The Reagan Era included ideas and personalities beyond Reagan himself; he is usually characterized as the leader of a broadly based conservative movement whose ideas, whether good or bad, dominated national policy making in areas such as taxes, welfare, defense, the federal judiciary and the Cold War. Liberals generally lament the Reagan Era, while conservatives generally praise it and call for its revival in the 21st century. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reagan_Era) No president of the 20th century had a more positive and enduring influence than Ronald Reagan. Other presidents, from Wilson to FDR, exceeded Reagan in their impact, but much of it was negative. Sure, they won wars, but they almost destroyed the American economy as well. (http://biggovernment.com/bfolsom/2010/02/06/why-was-ronald-reagan-the-greatest-president-of-the-20th-century/) Picture obtained from: http://pubrecord.org/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2010/06/ronald_reagan-300x233.jpg Quote obtained from www.brainyquote.com
All Documents obtained from My History Lab online.
Ronald Reagan was the 40 th president of the United States. He was known as the Great Communicator for his ability and skill in addressing the nation. He was one of the most popular presidents of the 20 th century. He oversaw the largest peacetime increase in defense spending, as well as the largest single tax cut in American History. References: Picture #1- http://www.reagan.utexas.edu/archives/photographs/thumbnails/c3525-20.jpg Picture #2- http://www.reagan.utexas.edu/archives/photographs/thumbnails/C5235-19A.jpg Picture #3- http://www.reagan.utexas.edu/archives/photographs/thumbnails/c12572-6A.jpg http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/4152396/ns/msnbc_tv-msnbc_special/ http://www.historycentral.com/bio/presidents/reagan.html
Reagan’s presidency was dominated by two themes: The US needed to compete with the Soviet Union in building and maintaining defense & conquering communism as well as the theme of Less Government is Best. He successfully led the US to a massive armaments program. References: Picture #1- http://www.visitingdc.com/images/white-house-picture.jpg Picture #2- http://www.reagan.utexas.edu/archives/photographs/large/C32042-10.jpg http://historycentral.com/bio/presidents/reagan.html
Reagan introduced the concept of “Less Government is Best” from the very beginning. References: Picture- http://www.reagan.utexas.edu/archives/photographs/large/C81-14.jpg My history Lab MHL Document Reagan’s First Inaugural Address (1981)
“ The United States won the Cold War because it outlasted the Soviet Union through a battle of attrition, not because of any brilliant strategic maneuvers.” Reagan did play an important role but he was following in the footsteps of Truman, Marshall, and Acheson. Basically, the United States outlasted the Soviet Union. References: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Reagan_and_Gorbachev_hold_discussions.jpg http://www.ashbrook.org/publicat/onprin/v10n6/garrity.html
By Soviet Competition, I mean the US was in a constant state of trying to achieve more than the Soviets whether it be economically, militarily, etc. These topics are the top of the list where the US HAD to win! References: Picture- http://harvardmagazine.com/sites/default/files/img/story/0109/B-star%20wars%20lead.JPG?rand=972156469
Reagan began to promote the “Failure” of communism and other totalitarian regimes. Reagan saw military strength as the key to peace in the struggle against the Soviet Union. References: My History Lab MHL Document Speech to the House of Commons (1982) Picture- http://www.reagan.utexas.edu/archives/photographs/thumbnails/c8466-23.jpg
After the US exploded the first atomic bomb, the Soviet Union had their own four years later. Then the race was on. It was a cycle of who could out do who. Aside from just who could have the most in terms of number of weapons, there was also the need to maintain a major presence so as to deter any enemies. Hopefully the threat of a nuclear war would be enough to prevent these weapons from being used. Proposals came for a “nuclear freeze” and/or arms reduction. References: Picture #1- http://nsarchive.files.wordpress.com/2010/04/mk_6_nuclear_bomb.jpg?w=300&h=226 Picture #2- http://www.worldpoliticsreview.com/images/CommentaryNews/trident.jpg Picture #3- http://www.executivegov.com/wp-content/uploads/NPR.jpg Quote obtained from My History Lab_ MHL Document Speech to the House of Commons (1982) by Ronald Reagan
Reagan rejected the call for a nuclear freeze saying that it would put the US in an inferior position to the Soviet Union. References: My History Lab MHL Document Speech to the National Association of Evangelicals (1983) Picture - http://www.reagan.utexas.edu/archives/photographs/thumbnails/c13322-21a.jpg
