POINTS TO PONDER ABOUT LEARNING ENGLISH Prof. Dr. Durval A. Ramanholi email@example.com
POINTS TO PONDER ABOUT LEARNING ENGLISH COMMUNICATIVE APPROACHThe teaching speech (authoritarian) break into atleast three laws of the speech:1. The law of informativity: the listener mustwant to know the fact that you point;2. The law of interest: one can not legitimatelyspeak to others but what he is interested in; and3. The law of usefulness: no one speaks just fortalking, but because there is a utility to do so.
POINTS TO PONDER ABOUT LEARNING ENGLISH LANGUAGE AQUISITION Children are not taught grammar whenlearning the mother tongue. They learn thelanguage structures naturally experimentingthe idiom day by day. So you shouldn’t hopeto learn English in 2 or 3 years studying just1 or 2 hours a week. By the way,hypothetically, with your mother tongue,you’re connected 24 hours a day.
POINTS TO PONDER ABOUT LEARNING ENGLISH The best strategy is learning naturally, following ourinstincts and interacting with our surroundings.The human being keeps easily pieces of informationwhen they are inserted in the referenced knowledge.The new data have to be linked to our way of thinkingabout the world and to our previous experience.To get time for that it is easy if it will be pleasing. Takethis activity as something very nice to do, and that willbring you great benefits, personally and as aprofessional.
POINTS TO PONDER ABOUT LEARNING ENGLISHChoosing the texts is one of the most important step.We do better when we like what we’re doing.We learn the more recurrent words first, which weread previously in several contexts. And because ofthat they will appear more often in any text youwork with.Everything that we learn actively will be kept alive inour permanent memory along the years.
POINTS TO PONDER ABOUT LEARNING ENGLISH VOCABULARY BY NUMBERSCognate words figure out 20 to 25% of all the wordscoming up in a scientific text/paper.The 250 more common words of the English languageare equivalent to 60% of an entire text.If we know the meaning of those 250 words mentionedabove plus the cognates we will be acquainted witharound 80 to 85% of any scientific paper.
POINTS TO PONDER ABOUT LEARNING ENGLISH TATTOO TIME by John Rigg The State of the Art Tattoo Convention
POINTS TO PONDER ABOUT LEARNING ENGLISH Tattoos are fashionable. Everybody seems to haveone, including top stars like Angelina Jolie, Ben Affleckand Eminem. Well, Derby may not be the mostfashionable English city, but tattoo enthusiasts fromaround the world come each year for the State of theArt Tattoo Convention. This year it takes place at theAssembly Rooms on July 21st and 22nd. The world’stop tattoo artists come to take part in the convention’sprestigious competitions, while enthusiasts come tosee – and display – spectacular examples of body art.There are three types of award: for small tattoos,which cover a shoulder or arm; large designs, whichcover half the body; and, finally, “the body suit,”which covers the entire body.
POINTS TO PONDER ABOUT LEARNING ENGLISHASK A STUPID QUESTION! Spectators watch the tattoo artists at work. Theirfirst question is always the same: does it hurt? Well, ofcourse, it does! The least painful areas are the arms andshoulders, followed by the back; avoid joints such asknees and ankles, and just forget about your neck.Ouch! And remember: choose the design carefully, go toa registered tattooist, certainly not the cheapest onoffer, and insist on new needles and new ink. Legally,you have to be over 18 years old in Britain.
POINTS TO PONDER ABOUT LEARNING ENGLISH Enigma’s body
POINTS TO PONDER ABOUT LEARNING ENGLISHSHOCKING Why do people get tattoos? The answer varies:some people love the designs, some want to expresstheir inner selves, while others want to shock. Localteenager Janine says: “My mother told me, ‘Properyoung ladies do not get tattoos.’ So I went and gotone immediately!” Finally, there are people likeEnigma who make a living from displaying theirtattoos as sideshow attractions. Enigma’s body(pictured top, left) is completely covered in a bluejigsaw design.
POINTS TO PONDER ABOUT LEARNING ENGLISHA Brief History of Tattoos Tattoos first became fashionable in Britain at the end of the 18th century. The famous explorer, Captain Cook, returned from a voyage to the South Pacific with a heavily tattooed Polynesian chief named Omal, whom he presented to King George III. People were fascinated and tattoos became popular with the upper classes in this period. The word “tattoo” (derived from the Tahitian “tatu,” meaning “to mark something”) first appears in Captain Cook’s journals. Yet the art of tattooing dates back to Ancient Egypt (3000 BC), a thousand years later we find descriptions in Chinese literature of men completely covered in tattoos. In Europe the Romans used tattoos to mark criminals and slaves, while Britons, Danes and Saxons had tattoos of their family crests. In fact, tattoos were common in Europe until AD 787, when Pope Adrian I banned them.
POINTS TO PONDER ABOUT LEARNING ENGLISH READING STRATEGIES1. Scanning: fast and narrow reading of a text in order to placing specific information, setting the others apart.2. Previewing and predicting: What can you preview and predict by exploring the pictures and the titles only?3. Skimming: fast and narrow reading of a text in order to placing the main idea, and the more important ones. What’s the text about?4. Finding the main idea and supporting details (capital, italics and bolds).
