overrepresentation of those with poorchildren with SEN who are excluded is therefore literacy skills.over £50 million per year. This funding wouldhave been better used to provide appropriate Department for Work andearly support in school. Pensions According to the Department for Work andYouth Justice Board Pensions (2012) the benefit expenditure forAs detailed in the Corporate and Business England and Wales in 2009/10 on IncomePlan 2011-12 to 2014-15 (D133) of the Youth Support was £7,558 million and on JobseekersJustice Board for England and Wales (2011), Allowance was £4,276 million. In 2010/2011the National Audit Office has estimated that it was £7,073 million for Income Support andthe total cost to the UK economy of offending £4,044 million for Jobseeker’s Allowance.by young people could be up to £11 billion peryear, and the proportion of young people whoreoffend stands at around 37%. 27
    • Dyslexia Still MattersInstitute of Economic Affairs Peter’s storyProfessor Len Shackleton, a fellow of the Case study 2:Institute of Economic Affairs, comments: “Lowlevels of literacy are associated with a higherrisk of unemployment in all countries. Thenumber of unskilled jobs requiring little or noliteracy (though still significant) has been fallingsharply in the UK. Perhaps, as importantly,access to jobs increasingly depends on fillingin forms and writing CVs - impossible withoutquite reasonable literacy. Another way in whichilliteracy makes people difficult to employ isthrough prison experience. Of those in prison,illiteracy is shockingly high. It’s probably thecase that prison sentences are themselves more Peter (an adult learner)likely if you are illiterate, for any given level of Peter is an example of someone who isoffence. Once incarcerated, your employability in getting his first chance of an education in hisfuture is dramatically reduced. Our literacy rates 50s. Here Peter discusses the impact of hisnow compare rather badly with emerging Asian difficulties on his career and how he tried toeconomies as well as some (though not all) keep his dyslexia a secret from his employer.European economies.” “At 52 years old I burst into tears when IWe ‘could do better’ had to tell my boss I was dyslexic. ThereThere are clear and well documented was pressure on me to get professionallong-term and significant social and economic qualifications following a restructure. I wentcosts associated with not taking a strategic to pieces. I was on medication for depressionand comprehensive approach to educating and was seeing a counsellor. I was terrified Ichildren with dyslexia and literacy difficulties. would lose my job now that my secret was out.Improvements in literacy standards have beenmade and we are making progress but we ‘could “I am now slowly coming to terms with mydo better’ at providing good literacy education situation. I now realise that being dyslexic hasfor all children and we need to do more to nothing to do with my ability. I am good at mysupport those in the lowest 20%. We could do job. Thanks to the support I am now getting Imore for people like Peter - see case study 2 am having my first opportunity at an education(right), if we help dyslexia sufferers when they and qualifications. This has helped make meare young. accept things and has given me a greater understanding about my dyslexia and about me. In time, I hope to be able to progress my career once I feel ready to sit those exams!”28
    • Dyslexia Action, June 2012Section 4:Interventions andmodels of good practice 29
    • Dyslexia Still MattersWhat works: interventionsand good practiceRecent reports such as Rose 2009 and Children and young people’s learningOFSTED 2010 have highlighted those features was least successful when:of practice that promote successful outcomes. •  xpectations of disabled children and young EOFSTED’s report was concerned with good people and those who had SEN were lowlearning outcomes in general, but the points •  ctivities and additional interventions were Amade are relevant to literacy and dyslexia. inappropriate and were not evaluated in terms of their effect on children and young people’sOFSTED (2010) ‘A Statement is learningNot Enough’: •  esources were poor, with too little thought R having been given to their selection and useChildren and young people learnt •  eachers did not spend enough time finding Tbest when: out what children and young people already•  eachers presented information in different T knew or had understood ways to ensure all children and young people •  eachers were not clear about what they T understood expected children and young people to learn•  eachers adjusted the pace of the lesson to T as opposed to what they expected them to do reflect how children and young people were •  ommunication was poor: teachers spent C learning too much time talking, explanations were•  he effectiveness of specific types of support T confusing, feedback was inconsistent, was understood and the right support was put language was too complex for all children in place at the right time. and young people to understand - the tone•  ssessment was secure, continuous and acted A and even body language used by adults was upon confusing•  eachers’ subject knowledge was good, as T •  he roles of additional staff were not planned T was their understanding of pupils’ needs and well or additional staff were not trained well how to help them and the support provided was not monitored•  he staff understood clearly the difference T sufficiently between ensuring children and young people •  hildren and young people had little C were learning and keeping them occupied engagement in what they were learning, usually•  espect for individuals was reflected in high R as a result of the above features expectations for their achievement•  esson structures were clear and familiar but L allowed for adaptation and flexibility•  ll aspects of a lesson were well thought A out and any adaptations needed were made without fuss to ensure that everyone in class had accessSee table 1.1 at the end of this section for examples of interventions and good practice.30
    • Dyslexia Action, June 2012Features of good practice Effective learningSir Jim Rose’s review (2009) highlighted the In summary, effective learning for childrenimportance of teachers having an understanding with dyslexia depends on:of the normal processes of developmentin reading and spelling and, in particular, 1. A whole school ethos that respects the Simple Model of Reading. A survey of individuals’ differences, maintains highpractitioners who were consulted for this review expectations for all and promotes goodidentified the following features of good practice communication between teachers,as most important. parents and pupils 2. Knowledgeable and sensitive teachers •  sing multisensory methods for teaching & U who understand the processes of encouraging multisensory learning learning and the impact that specific•  lanning and delivering lessons so that pupils/ P difficulties can have students experience success 3. Creative adaptations to classroom •  lanning and adapting the teaching P practice enabling children with programme to meet individual needs special needs to learn inclusively and•  eaching a structured programme of phonics T meaningfully, alongside their peers•  uilding in regular opportunities for B 4. Access to additional learning  consolidation & reinforcement of teaching programmes and resources to support points already covered development of key skills and strategies•  aintaining rapport with pupils/students M for independent learning•  lanning a purposeful and engaging balance of P activities in lessons In the next section of this report we look at•  eaching pupils/students to be aware of their T the realities of good practice in a selection of own learning strategies schools, local authorities and voluntary sector•  eaching pupils/students to develop effective T providers. We chose examples here simply learning strategies to illustrate a range of practices in a range•  howing sensitivity to the emotional needs of S of settings and we do not attempt to give an pupils/students exhaustive list. There are other useful sources of•  eaching pupils/students to improve their T advice and information about good practice and working memory we do not wish to duplicate what is found there.•  electing appropriate resources to support S See for example the Dyslexia-SpLD Trust’s particular learning needs ‘Interventions for Literacy’ website: www.interventionsforliteracy.org.uk. The commonThe features of good practice identified by thread in the examples chosen is that the bestOFSTED and by Rose show close agreement, outcomes are achieved by provision that is notand resonate well with the reports from confined to one key area but encompasses manyparents about what they have found helpful of the four features that were summarised above.or unhelpful. It is interesting to see that goodpractice for those with dyslexia is not just aboutindividualised learning programmes and thespecific content of these programs. The ethosand organisation of learning within the classroomand across the whole school also make a bigdifference. 31