This program was created by Reagan but was criticized. It was never fully developed. It was renamed the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO) under the Clinton administration and later changed to the Missile Defense Agency in 2002. Space-related defense remains a heavily budgeted item to this day. In the original space race between the US and the Soviet Union, the Soviets were the first to achieve going into space but the US was the first to walk on the moon. The competition goes way back! References: Picture #1- http://www.pierretristam.com/images/reaganmissiles.jpg Picture #2- http://www.atomicarchive.com/History/coldwar/images/sdi_s.jpg
Little did anyone know that not long after Reagan gave this speech, the wall was torn down. Reagan was sometimes thought of as a visionary and maybe it was his way of saying he thought CHANGE was coming. References: My History Lab MHL Documents Speech at the Brandenburg Gate (1987) http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/2007-06-12-reagan-speech_N.htm Picture #1- http://www.reagan.utexas.edu/archives/photographs/thumbnails/C41262-11.jpg Picture #2- http://www.reagan.utexas.edu/archives/photographs/thumbnails/C41250-34.jpg
A symbol of freedom when the wall fell November 9, 1989. A piece of the wall is on display at the Reagan Library. References: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Berlin_Wall_at_the_Reagan_Library.jpg http://media3.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/photo/gallery/091029/GAL-09Oct29-2972/media/PHO-09Oct29-184701.jpg http://www.itsdigitalmarketing.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2009/11/Berlinwalljpg.jpg http://img.rasset.ie/0002bbf6-970.jpg
Reagan was considered one of the greatest presidents of the 20 th century, possible ever. His conservative views and policies have had lasting effects on us today. His view of “less government is best” goes back to the time of our Founding Fathers and their views of government. His view of peace through strength maintained that the U.S. always be prepared and be considered an formidable opponent while also commanding the respect of most of the countries of the world. His promotion of democracy throughout the world inevitably helped bring about the demise of the strong hold that communism had in the Eastern world.
The reagan era
The Reagan Era 1981-1988 “ Freedom is never more than once generation away from extinction. We didn’t pass it to our children in the bloodstream. It must be fought for, protected, and handed on for them to do the same .” -Ronald Reagan
Documents <ul><li>First Inaugural Address (1981) </li></ul><ul><li>Speech to the House of Commons (1982) </li></ul><ul><li>Address to the National Association of Evangelicals (1983) </li></ul><ul><li>Speech at the Brandenburg Gate (1987) </li></ul>
Who Was Ronald Reagan? <ul><li>40th President of the United States </li></ul><ul><li>The Great Communicator </li></ul><ul><li>One of the most popular presidents of the 20 th century </li></ul>
Reagan’s Focus <ul><li>Less government is best. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Soviet competition -“The Cold War”, build up American defenses, conquer communism </li></ul>
Less Government is Best <ul><li>" We the people" tell the government what to do, it doesn't tell us. "We the people" are the driver, the government is the car. And we decide where it should go, and by what route, and how fast. Almost all the world's constitutions are documents in which governments tell the people what their privileges are. Our Constitution is a document in which "We the people" tell the government what it is allowed to do. "We the people" are free. </li></ul><ul><li>-Ronald Reagan </li></ul>
First Inaugural Address (1981) <ul><li>“ So, as we begin, let us take inventory. We are a nation that has a government – not the other way around. And this makes us special among the nations of the Earth. Our government has no power except that granted it by the people. It is time to check and reverse the growth of government which shows signs of having grown beyond the consent of the governed.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ It is my intention to curb the size and influence of the Federal establishment and to demand recognition of the distinction between the powers granted to the Federal Government and those reserved to the States or to the people. All of us need to be reminded that the Federal Government did not create the States; the States created the Federal Government.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Now, so there will be no misunderstanding, it is not my intention to do away with government. It is, rather, to make it work – work with us, not over us; to stand by our side, not ride on our back. Government can and must provide opportunity, not smother it; foster productivity, not stifle it.” </li></ul>
What is the Cold War? <ul><li>State of political conflict, military tension, and economic competition that existed after WWII between mainly the Soviet Union and the United States. </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict expressed through military coalitions, strategic deployments, proxy wars, espionage, propaganda, conventional & nuclear arms race, appeals to neutral nations, rivalry at sports events , & technological competition such as the “Space Race” </li></ul>