    • Dyslexia Still MattersModels of good practiceSee Table 1.1 (p38-49) for interventions, results and case studiesfor all of the following examples.Achievement for All that the CDA and the Local Authority decidedAchievement for All is a tailored school to formulate its own accreditation process andimprovement framework, delivered in partnership quality mark. The purpose was to incentivisewith leaders, teachers, parents, pupils and schools to get additional training for its staff, insupport professionals. It aims to raise the return for the kudos of the quality mark.aspirations, access and achievement of pupilsidentified with Special Educational Needs Sarah Wright, CDA Chair, said: “We believeand Disabilities (SEND). A two-year pilot all qualified teachers should receive properhas demonstrated unprecedented impact for training in dyslexia and all schools should showpupils with SEND, who progressed faster on their understanding of this specific learningaverage than all pupils nationally in English and difficulty by achieving a quality mark. Strategiesmaths. The programme is part of the charity that help dyslexics help all of the class. TrainingAchievement for All 3As which is led by its in dyslexia has to be compulsory and deliveredChair, Brian Lamb OBE, author of the influential by initial teacher training providers or localLamb (2010) review on SEN, and Professor authorities. Our award is called the ‘InclusiveSonia Blandford, CEO and National Director. Dyslexia Friendly Schools (IDFS) Quality Mark’,Achievement for All is about giving pupils so it highlights its commitment to a dyslexia-opportunities to develop their strengths in other friendly approach in classrooms, which promotesways which gives them renewed confidence and inclusion of all children regardless of theirself-esteem. learning style.”Cornwall Dyslexia Association Currently, schools in Cornwall apply to theThe Cornwall Dyslexia Association (CDA) was LA if they want quality mark accreditation andestablished in 1991 by a group of parents undertake one-day training run by its dyslexiawho were concerned about their own children advisers in association with the CDA and anbecause of the little support and provision educational psychologist. So far IDFS Qualityavailable. With five years funding from the Mark awards have been given to 42 of 234Government through the Parenting Fund, and primary and 10 of 31 secondary schools in thethree years from the Lottery, the CDA provided county.free support for dyslexic families in Cornwall.This included free screening and assessment Croydon Literacy Centrefor adult dyslexics and young people; a free Croydon Literacy Centre teaches children withdrop-in advice centre; awareness training literacy difficulties including dyslexia. Childrenfor businesses, organisations and education are referred by their schools and attend theproviders; support courses for parents and Centre once or twice a week for 90 minuteschool training. Now government funding has sessions. Schools or parents pay, sometimes theceased, schools have to pay for the service. cost is shared. The Centre works closely with both parents and schools. They also carry outCornwall was one of the first to pilot the British training for teachers and teaching assistants inDyslexia Association’s ‘Dyslexia Friendly Schools schools and at the Centre to increase their skillsQuality Mark’ (2012). It was such a success in supporting children with literacy difficulties.32
    • Dyslexia Action, June 2012The Centre strongly believes that the children practical skills such as interview preparation andthat are referred to them would not achieve writing applications. The specific aspects of thein the same way if they had not received programme depend on the needs and prioritiesadditional support. Normally they see a dramatic of the learner but will usually have a core ofimprovement in self-confidence and self-esteem skills development with the aim of producingbecause many of the children had already failed independent and confident learners.in their school and felt bad about themselves.Their work with parents and the child helps to Dyslexia Action also delivers training for teacherschange this perception over time. The Centre and teaching assistants from initial awarenesssays that many of the children make such sessions for classroom teachers and up toexcellent progress that they are within the norms postgraduate qualifications for specialists.for their year group after having ‘support’ inschool. Dyslexia Action has a track record of providing expert and effective support to individuals asA Croydon Literacy Centre spokesperson said: shown in the twice-yearly progress testing that“Teachers need special training in dyslexia. A pupils are given when following the Dyslexiacombination of initial teacher training and local Institute Literacy Programme or its Units ofspecialist courses would work best. Until you Sound Programme. Typical gains by poorhave experience in the classroom, the reality of readers, in the 2010 results, were five standardthe difficulty you might have moving a child on is score points on comprehension and three pointsunimaginable.” on word identification over a six-month period. Improvements in standard scores indicate ‘catchDyslexia Action’s Centres up’ to the average level. These typical findingsDyslexia Action (DA) has 26 main Centres, agree with the results of the SPELL-IT study47 teaching outposts and over 100 units (Rack 2005) where a sample of seven-year-oldsin maintained and independent schools with very poor reading skills made two standardthroughout the United Kingdom. We provide a score gains over a 24-week intervention usingcomprehensive service for children and adults the DILP programme, whereas a comparisonwith dyslexia and literacy difficulties including group monitored over the same time fell back bydiagnostic assessments, advice sessions for two standard score points.parents, workplace consultations and adviceon adaptations and use of technology, as wellas group and individual tutoring in teachingcentres and partner schools and colleges. Wealso provide early intervention for primary agedchildren; study skills for teenagers; programmesfor those with maths difficulties; workplacecoaching for adults and tailor-made programmesfor all. Much of our work focuses on developingthe sound-symbol relationship in written andspoken language using highly-structuredmultisensory teaching programmes. It alsoinvolves a focus on the individual special needsof learners, whether that be with organisationaland memory skills, developing vocabulary or 33
    • Dyslexia Still MattersDyslexia Action’s Partnership for they believe the methodology of teachingLiteracy (P4L) programme learners with dyslexia works for all children.Whilst still providing services to individuals inour Centres, Dyslexia Action has developed its Lyndhurst is a wonderful example of howservices to schools through our Partnership for specialist teachers can work with a school toLiteracy (P4L) programme in order to try to make improve the learning of all children with literacya greater and more sustained impact on the low difficulties; as well as demonstrating howliteracy levels in schools. P4L provides whole- effectively sharing expertise with other teachersschool training to school staff and skills-based is increasing the reach of good teachingtraining and support for teaching assistants and practices.special needs teachers. The aim is to impartexpert knowledge and provide teaching materials Maple Hayes Hall School, Lichfield,including our Active Literacy Kit of short, timed Staffordshireexercises, and our structured, multisensory Maple Hayes Hall School is approved undercomputer-based Units of Sound programme the 1996 Education Act as a co-educationalthat has been developed to teach reading and day school especially for dyslexic children agedspelling. 7-17 years. It is designated by the DfE as an independent school specially organised toSince 2006, Dyslexia Action has partnered with make provision for pupils with Specific Learning91 primary and secondary schools. During this Difficulties. It caters for up to 120 children.time, we reached 460 educators (180 of whom Maple Hayes teaches literacy using awere TAs), which improved the educational morphological approach to learning. It believesoutcomes of approximately 14,000 children. The breaking words down into segments of meaning,full sample of 2,288 children across 14 partner which are then assigned pictorial icons, helpsprimary schools from September 2008-09 made pupils to understand and read the words. Instatistically significant progress in reading that response to its intervention system (p.48),was above expectation. For example, one child at Ofsted (2011) noted: ‘The overwhelminga Peterborough school improved from a reading majority of pupils and their parents andscore of 61 SSP to 102 SSP in just two school carers are very pleased with this approachterms. and pupils say that they will always need and use this methodology. Numerous commentsLyndhurst Dyslexia Centre on inspection questionnaires say that MapleLyndhurst Dyslexia Centre is attached to Hayes has transformed pupil’s lives and futureLyndhurst Primary School, Camberwell, South prospects’. The school’s main aim is ‘…to giveEast London. The specialist teachers use pupils a fresh start in the acquisition of literacy,multisensory teaching methods and assistive so raising their self-esteem, self-confidencetechnologies to help children who are not and expectation of academic success’. Otherprogressing and trains school staff to become exceptional points, as highlighted by Ofstedspecialist teachers for dyslexia. (2011), include: ‘The quality of teaching and assessment is outstanding overall’; ‘the successBesides teaching the children, Lyndhurst shares of the unique approach taken to help youits expertise with parents and the wider school improve your reading, spelling and writing skills;community. They run workshops for them in ‘…outstanding academic progress’; ‘the greataspects of literacy development and barriers improvement in…confidence and self-esteem’;to learning. The Centre blends general training ‘outstanding behaviour and application inin literacy with Dyslexia-SpLD training because lessons, and … high attendance’; ‘the quality of34
    • Dyslexia Action, June 2012teaching and the commitment staff have to your SATS were found to be at risk of Dyslexia-SpLD,progress and well-being’. Most students go on to based on the screening results. Fewer thanhigher education at college or university. half (44.5%) of the pupils, who were found to be at risk, were already on the SEN RegisterMoon Hall College prior to screening. A further 8% were placed onMoon Hall College in Reigate, Surrey, the SEN Register as a direct consequence ofspecialises in teaching dyslexic children in a the screening results. Nevertheless, almost halfnormal mainstream school environment. This (48.5%) of the ‘at-risk’ pupils were not on theschool has teachers qualified and experienced SEN Register at any time during the project.in teaching dyslexic children. Classes are small(up to 14 children) and most of the specialist As with P4L (Dyslexia Action, 2010) the findingsteaching is done in a class or group situation but from this study clearly tell us that without goodsome children are taken out for individual help assessment a large number of children wouldwhen needed. have slipped through the net and would not have received the kind of literacy teaching theyThe school is a centre for GCSE examinations. needed, delivered by an expert in dyslexia whoAll pupils are expected to take the core subjects worked with the SEN team. A significant numberof English, mathematics, science and ICT, plus of these children were consequently seen toother subjects of their choice to give them the make above expected progress in one or moreopportunities that they need for college places areas of literacy.and careers. The first cohort of pupils completedtheir GCSEs in 2011 and passed at the levels Interestingly, a large percentage of childrenneeded to go on to further education. The school who had the weakest literacy skills had beenstates that they were very pleased with the identified as having SEN. Therefore, by providingstudents’ individual results and that almost all interventions for children with SpLD the schoolsexceeded expectations. were able to move those from the lower ability groups forward, which obviously improved theMrs Berry Baker, Founder and Principal of Moon standards for the schools overall.Hall College, said: “Initial teacher training canonly provide an introduction for most teachers St Vincent De Paul’s School,but Early Years, KS1 teachers and English Westminster, Londonspecialists should have much more extensive St Vincent De Paul’s is a voluntary aided Romantraining as part of their course. They should then Catholic mixed primary school in Westminster,take further training as they gain experience in London. It was actually one of the schools thatschools.” took part in the first evaluation done by The University of Durham’s Centre for Evaluation andNo to Failure Monitoring, as part of Partnership for Literacy,The Dyslexia-SpLD Trust (DST) (2009) from September 2008 – 2009. The schoolpublished the findings from a study called ‘No to has successfully embedded the P4L trainingFailure’. Funded by Government, this provided and teaching materials into its timetable andfurther evidence that specialist teaching curriculum.works and that even a fairly modest amountof specialist teacher input can make a markeddifference to the literacy skills of dyslexic/SpLDpupils (p.49). Just over half (56%) of pupilswho had not achieved expected levels in KS2 35
    • Dyslexia Still MattersSuffolk Local Authority The Unicorn School, AbingdonSuffolk has embraced the need to increase This is an independent co-educational school inprovision for children with SpLDs and focuses Abingdon, Oxfordshire, catering for 6-12 yearon encouraging teacher training and Continuing olds who have severe dyslexia. Some pupils alsoProfessional Development (CDP). It has set have dyspraxia or dyscalculia, while others haveup Dyslexia Centres within its region that have speech and language difficulties. It provideshighly trained and qualified advisers to Level specialist education for dyslexic children from7, Diploma or MA Level. It encourages its both the independent and mainstream sectors,schools to take advice and use approaches teaching strategies and skills to enable childrenrecommended by specialist staff in the Centres. to return to the mainstream classroom as soonThey pride themselves on having a countywide as possible.approach to being dyslexia friendly. There is astrong, regular CPD programme for teaching Specialist teachers teach pupils in small classesand non-teaching staff at all levels, including of 8-10, with a daily half-hour of individual tuition.input into the National SENCO award in Suffolk. Educational and emotional needs are met on anSuffolk has no longitudinal data because the individual basis.Centres have only been open a few years andthey are currently in the process of establishing Ofsted (2012) stated that The Unicorn Schoola baseline. However, they strongly believe provided an outstanding quality of educationthat children have already benefited from the which fully meets its stated aim: ‘to help itsservice as the result of: greater awareness of pupils raise their self-esteem and learn themainstream staff; improvements in self-esteem strategies they need to return to mainstreamfor pupils; progress from initial starting points in school successfully’.literacy. In this LA there is a strong tradition ofsharing expertise and delivering outreach from Again this model shows that with interventionspecialist centres which will include special it is possible for dyslexic children to learn theschools. strategies they need to progress affectively within mainstream education.Currently this region has one of the lowest KS2SAT results. In 2011 78% and 81% of childrenachieved expected levels in English and readingrespectively. This is below the national averageso it will be interesting to see how the relativelynew support Centres improve future SAT results.36
    • Dyslexia Action, June 2012Waldegrave School for Girls, The Wickhambrook Centre forRichmond-upon-Thames, London Specific Learning Difficulties, Suffolk.Waldegrave is a comprehensive school for girls The Wickhambrook Centre for Specific Learningaged 11 – 16 years in the London Borough of Differences caters for pupils in Key Stages 2Richmond upon Thames. It is classified as a and 3 who have Specific Learning Difficultiesdyslexia friendly school. Lesson plans specifically such as Dyslexia. Schools in Suffolk canprovide for students with SpLD. This school refer pupils with SpLD if they are on Schoolalready has highly trained SEN staff and a good Action Plus; attendance has been discussedstrategy in place to identify those at risk of a thoroughly between pupil, parents and school;literacy problem or SpLD; they keep up to date there is evidence of Wave 3 provision andwith the latest in good teaching practices by outcomes. Teaching at the centre is systematic,tapping into the expertise of special schools and individualised and cumulative; tailored to theunits within their borough. individual’s needs. There are four groups of eight pupils taught by two TAs and two qualified teachers, including one who has completed a British Dyslexia Association’s (BDA) AMBDA accreditation.To repeat, this list is not intended to be exhaustive; there are many otherexamples of effective practice and other sources of guidance. 37
    • Dyslexia Still MattersTable 1.1 Models of good practice and examples of effectiveinterventionAuthority: CornwallExample of results from Year 1/2Intervention Frequency Pre-test Post-test Improvements•  6 lessons including worksheets + 5 4x 30mins (Reading age (Feb10) (Key stage levels) word banks weekly Oct 09)• ntensive reading; some writing I 4.6 5.11 +1.5•  hase 3 onwards: consonant P Size of 4.3 5.7 +1.4 digraphs, vowel digraphs; tricky group 4.9 5.6 +0.9 words Max 6 4.3 5.7 +1.4 4.3 5.7 +1.4Authority: CornwallExample of results from Year 4Intervention Frequency Pre-test Post-test Improvements• Intensive reading 30 minutes (Reading age (Feb10) (Key stage levels)• 1:1 with specialist teacher x 5 per week Oct 09)•  ngaging children’s enjoyment/ E 8.05 8.00 -0.05 book awareness Size of 7.06 8.03 +0.09•  hallenge children to read slightly C group 6.07 7.05 +0.10 more complex language 7 children 7.07 9.01 +1.06• ntroduce range of text type and I 8.05 8.04 -0.01 genre child would not readily choose 7.06 7.11 +0.05 7.06 8.01 +0.05Authority: CroydonCroydon Dyslexia CentreThe Croydon Literacy Centre believes Frequency Overviewthe vital link between oral skills and 90 minutes Assessment to establishliteracy should be assessed along x2 per week problems and how literacywith early reading and writing skills, Size of group: 2 or 3. skills are affected. Targetwith children causing concern. sheet planned specificThey say that specialist literacy and Resource examples to the child and baselinespeech and language intervention IT used to support assessment is doneshould be brought in for the 2-4% reading and writing, using recording initial scores.who would need it. programmes such as Lexia, Target sheets - producedIntervention Wordshark, Catch up, Rapid termly and shared with• ndividualised programme - range I Reading Assistant, e-books school. of strategies enable pupils to retain that can be read to or by Teachers talk to child about learning e.g. kinaesthetic approach children independently, Write what helps and how they•  honics sessions similar P Out Loud - word processing, remember particular sounds progression to Letters and Sounds touch typing. or words.•  igh frequency words - reading and H CPD provided for teachers. spelling38
    • Dyslexia Action, June 2012Authority: CroydonCroydon Dyslexia Centre  continued•  anguage and comprehension skills L Case study The Centre works with•  ange of resources to cater for R The Centre gives a Year 6 schools to develop skills wide-ranging interests and needs of boy as an example that the and trains TAs to deliver child impact of specialist support intervention programme as•  utual support in groups adding to M alongside mainstream can detailed. confidence building have. The boy had a reading•  elationships built with parents and R age of five years and six Centre philosophy: school to create support network months when he started at Strongly believe if schools• Reading heard daily in school the Centre and when he know how to assess, plan•  omework followed up if parents H left he was within the age and deliver intervention they are unable to support the child at appropriate reading level for are in a better position to home his chronological age, which identify which children really completely changed his life. need specialist teaching.Authority: Staffordshire4 Dyslexia Centres: Leek, Stafford, Cannock LichfieldSince September 2011 there are four Comments about the CentresDyslexia Centres in Staffordshire, Parents’ commentsbased in schools in Leek, Stafford, ‘Z’s progress socially and academically has beenCannock and Lichfield. outstanding. It is difficult to put our thanks into words. We think the following word captures your work in Z’s progress:Dyslexia Centres inspirational!’For KS2 pupils at School Action Plusor above, who have been identified ‘S has enjoyed every minute of her time at the centre… thewith dyslexia by SEN staff. most positive part of her education….She has grown in confidence thanks to your support and encouragement, sheFrequency is full of excitement and optimism. It has been a pleasure to•  ttend the Centre - one session / A know you and to feel so well supported.’ week•  r outreach support for school – O ‘The centre has helped M in so many ways, spelling, Centre’s dyslexia teacher sets up reading, writing and also confidence to try new things. We and teaches structured teaching are so very grateful for everything that you have helped M programme and advises school on to achieve. A big thank you to you all. The link book is an appropriate resources, techniques, excellent way for everyone to be involved.’ strategies to help pupils with dyslexia in the class situation Children’s comments ‘I now realise I am special and talented.’Intervention ‘I now understand why I am different. I’m happy that I am• ndividualised learning programmes, I different and I like the challenge. My confidence has grown supported by schools through because I know I’m better than some people at different liaison and link books. things.’ ‘I don’t want to be dyslexic but I couldn’t not because I•  eferrals to the Centres are made R wouldn’t be myself. I want to be judged by the way I am. ‘ via the Central Dyslexia Panel. 39