Speech to the House of Commons (1982) <ul><li>“ In an ironic sense Karl Marx was right. We are witnessing today a great revolutionary crisis, a crisis where the demands of the economic order are conflicting directly with those of the political order. But the crisis is happening not in the free, non-Marxist West, but in the home of Marxism-Leninism, the Soviet Union. It is the Soviet Union that runs against the tide of history by denying human freedom and human dignity to its citizens. It is also deep in economic difficulty. The rate of growth in the national product has been steadily declining since the fifties and is less than half of what it was then. The dimensions of this failure are astounding: a country which employees one-fifth of its population in agriculture is unable to feed its own people….The decay of the Soviet experiment should come as no surprise to us. Wherever the comparisons have been made between free and closed societies… it is the democratic countries that are prosperous and responsive to the needs of their people.” </li></ul>
The Arms Race <ul><ul><li>Military buildup & development of new technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li> Maintain formidable status to be considered a deterrent </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> Arms Control and Disarmament Agency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Our military strength is a prerequisite to peace, but let it be clear we maintain this strength in the hope that it will never be used, for the ultimate determinant in the struggle that’s now going on in the world will not be bombs and rockets but a test of wills and ideas, a trial of spiritual resolve, the values we hold, the beliefs we cherish, the ideals to which we are dedicated…” – R. Reagan </li></ul></ul>
Address to the National Association of Evangelicals (1983) <ul><li>“ The truth is that a freeze now would be a very dangerous fraud, for that is merely the illusion of peace. The reality is that we must find peace through strength.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ So, I urge you to speak out against those who would place the United States in a position of military and moral inferiority….So, in your discussions of the nuclear freeze proposals, I urge you to beware the temptation of pride – the temptation of blithely declaring yourselves above it all and label both sides equally at fault, to ignore the facts of history and the aggressive impulses of an evil empire, to simply call the arms race a giant misunderstanding and thereby remove yourself from the struggle between right and wrong and good and evil.” </li></ul>
“ Star Wars” <ul><ul><li>Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protect from attack by strategic nuclear ballistic missiles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focused on defense rather than offense </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Widely criticized as unrealistic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Never fully developed. Certain aspects of SDI research and technology paved the way for some anti-ballistic missile systems of today. </li></ul></ul>
Conquering Communism <ul><li>“ After these four decades, then, there stands before the entire world one great inescapable conclusion: Freedom replaces the ancient hatreds among the nations with comity, peace, and well-being. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Now the Soviets themselves may at last, in their own way, be coming to understand the importance of freedom. We hear much from Moscow about a new policy of reform and openness. Some political prisoners have been released. Some foreign new broadcasters are no longer being jammed. Some economic enterprises have been permitted to operate with greater autonomy.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Are these the beginning of profound changes in the Soviet state? Or are they token gestures, intended to strengthen the Soviet system without changing it? We welcome real change and real openness. For we believe freedom and security go together - that the advance of human liberty can only strengthen the cause of world peace. There is one sign the Soviets can make that would be unmistakable, that would advance dramatically the cause for freedom and peace.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ General Secretary Gorbachev, if you seek peace – if you seek prosperity for the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe – if you seek liberalization: Come here to this gate. Herr Gorbachev, machen Sie Dieses Tor auf! (Mr. Gorbachev, open this gate!) Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall.” </li></ul>
Conclusions <ul><li>Reagan was a great president with high approval from the public. </li></ul><ul><li>Conservative views on less government & peace through strength evident not only in communication but policy as well. </li></ul><ul><li>Promoter of democracy throughout the world & helped reduce communism. </li></ul>
<ul><li>“ Freedom is one of the deepest and noblest aspirations of the human spirit.” </li></ul><ul><li>- Ronald Reagan </li></ul>
Ronald Reagan 1911-2004 <ul><li>40 th President of the United States </li></ul>
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