    • Dyslexia Still MattersAuthority: Staffordshire4 Dyslexia Centres: Leek, Stafford, Cannock Lichfield continuedThe Central Dyslexia Panel will look Teachers’ commentsat evidence presented by the school ‘The centre is so supportive. B really enjoys attending andand consider the most appropriate is happy to share what he has done at the centre with hisprovision for the pupil. classmates.’ ‘I have found being able to access the resources and advice offered by the centre to be invaluable.’Authority: SuffolkWickhambrook Dyslexia CentreIntervention Frequency: Case study example:Tailored to individual’s needs x2 days per week for Kedington Primary School•  ulti-sensory methods (looking, M three terms Pre-intervention seeing, doing); intensive immersion Size of group Year 2: P8 / 1C in literacy development (numeracy if 4 groups of 8 pupils Post-intervention required) Predicted to reach Level 4 in Year 6•  ighly structured; small steps H Overview Kedington Primary process The School has worked hard to increase its knowledge of•  aried/ interesting activities to V dyslexia and increase dyslexia friendliness of classrooms. maintain motivation and enjoyment They have consulted with the Centre on concerns and•  eading intervention programmes: R assessments of children who may have specific learning Rapid Reading and Dancing Bears, difficulties, which they have found to be invaluable. Sound Linkage, Lexia, Nessy Consequently, in 2011 Ofsted said Kedington Primary was Learning (phonics for spelling & an outstanding school and noted its rapid improvements reading) since its previous inspection.•  ouch typing: Nessy Fingers enables T them to access ICT assistive This is a good example where a mainstream school can technologies in mainstream school work with a specialist unit to get 1:1 support for children•  wo TAs and two qualified teachers, T with SpLDs. However, it also demonstrates how effective including one with British Dyslexia it is for school teaching staff to have access to experts Association’s AMBDA accreditation who can give them advice and guidance that informs their teaching practices.Organisation: CharityAchievement 4 All 3AsIntervention: Achievement for AllTailored school improvement framework for pupils with SEND, delivered in partnership with leaders,teachers, parents, pupils and support professionals. It aims to raise the aspirations, access andachievement of pupils identified with SEND. A two-year pilot has demonstrated unprecedentedimpact for pupils with SEND, who progressed faster on average than all pupils nationally in Englishand maths.40
    • Dyslexia Action, June 2012Organisation: CharityAchievement 4 All 3As continuedBeeston Fields Primary, Nottinghamshire Frederick Bird Primary School, CoventryOverview OverviewMany pupils had difficulties with literacy at Frederick Bird Primary School serves a diverseSchool Action Plus so school felt it needed to and disadvantaged area of Coventry, with 700review its interventions to support pupils more pupils speaking 46 languages – a truly multi-effectively, with a specific focus on appropriate cultural environment.interventions for individuals and setting more Approximately 40% of pupils have SEN.aspirational targets. Key challengesApproach The school wanted to provide Strand 3 widerTargets and actions were agreed between the outcomes for 15 pupils in Year 5 at ‘schoolteacher and parents. Consequently, parents action plus’ with a variety of SEND. Many hadfelt the school was more interested. Following attendance issues and struggled to show theira review of needs, the teacher was able to put capabilities on in-school tasks. There was alsoan appropriate range of interventions in place little opportunity for them to attend after-schoolto support pupils more effectively. This range of clubs or sporting activities in the community. Thenew interventions is now rigorously planned and complex issues that this presented included:monitored. communication problems, learning difficulties, attachment disorders, mental health difficultiesOutcomes and poor behaviour.The success the pupils have had within reading/writing and maths has raised their self-esteem as Interventionsdemonstrated by improved relationships, attitude • Improving attitudes to learning and adultsto work and general increased confidence. • Team building •  variety of challenging and highly motivating ASummary sporting activities helped to keep childrenAchievement for All has led to school engaged, and weekly personal feedbackrecognising culture change was necessary helped build on previous learningregarding targets for pupils with SEND. •  eys to success were consistency, close KTeachers now set increased aspirational targets relationships and confidence building, with afor all pupils. Achievement for All has led to a ‘you can do it’ atmospherewhole school expectation that all pupils shouldmake three sub-levels progress. Monitoring and Summaryreviewing processes now support development The children involved in the project learnt newof aspirational target setting. This is built into skills and achieved certificates in the sports theythe whole-school target as part of teachers’ took part in. By giving these children differentPerformance Management. opportunities also helped to improve their participation and attitudes to learning.Achievement for All 3As Ltd, 2012, Case Studies, Accessible from:http://www.afa3as.org.uk/programme/case-studies 41
    • Dyslexia Still MattersOrganisation - CharityDyslexia ActionDyslexia Action (DA) is a national organisation with Centres in England, Wales and Scotland. ItsHead Office and National Training and Resource Centre are based in Egham, Surrey. DA has 26main Centres, 47 teaching outposts and over 100 units in maintained and independent schoolsthroughout the United Kingdom.Example: The Bath Centre, Case study Aopen Monday-Friday, 9am-5pm, Kimberley Ward, now 16, was diagnosed with dyslexia at thewas established 25 years ago. Bath Centre when she was 14 which meant she was allowedIt now has over 100 students. extra time in her GCSEs. As a result she achieved 11 GCSEsThe Centre offers the following including four As.services: Kimberley is now preparing for her A’ levels. She will be in a•  sychological assessments P separate room to her peers as she will have a reader and a for children and adults by scriber. She hopes to go on to study medicine. Kimberley said: independent consulting “I knew I struggled but I didn’t know why. I was good at talking psychologists who are to people but when it came to writing, my thoughts became registered with the Health scrambled.” Her mother Elaine, 47, said: “I knew there was Professions Council something wrong with Kimberley from an early age. She wasn’t•  ducational assessments by E reading what she saw. What she said wasn’t what was in front of specially trained teachers her.”•  urgeries and advice for S The DA assessment cost £400. Elaine said: “I was lucky enough children and adults to save up the money but many parents can’t afford it. This is•  ost assessment consultations P where many children are being let down.•  orkplace consultations W “The staff at Dyslexia Action made Kimberley realise she’s not•  oaching for adults in the C stupid and gave her back her confidence. I think schools need workplace to do more. Teachers are supposed to have SEN as part of their•  yslexia awareness training D training but they don’t fully understand what dyslexia is. It would•  yslexia screening training D be better if specialist Dyslexia Action teachers went into schools• NSET training I to work with these children, advise the teachers or do inset•  tudy skills for school children S training.•  xam access arrangements E “The Government needs to invest money in supporting these youngsters as it would save them money in the long-term. They would stand a better chance of getting jobs.” Pam Smith, senior teacher at Dyslexia Action’s Bath centre, helped give Kimberley back her confidence. She said: “Kimberley always sets herself very high standards. She is a happy and hard-working girl and I am very proud of her.”42
    • Dyslexia Action, June 2012Organisation - CharityDyslexia Action  continuedIntervention - Partnership 4 Literacy Results(P4L) University of Durham’s Centre for Evaluation andP4L consists of 2 phases: an apprentice training Monitoring (CEM) independent evaluation of:period over two school terms, followed by aperiod of consultancy for one term. 21 primary schools from JanuaryThe specialist screening and teaching methods, 06-July 08and practical resources, are based on long-term •  ,511 children at 21 primary schools, lowest 2evidence-based research. 20% of children made significant gains in reading.The package for each school includes: •  04 children who had the most severe 5• An initial set-up meeting difficulties made progress, 42% moved from• The Active Literacy Kit (ALK) below average to average in two terms.• One day hands-on ALK training• Units of Sound (UofS) software 14 primary schools from September• Units of Sound Pupil Books and Exercises 08 – 09• One day hands-on Units of Sound training •  66 children in the lowest 20% across all 4•  .5 days of specialist training from a Dyslexia 3 14 schools made, on average, gains of 8.00 Action teacher working with staff and pupils standard score points in reading.• Final sustainability consultancy meeting • Whole school improvementCase study B: Analysis of training – 2006-08 usingSt Vincent De Paul RC Primary School, Likert Scale.Westminster, London Headteachers scored training as 5.3 (where 1 is least helpful and 6 is most helpful). The mean2007: Before intervention score was the same for the sustainability of theKS2 SATs results for English were below the project.national average of 80% with only 77% ofits Year 7 children achieving expected levels. SummaryHowever, this school has shown a continued P4L is a cost effective model because it isimprovement since then because of its sustainable and because the resources and thededicated focus on providing the right literacy skills and expertise are left with the school whichsupport for all of its learners. enables them to cascade their learning to others. The flexibility of the programme allows the2009 and 2010: After intervention school to embed what they have learnt into the97% and 96% respectively of Year 7 children school timetable. The adaptability of the teachinggained expected levels in literacy, which for both materials and exercises allows TAs to fill evenyears is significantly way above the national short periods of time with learners of differingaverage. ages. 43
    • Dyslexia Still MattersOrganisation - CharityDyslexia Action  continued. ase study CC Case study DNeeds Identified: Speech, Language and Thanks to ALK, a child begun Year 3Speech, Language and Communication with level 1A in reading and writingCommunication Maths but by February had achieved a 2cMaths ADHD in writing and a 2B in reading whenLiteracy interventions Literacy interventions tested in June.used – 3x weekly used – 3x weeklyActive Literacy Kit Active Literacy KitSound Discovery Sound DiscoveryRead Write Inc synthetic Read Write Inc syntheticphonics (2009) phonicsAfter P4L intervention: the children improved, on average, by 8.55 SSPover two school terms.Pre-intervention: Post-intervention:Poor levels of literacy to more specific learning Intervention for 36 children in the lowest 20%.difficulties. Much closer to the ‘Average’ range (81.22 SSP)Average score – lowest 20% in reading was in when the children were re-tested.the ‘Low’ category (72.67 SSP).Case study E: but allows flexibility. It is so refreshing to have aSt Teresa’s Catholic Junior School, programme that encourages integration betweenLiverpool the TAs and the teachers. As a result we wereVoluntary aided two form Catholic school able to develop an excellent team who havefor boys and girls, aged 7–11 years (Years increased their skills and knowledge base on3–6). Almost half have free school meals. The how to better help those children with extremeproportion of pupils with learning difficulties and/ low literacy.or disabilities is more than twice the national “There is no doubt of the impact P4L has hadaverage, with 1/3 of the children on the SEN on St Teresa’s; the evidence is so strong thatregister, largely as a result of literacy-based our recent Ofsted report noted ‘the rapid anddifficulties. significant progress being made’.”50% of children starting in Year 3 were reported Amanda Philip, SENCO at St Teresa’s said: “Weto be below the national average in literacy were desperate to find something that wouldand were starting KS2 with bad habits. Staff really help with the individual literacy difficultieswere having to deliver 60 individual literacy our children have. We had some children whoprogrammes for their Year 3 children; basically could not read; one child could only recognisere-teaching them before they could go forward. four letters of the alphabet! The impact P4L has had on our children has just been fantastic andDavid O’Brien, Headteacher at the time of the it is the children that this is all about. We nowpartnership, said: “Staff response has been have a detailed step by step intervention forvery positive; they like the clear structure, which children who struggle with literacy and we seehas the uniqueness of being very prescriptive this as a sustainable programme of intervention.”44
    • Dyslexia Action, June 2012Organisation - CharityDyslexia Action  continuedP4L is sustainableA specialist teacher worked with the children and trained the SENCO and TAs: St Teresa’scontinues to use the materials gained through P4L and incorporates the skills and knowledgegained into its literacy curriculum.Gail Railton, TA at St Teresa’s said: “I have learnt so much about phonics and how important itis for the children to have good sound knowledge. I really feel that P4L has helped me to build abetter relationship with the children, because we are working together and they can see themselvesimproving. I love doing it; the kids love doing it!”Case study F:P4L also benefits children who are not dyslexic. Brothers Harry, 9 and Charley, 11, were identifiedas needing additional support - neither are dyslexic but both have difficulties with language andliteracy. Before P4L Charley lacked confidence in reading and writing, hated it and really struggledbut now he loves both! Harry had difficulties with sounds and his speech was consequentlyaffected. Like Charley he hated reading and lacked a huge amount of confidence. However, sinceP4L, Harry now has self-belief and no longer worries.SchoolBursted Wood Primary (mainstream), BexleyheathInterventions Case study – Pupil A•  ouch typing 2x weekly for 20 minutes on- T Before Literacy Intervention going until they are proficient at typing End of Year 2: L1A - writing; L2A – reading;•  apid Reading 3x weekly for 20 minutes for a R L1A – maths; handwriting difficulties, poor 12 week block of intervention. spelling & concentration (but was a good•  ump Ahead (if needed) 2x weekly for 20 J reader), slow writing speed, letter reversals, minutes on-going visual difficulties(e.g. tracking, writing drifting•  andwriting support (if needed) 2x weekly for H away from the margin) which lead to referral/ 20 minutes on-going until no longer needed assessment and diagnosis of dyslexia in Year 3.•  uided writing/numeracy with teacher x1 G Behaviour was never an issue. weekly for 1 hour - every child in the school has this Following Intervention – significant•  lpha to Omega (phonics) x2 weekly for 20 A improvement minutes on-going through KS2 End of Year 6: L4B - writing; L5B - reading; L3A•  A support x2 weekly for 1 hour at a time T - maths. (each literacy/numeracy lesson) on-goingSummaryThe use of a laptop/AlphaSmart keyboard to type work has been the most noticeable interventionto boost self-esteem as it allows them to produce work which they are proud of and edit work moreeasily. This gives them confidence that their work is as good as other children’s. Bursted upped itsgame on tackling dyslexia about five years ago when children’s literacy levels were causing concern.It has since been awarded the BDA Quality Mark and in 2011, Ofsted deemed it had managed tosustain its ‘outstanding’ performance in an interim assessment. 45
    • Dyslexia Still MattersSchoolEllesmere College, North ShropshireInterventions Summary•  pecific and targeted support for dyslexia, S Ellesmere College is a 7 to 18 coeducational dyspraxia and dyscalculia school which has been a recognised national•  ooster sessions for pupils experiencing B centre of excellence for the education of dyslexic temporary difficulty in a subject area students within a mainstream school for over•  ssistance in developing organisational skills A 40 years, with support for dyslexic pupils being•  evelop particular strength or talent in D introduced in 1963. Its expertise is now available other areas through its Gifted and Talented as booster lessons for any pupil, if requested by programme parents. The College is a member of Crested• Intensive reading work (Council for Registration of Schools Teaching•  raining in touch typing/using Dragon Naturally T Dyslexic Pupils). Ellesmere keeps abreast of Speaking the latest research and initiatives in dyslexia by•  elp with planning and preparation for H hosting an annual Education Conference. controlled assessments•  tudy skills: memory techniques, mind S Finally there is a lot of ‘TLC’ or love involved, mapping, revision approaches, use of time, that is to say the teachers are entirely committed approaching and managing examination to the students, so they will ensure all is done questions (marks, times, reading the question). in terms of communication with other teachers Maximising the use of a laptop for study. and parents to ease the way for the student.Practical support involved in helping the child to Supporting parents in supporting their child is anmanage readers and scribes and examination important part of the role.access arrangements ResultsGroup Out of the 21 children who were attached to theOne to one or shared (2/3 students) support Learning Support Centre, over 95% achievedlessons with a specialist teacher A*-C in English Language; 85% in literacy and maths; 9 achieved 8 GCSEs or more and 100%Frequency achieved 5 or more GCSEs.35 mins, up to 4 per weekSchoolLisbellaw Primary School Enniskillen, County FermanaghOverview FrequencyThis outstanding school is only one of 6 schools Children with dyslexic tendencies receive twoin Northern Ireland to have been accredited as 15 minute sessions per week of linguistica Dyslexia Friendly School by the BDA; it has phonics. In class they take part in Guidedgained a gold standard in the Health Promoting Reading three times each week for at least 10School Award. As a Dyslexic Friendly school minutes.teachers use a number of dyslexic friendlystrategies each day.46
    • Dyslexia Action, June 2012SchoolLisbellaw Primary School Enniskillen, County Fermanagh continuedInterventions Case study example:•  se of different colours on whiteboard - green U Student A helps dyslexia children remember things. Poor reading, spelling and handwriting. Short•  ll worksheets photocopied on cream paper. A attention span but very willing worker.•  se of whiteboards for children - minimal U copying from board. Before intervention•  se of reading rulers for Dyslexic children. U Year 5 Reading age - 7.03•  hoice of presentation for work - use of mind C maps, rich pictures, storyboards After intervention•  aried Teaching strategies - use of drama, V Year 7 Reading Age - 8.10 group work, talking partners, use of ICT, use of brain gym. Before intervention•  se of stile trays, smart chutes - great hands on U Year 5 English Standardised score - 82 activities linked to Literacy and Numeracy that interest dyslexic children. After intervention•  ord Shark and number shark on individual W Year 7 English Standardised score - 91 computersSchoolLyndhurst Dyslexia Centre - Lyndhurst Primary School Camberwell, South EastLondonInterventions Results• Specific and targeted support •  0% of children sitting their KS2 SATS 9• Confidence and self-esteem building achieved a Level 4 in English in 2010 •  5% achieved Level 4 in 2011, which is way 9Overview above the national averageMark Sherin, Lyndhurst Dyslexia Centre Manager,said: “Children with dyslexia in a mainstreamclass often need longer to process information.Without specific help they get further andfurther behind and become disillusioned anddisheartened. We first find out what works for ourpupils and we then help them to understand whythey find some aspects of learning difficult.“We make sure we have graphic evidence ofprogress so they can see they are learning. Ithelps the children to believe they are makingprogress and that they can be successful. Thischanges how they see themselves as learners;a lot of it is about raising self-esteem andconfidence and evidencing their successes.” 47
    • Dyslexia Still MattersSchool (specialist independent)Maple Hayes Hall, LichfieldCo-educational day school for children aged 7-17 Case studyyears. It prefers to teach reading and spelling A Year 4 boy was given an assessment ofusing a morphological approach instead of learning to read and spell long, complex words,phonics. years ahead of his level on the tests, by aInterventions include: morphological as opposed to the conventional• Pictorial approach for small words rote-phonic and multi-sensory method. This•  earning of rudimentary morphological L proved successful as it directed his attention structures to the meanings of parts of words in a way he•  andwriting programme designed to commit H could understand, prior to allocating a context spelling patterns to kinaesthetic memory for for application of the words. This precision automatic, efficient output teaching approach, with the involvement of•  :1 specialist tuition for reading, spelling and 1 meaning, has been found to be appropriate writing: 3 hours a week in sessions of up to 30 for children with problems of comprehension minutes to suit poor auditory short-term memory of language in general as well as of dyslexic•  ne hour a week with specialist teacher in two O tendency. half-hour sessions to address poor arithmetic skills Summary•  pecialist support in class – 10 hours weekly S Maple Hayes believes it offers a solid, safe and from HLTA to check understanding of tasks secure intervention programme to help dyslexic set to ensure understanding of work set by children that have been failed by mainstream specialist and class teachers schooling. Its effective intervention programme•  LTA, specialist and class teachers to meet H ensures all children can achieve 5 GCSEs to discuss consistency and continuity for and go on to higher education at college or differentiated planning university.SchoolThe Unicorn School, Abingdon, OxfordshireInterventions Case study – Pupil A•  :1 in Dragon Naturally Speaking software 1 Aged 8 years 4 months but with reading age of (which writes what you say) 6 years 8 months.•  :1 teaching for a half hour daily by dyslexia 1 Following 19 months of intervention: reading trained teachers in reading and spelling; mind aged had progressed a staggering 53 months. mapping and maths•  o copying from the board N Summary•  ne half of a class go to 1:1 while the other half O Due to Unicorn’s small class sizes and focused do maths so teachers can focus on high flyers 1:1, children overcome difficult odds for and those who need more support various reasons. Most are funded by parents•  peech and language therapist pre-teaches S although Buckinghamshire Local Authority vocabulary that children need for lessons find funding for those with complex needs•  arental involvement considered vital for P in addition to dyslexia such as Speech and joined-up working to help children progress Language and occupational therapy.48
    • Dyslexia Action, June 2012SchoolWaldegrave School for Girls, TwickenhamWaldegrave School believes that intervention Resultsworkshops and individual attention ensures students In 2011, 96% achieved 5 A* - C GCSE passes,make progress against their individual targets. above the national average. 90% of Year 6 pupils achieved Level 4 inInterventions English and 92% achieved the same expected• In-class support level in reading.• Workshops and clubs• ndividualized programmes including Wordshark, I Numbershark and Successmaker• Child taken out of class for 1:1Study – Intervention Programme No To FailureOverview Results ‘No to Failure’ (2009) study by The Dyslexia- Study proved specialist teaching works - evenSpLD Trust (DST). Funded by Government, the modest amount can make a marked differenceintervention programme involved: to literacy skills of dyslexic/SpLD pupils.•  9 schools; three Local Authorities; 1,164 1 The Intervention Group: pupils (417 pupils from Year 3 and 747 pupils Showed significant improvement in phonemic for Year 7) or phonological decoding efficiency compared with the Comparison Group. Two-thirds ofThose identified as having difficulties through Year 3 Intervention Group and half of Year 7the screening were divided into two groups. The Intervention Group made good progress inIntervention Group was provided with support reading accuracy:from specialist teachers, working with TAs and •  ains of five or more standard score points GSENCOs, and a Comparison Group received no •  ive months or more on the New Macmillan Fintervention Reading Assessment [NMRA]) •  ver 70% of Intervention Group pupils made OScreening good progress in reading comprehension.Just over half (56%) of pupils who had not Significant improvements in reading abilityachieved expected levels in KS2 SATS were were found on NMRAfound to be at risk of Dyslexia-SpLD, based on •  pelling improved by more than eight standard Sthe screening results. score pointsFewer than half (44.5%) of the pupils who werefound to be at risk were already on the SENRegister prior to screening. A further 8% wereplaced on the SEN Register as a consequence ofthe screening results.For further information and contact details on all these Models of Good Practice andEffective Interventions (and more) please refer to the Dyslexia Action website athttp://www.dyslexiaaction.org.uk/dyslexia-still-matters-appendicesAnyone who would like to share their model of good practice/effective intervention pleaseemail: Policy Research Officer: Stephanie Anderson at sanderson@dyslexiaaction.org.uk.Thank you. 49
    • Dyslexia Still Matters50
    • Dyslexia Action, June 2012Section 5:Government reform 51
    • Dyslexia Still MattersThe current SEN systemThe concerns that have been highlighted in our Statement:surveys are not new, but it is significant that they Where a child’s needs cannot be met withoutare still being reported despite many efforts to additional external resources or where it isimprove things. For example, in January 2010 necessary for them to attend a specialist school,Brian Lamb (Lamb, 2010) published a report then they are likely to be given a Statement ofon parental confidence in the Special Needs SEN.system and many of the same frustrations werehighlighted. OFSTED (2010) published its One of the main problems with the currentreview of SEN provision based on the inspection system is that parents are confused by theof 345 cases in over 200 schools, colleges and terminology. Comments that Dyslexia Actionnurseries. The OFSTED report highlighted the has received show that some parents think offact that almost 20% of the school population a Statement as simply a report which sets outwere identified as having special needs. what should be done. Others, however, are fearful that it could give powers to the LocalSchool Action: Authority to make decisions against their wishes.If schools are concerned about a child’sprogress, or parents raising concerns, the Dyslexia Action has agreed with the commondecision may be taken for some measures to be policy and practice that a Statement should notput in place using the staff and resources that usually be necessary in order to meet the needsare already in place in the school. This might of children with dyslexia. In some cases, whereinvolve working in a small group with a teaching there are additional needs and other factors toassistant, working on different materials in class take into account, a specialist placement may be(perhaps with support for some of the reading required, but this is very clearly the exception.demands of the task) or even some extra work athome.School Action Plus:If progress remains a concern, despite themeasures a school is able to use from its ownresources, then they may seek advice fromlearning or literacy support teachers, educationalpsychologists or others from outside theschool. External specialists may put in placeprogrammes that the school staff can deliver orprovide support directly.52
    • Dyslexia Action, June 2012Proposed reformThe Coalition Government has announced plans feature of the Local Offer is that it should maketo radically overhaul the education and health clear what provision is normally available fromsupport for children with SEND. Following a early years settings, schools, colleges and otherGreen Paper consultation, it intends to publish a services, including health and social care.draft Bill in the summer (2012) for consultationand pre-legislative scrutiny. Children and As stated, the Government plans to replace theFamilies Minister Sarah Teather MP has said two levels for special needs provision: schoolthe DfE will consider carefully any proposals action and school action plus with a singlewhich are suggested as part of that process category. Dyslexia Action can see the senseand remain committed to introducing a Bill to in this action, but only if the kinds of supportParliament during the current session. previously provided still remain. Comments received by us suggest that some haveThe latest statement on the Government’s interpreted this to mean that ‘the Governmentplans was published in May 2012 in the Green wants to get rid of School Action and SchoolPaper: Support and Aspiration: A new approach Action Plus’ to mean it wants to abolish theto special educational needs and disability – special needs support that was previouslyprogress and next steps (DfE, 2012). As a result delivered under these headings.of the consultation, proposals have been refinedand focus on the following four key measures: Pathfinders The Government is piloting the main proposals in•  single assessment system which should A the Green Paper through a ‘Pathfinder’ scheme be more streamlined, quicker to process and (DfE, 2012). Some 20 pathfinders, covering 31 better involve children and young people from local authorities and their Primary Care Trust 0–25 and their families. (PCT) partners, are testing certain aspects to•  n education health and care plan (EHC Plan) A see how the proposed changes will effectively to replace the Statement of Special Needs, work in reality. which will ensure that services work together and come with a personal budget for families Dyslexia Action’s view is that the proposed who want it. reforms have the potential to bring about•  requirement on local authorities to publish A significant improvements, but we have a number a ‘Local Offer’ indicating the support available of concerns. According to information on the to those with special educational needs and progress of the pathfinders, not all have started disabilities and their families. work with their case study families and this will•  he introduction of mediation opportunities for T make it harder to learn important lessons about disputes and a trial giving children the right to the best ways to implement the reforms. The appeal if they are unhappy with their support. Government wants to publish a draft bill this summer but the reports of the pathfinders willIn relation to dyslexia, provision is most likely to not be available until 2013.be made available through the Local Offer (DfE,2012). In this, local authorities will be required toset out information for parents which helps themto understand what services they and their familycan expect from a range of local agencies. A key 53
    • Dyslexia Still MattersPathfinder commentsCornwall HampshireSandra Page, one of Cornwall’s Dyslexia Hampshire County Council’s Service ManagerAdvisers, also leads on the Cornwall Council for SEN and Specialist Teacher Adviser FlissSEN Pathfinder Project which is focussing Dickinson said: “There has been a high levelon the development of a single statutory of interest and commitment to the pathfinderassessment and plan. Sandra is determined in Hampshire but we all realise the extent ofdyslexia assessment and provision will remain the challenge that has been set in such a shortintegrated into Cornwall’s SEN system. She timescale.”said: “As the statutory assessment and planwill be for the children and young people withthe most complex needs, the project will alsobe ensuring that those children and youngpeople on the dyslexic spectrum (currentlyat school action and school action plus) willcontinue to have their needs identified and met.As more funding is devolved to schools thiswill become more challenging, but through thewell established, ‘Cornwall Inclusive, DyslexiaFriendly Schools Quality Mark’, staff training andthe development of a child and family centredassessment and planning tool (based on theEarly Support protocols and model) the localauthority will continue to support schools inproactively ensuring that effective provision is inplace.“Cornwall is also ensuring that the ‘Local Offer’for children and young people is made clear toparents and carers through the developmentof their Family Information Service. CornwallCouncil work in partnership with the CornwallDyslexia Association and together they will workhard to ensure that children and young peopleon the dyslexic spectrum will have successful lifeoutcomes.”54
    • Dyslexia Action, June 2012Section 6:Conclusions andrecommendations 55
    • Dyslexia Still MattersConclusionsOur surveys of dyslexic learners highlight and disadvantage. It is less costly, both for thethat significant problems remain in the school individual and society, to provide appropriatesystem today. We undertook this exercise to help at the earliest possible time. The currentassess how much progress has been made cost to the economy of underemployment,over the last 40 years. Despite the improved unemployment and crime is billions of poundsunderstanding of dyslexia and the techniques every year.that work we were shocked to learn that so manyparents report their schools are still unwilling to Effective practicerecognise dyslexia and take action to support The most effective practice involves adyslexic children. While the Government may combination of the four key elements of supportrecognise dyslexia as a genuine condition, and that we have identified from our survey ofif unaddressed, as a significant contributor to practice and from previous reports:poor academic progress, it is a tragedy that thisknowledge is not more widely shared amongst 1. A whole school ethos that respects individual schools and teachers. Children individuals’ differences maintains highhave only one main chance to receive a good expectations for all and promotes goodeducation and every year lost can never be communication between teachers,recovered. We cannot simply sit back and wait parents and pupils.for things to improve gradually, urgent actionis needed so that what we know works can be 2. Knowledgeable and sensitive teachers made available to everyone. who understand the processes of learning and the impact that specificOn the positive side, our research has found difficulties can have on these.many examples of effective provision in a widerange of schools enabling children with dyslexia 3. Creative adaptations to classroom and literacy difficulties to thrive and succeed. practice enabling children with specialThis provision is not just in the private sector needs learn inclusively, but meaningfully,or in specialist schools, but can be seen in alongside their peers.mainstream primary and secondary schools andoften reflects an authority-wide approach. 4. Access to additional learning  programmes and resources to supportEarly diagnosis needed development of key skills and strategiesReports from parents of dyslexic children and for independent learning.from adults with dyslexia show that if dyslexiaand literacy difficulties are not diagnosedearly and a pattern of reading failure has set We have argued in this report that it is absolutelyin, children become frustrated and depressed essential that we get it right for those withand are often labelled as ‘lazy’, ‘stupid’ or both. dyslexia and do so more consistently. If weMany children lose confidence in their abilities fail to do this then many tens of thousandsand frequently become school failures. A of individual children will struggle and sufferlack of skills for education and employment, when they could be thriving and succeeding.combined with a loss of self-esteem, results in Consequently, the overall standards of literacy inindividuals with dyslexia and literacy difficulties our schools and our workforce will remain in thebeing over represented in all areas of poverty lower divisions of international comparisons.56
    • Dyslexia Action, June 2012Interventions workThe schools that are accessing specialist Examples such as Partnership for Literacyintervention programmes, like the ones we (Dyslexia Action, 2010) and the work of No tohave highlighted, are demonstrating successful Failure (Dyslexia-SpLD Trust, 2009) demonstrateoutcomes for people with dyslexia, who how a specialist teacher can impact on thewould otherwise have failed significantly or literacy levels of the whole school, particularly theunderperformed. The evidence presented shows lowest performing children, by giving all teachingthat by up-skilling the teaching staff, sharing staff the training they need and the tools andexpertise and providing access to specialists teaching materials to support differing learningin dyslexia and literacy, schools can make a needs.considerable difference to the literacy attainmentlevels of children with SEN.What needs to be doneBetter identification and monitoring parents responding to the YouGov survey thatThe overriding theme throughout these surveys, every school should have access to a specialistcases studies and discussions, is that much teacher and all teachers should have a basicmore needs to be done to ensure teachers can level of awareness and understanding of dyslexiaidentify children at risk and provide them with the and SpLD. This is something that is echoed incorrect help and support and that this needs to social media, other online discussion boards andbe done with understanding. from parents face to face or on the telephone. The strong conclusion from people with dyslexiaWhile some schools are good at identifying is that it would have been much better had theirchildren with learning needs and ensuring dyslexia been identified at the beginning of theirthey get support, many children are slipping education.through the net. The irony is that some childrenare penalised for having developed coping Teaching Assistants are often assigned to givestrategies and managing to perform within the children with dyslexia-SpLD help with readingaverage boundaries but they could, with support, and writing in class. However, if they were givendo much better and may also struggle later in better training and more effective teachingtheir education when the demands of learning materials they could provide more support to achange. larger percentage of children. This is something Dyslexia Action has seen working extremely wellA number of parents have highlighted the in the P4L partner schools.transition from primary to secondary school asparticularly difficult. Those completing our 16 Sharing good practicePlus questionnaire agreed that the transition To give children with dyslexia and thus the wholeput more pressure on their difficulties and that school community the best possible education,coping strategies often broke down at this time. we need to bring together knowledge about bestIt is important to take early action, but also to be practice along with up-to-date research in orderaware that difficulties can arise later in schooling, to inform and shape the UK’s strategy for dealingwhen demands on skills and strategies may with dyslexia and literacy difficulties. As shownincrease and new challenges arise. in this report, there is a wealth of evidence that demonstrates why and how dyslexiaTeacher awareness and training interventions could improve the UK’s literacyThere was also a strong consensus from the standards. 57
    • Dyslexia Still MattersRecommendations of theDyslexia Still Matters ReportWe have argued in this report that solutions exist and we have shown examples where thesesolutions are working in practice. Dyslexia Action, with its partners in the Dyslexia-SpLD Trustand elsewhere, is bringing forward a clear message about what needs to be done, with acall that we work together to find the best way to make it happen. Here, we repeat our mainrecommendations.Training Identification and AssessmentAll children with dyslexia need to have access Early identification remains the key to successfulto good teaching in all lessons. A co-ordinated outcomes as well as avoiding the stresses andplan is needed to improve awareness and frustrations that are still widely reported byunderstanding of dyslexia for people in all roles parents today.in education. There needs to be:This should include: •  etter tracking and monitoring of children B•  compulsory module on dyslexia and special A as they progress from pre-school through to needs as part of their Initial Teacher Training. adulthood.•  requirement for all teachers to access A •  clear policy on where the responsibility for A Continuing Professional Development (CPD) in tracking sits and better use and co-ordination the area of dyslexia and special needs. of centrally-held data along with individual•  aking special needs a higher priority in the M observations, to avoid the unacceptable delays training and professional development for in identifying those who need extra help. those in leadership and governance roles. •  etter advice and guidance around the Year 1 B•  plan, with resources behind it, to ensure that A Phonics Check, especially about the actions all schools have access to a specialist teacher that should follow from low scores. who has a postgraduate diploma in dyslexia •  etter access to easily-administered B and literacy. ‘screening’ assessments and a clearer•  scheme to enable more teaching assistants A policy about how information is shared with to receive training in specific interventions colleagues and parents. and methods of support as well as a career •  raining for all teachers, at all levels, so that T structure allowing them to undertake more they can identify signs of dyslexia-SpLD specialist roles as their skills and knowledge and know what to do in terms of further increase. assessment and advice.•  roducing guidance and advice for use by P inspectors in relation to effective support and interventions for those with dyslexia.58
    • Dyslexia Action, June 2012Sharing Best Practice School ImprovementKnowledge of effective practice needs to be The pace of change in our schools needs toshared and communicated more widely. increase. Further action and support is needed so that schools can produce credible LocalSupport needs to be given, to: Offers under the new SEN reforms.•  evelop and maintain forums for exchange of D practice locally, nationally and virtually. Schools need to:•  nsure that expertise from the voluntary sector E •  chools need to demonstrate, through the S and from those engaged in research is fully Local Offer and in other ways, what they are utilised. doing to support children with dyslexia and•  evelop and evaluate new intervention models D literacy difficulties. in schools and specialist centres so they can •  chools need to show evidence that they have S learn what works. engaged with ‘best practice’ as highlighted in this report’s Intervention Table. •  unding arrangements for schools need to F reflect that developing an effective Local Offer is a priority and they should be encouraged to draw widely on expertise, including that from the voluntary sector to help develop and deliver these plans. •  FSTED needs to require schools to include O these plans and their success in implementing them as part of school inspections. The proposed Children and Families Bill, building on the SEN Green Paper, provides the opportunity to deliver comprehensive improvements in literacy throughout the system. Intervention strategies to improve literacy skills will continue to fail however, unless the Government incorporates specific provisions for those with dyslexia and other SpLD. We urge Government to take on board the recommendations that Dyslexia Action and other experts in the field of SpLD and literacy are making. Together we can improve the UK’s literacy standards and put an end to the sufferning and sense of failure that is still felt by too many children with dyslexia and literacy difficulties in our schools today. 59
    • Dyslexia Still MattersReferencesBritish Dyslexia Association (2012), What is DfE (2011), Support and aspiration: A newthe BDA Quality Mark about? Available from: approach to special educational needs andhttp://www.bdadyslexia.org.uk/quality-mark-and- disability. Available from:accreditation/dyslexia-friendly-quality-mark/who- http://www.education.gov.uk/can-achieve-it.html childrenandyoungpeople/sen/a0075339/ sengreenpaperDepartment for Business, Innovation and Skills(BIS) (2010), Skills for Life Survey. Available DfE (2012), 20 pathfinders to test outfrom http://www.bis.gov.uk/assets/biscore/ proposals in the special educational needs andfurther-education-skills/docs/0-9/11-1367-2011- disabilities Green Paper. Available from: http://skills-for-life-survey-findings.pdf www.education.gov.uk/inthenews/inthenews/ a00198359/20-pathfinders-to-test-out-Department for Work and Pensions (2012), proposals-in-the-special-educational-needs-and-Benefit Expenditure Tables: Benefit expenditure disabilities-green-paperoutturn. Available from:http://research.dwp.gov.uk/asd/asd4/index. DfE (2011), Schools, Pupils, and theirphp?page=expenditure Characteristics. Available from: http://www. education.gov.uk/rsgateway/DB/SFR/s001012/DfE (2011), Department for Business, sfr12-2011.pdfInnovation and Skills. Schools, Pupils and theirCharacteristics. Available from: http://www. DfE (2012), Support and aspiration: A neweducation.gov.uk/rsgateway/DB/SFR/s001012/ approach to special educational needs andindex.shtml disability: Progress and next steps. Change Available from:DfE (2012), Government proposes biggest http://www.education.gov.uk/reforms to special educational needs in 30 childrenandyoungpeople/strategy/laupdates/years. Available from: http://www.education. a00209060/support-and-aspiration-a-new-gov.uk/inthenews/inthenews/a0075344/ approach-to-special-educational-needs-and-government-proposes-biggest-reforms-to- disability-special-educational-needs-in-30-years Dyslexia Action (2010), Partnership for Literacy:DfE (2011), National Curriculum Assessments The next chapter in raising Literacy standards.at Key Stage 2 in England 2010/2011 (revised). Available from www.dyslexiaaction.org.uk/Available from: http://www.education.gov.uk/ Handlers/Download.ashx?IDMF=5aaabb41-rsgateway/DB/SFR/s001047/index.shtml 3638-408e-9402- Dyslexia-SpLD Trust (2009), No to Failure Final Report 2009. Surrey: Dyslexia-SpLD Trust60
    • Dyslexia Action, June 2012European Commission (Eurostat) (2011), School Rose, Sir J, (2009), Identifying and Teachingenrolment and levels of education. Available Children and Young People with Dyslexia andfrom: Literacy Difficulties, Available from: https://http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/statistics_ www.education.gov.uk/publications/standard/explained/index.php/School_enrolment_and_ publicationdetail/page1/DCSF-00659-2009levels_of_education Stewart, D. (2005), An evaluation of basic skillsJama, D & Dugdale G (2012), Literacy: State of training for prisoners. Available from: http://www.the Nation - A picture of literacy in the UK today; homeoffice.gov.uk/rds/pubintro1.html. Research,National Literacy Trust. Available from: Development and Statistics Directoratehttp://www.literacytrust.org.uk/assets/0001/2847/Literacy_State_of_the_ The Dyslexia Institute (2005), The incidenceNation_-_2_Aug_2011.pdf of hidden disabilities in the prison population: Yorkshire and Humberside Research. SurreyLamb, B., (2010), Improving Parent Confidencein the Special Educational Needs System: The National Archives (2010), Equalities ActAn Implementation Plan. Available from: 2010; Legislation.gov.uk. Available at: http://https://www.education.gov.uk/publications/ www.legislation.gov.uk/contactuseOrderingDownload/DCSF-00265-2010.pdf The World Literacy Foundation (2012), TheMinistry of Justice (2011), Offender management Economic & Social Costs of Illiteracy Interimstatistics (quarterly) – October to December Report,2011, England and Wales. Available from: Available from: http://www.http://www.justice.gov.uk/statistics/prisons-and- worldliteracyfoundation.org/interim-report.htmlprobation/oms-quarterly Youth Justice Board for England and WalesOfsted (2010), A statement is not enough - (2011), YJB Corporate and Business PlanOfsted review of special educational needs and 2011/12 – 2014/15. Available from:disability. Available from http://www.ofsted.gov. http://www.justice.gov.uk/downloads/uk/news/statement-not-enough-ofsted-review-of- publications/yjb/2011/yjb-business-special-educational-needs-and-disability plan-2011-15.pdfRack, J.P (2005) Review of research on effectiveintervention. In M Turner and J Rack (Eds) TheStudy of Dyslexia. New York: Kluwer/Plenum 61
    • Dyslexia Still MattersDyslexia ActionDyslexia Action is a national charity that takes 2. Empowering others so they canaction to change lives of people with dyslexia help individuals living with dyslexiaand literacy difficulties. We have 25 centres and and literacy difficulties through:97 teaching locations around the UK. • Training and consultancy • Project workWe take action by: • Helping the probation and prison services •  roviding information and advice to parents P1. Offering help and support direct to and carersindividuals living with dyslexia and •  eveloping and selling teaching, home support Dliteracy difficulties by offering: and psychology materials (The Dyslexia Action• Assessment services Shop Limited)• KS1 Services• Support for children 3. Influencing change to help• Support for adults individuals living with dyslexia and• Specialist tuition literacy difficulties:• Workplace consultancy services Dyslexia Action has 40 years experience and knowledge of how best to help and support those affected by dyslexia and literacy difficulties. We therefore prioritise working with decision and policy makers to improve the opportunities for those with hidden disabilities across the UK.For more information about dyslexia, Dyslexia Action and the work we do please visit our website(www.dyslexiaaction.org.uk) or call 01784 222 300.All comments and third party endorsements are genuine but in order to respect anonymity not allreal names are used. All images are the copyright of Dyslexia Action.62
    • Dyslexia Action, June 2012Taking action on literacydifficulties and dyslexia 63
    • Dyslexia Action, Park House,Wick Road, Egham, Surrey,TW20 0HHT 01784 222300F 01784 770484E info@dyslexiaaction.org.ukDyslexia Action is the working name for Dyslexia Institute Limited, acharity registered in England and Wales (No. 268502) and Scotland (No.SC039177) and registered in England as company number 01179975.