POINTS TO PONDER ABOUT LEARNING ENGLISH READING STRATEGIES 5. Identifying facts and opinions: fact is somethingalready known; opinion is just an idea that both theauthor and the reader may have about the subject orsomebody.6. Finding the tone: find out the voice the author usedto express his opinions and feelings about the theme.7. Finding the purposes: why the author wrote certaintext (to inform, to entertain, to persuade…)
POINTS TO PONDER ABOUT LEARNING ENGLISH READING STRATEGIES 8. Focusing on vocabulary in context (makinginferences, recurrent words).9. Focusing on word building (prefixes and suffixes).10. Numbers, anthroponyms, and toponyms.
POINTS TO PONDER ABOUT LEARNING ENGLISHTEXTUAL LINGUISTICSRecurrent WordsSemantic Field / AssociativeWorking with texts (real communication, contextualized), the mostrecurrent words will be first learned.LEXISCognatesWords from Latin root. The real cognates constitute anabsolute majority. It is worth believing in the (possible)meaning of the word.
POINTS TO PONDER ABOUT LEARNING ENGLISH THE MORE COMMON WORDS IN ENGLISH1. THE 11. WITH 21. THEY 31. HIM 41. ME2. OF 12. AS 22. FROM 32. AN 42. IF3. AND 13.BY 23. WERE 33. SO 43. TO SAY4. TO 14. FOR 24. THERE 34. ONE 44. THERE5. IN 15. TO HAVE 25. THIS 35. SHE 45. WHEN6. TO BE 16. BUT 26. OR 36. MY 46. WOULD7. THAT 17. WHICH 27. YOU 37. THEM 47. MORE8. HIS 18. ON 28. HER 38. WE 48. WILL9. HE 19. AT 29. WHO 39.BEEN 49. SOME10. IT 20. NOT 30. ALL 40. NO 50. WHAT
POINTS TO PONDER ABOUT LEARNING ENGLISHBUILDING UP WORDSProductivity: Suffixes and Prefixes
POINTS TO PONDER ABOUT LEARNING ENGLISHHOW TO MULTIPLY YOUR VOCABULARY RAPIDILY About he Cardinal Points From the FOUR original ones: North, South, East and West => if you add –ERN you got another FOUR: Northern, Southern, Eastern and Western From the FOUR original ones: North, South, East and West => if you combine them together you’ll get another FOUR, again: Northeast, Southeast, Northwest, Southwest
POINTS TO PONDER ABOUT LEARNING ENGLISHHOW TO MULTIPLY YOUR VOCABULARY RAPIDILY From the FOUR previous ones: Northeast, Southeast,Northwest, Southwest => if you add –ERN again, you’llget another FOUR: Northeastern, Southeastern,Northwestern, Southwestern.Conclusion: suffixes are very productive – from theFOUR original words we made SIXTEEN in less than aminute. They are useful for reading and writing too.
POINTS TO PONDER ABOUT LEARNING ENGLISH1. For all the words in Portuguese ended in -DADE(as the word CI-DADE) remove -DADE and put in itsplace -TY and thus it has become CITY.2. For all the words in Portuguese that end in “-ÇÃO" (such as word “NA-ÇÃO”) draw out “-ÇÃO"and put in its place “-TION" and thus the word“NAÇÃO” is now NATION 3. For adverbs ending in “-MENTE" (as the word“NATURAL-MENTE”), remove “-MENTE" and put inits place “-LY"
POINTS TO PONDER ABOUT LEARNING ENGLISH 4. For words ending with “-ÊNCIA" (as in thecase of “ESSÊNCIA”), remove “-ÊNCIA" and putin its place “-ENCE.“ 5. For words ending with "AL" (as in word“GENERAL”) don’t change anything, writeexactly as it is in Portuguese and it will be thesame in English.
POINTS TO PONDER ABOUT LEARNING ENGLISH SOME INTERETING WORDS TO ANALYSE THEIR FORMATION PROCESS TEENAGER = teen+age+er HOPELESSLY = hope+less+ly UNFORTUNATELY = un+fortune+(a)te+ly MISUNDERSTANDING = mis+under+stand+ingUNCONSCIUOSNESS = un+conscience+ous+ness BUSYNESSMAN = busy+ness+man DISAGREEMENT = dis+agree+ment
POINTS TO PONDER ABOUT LEARNING ENGLISHSYNTAXBasic Structural Rules√ Word Order√ Genitive case√ Questions and negatives√ Plural forms The text points out which rules treat. What isimportant is that the rules in use are contextualizedand applicant.
POINTS TO PONDER ABOUT LEARNING ENGLISH GENERAL Tips• You have to believe in what you teach, otherwise you won’t convince.• When reading (and also listening to) in a foreign language ignore all unknown words and focus on the known ones. The fluency is more important than the structure.• Only use dictionary if the same unknown word occur three or more times.• Practice your English from texts, things and subjects you have pleasure with. You have to enjoy what you do.• Nobody learns from theory, you have to practice a lot. As we said, “No pain, no gain.” Communication first; later grammar.
POINTS TO PONDER ABOUT LEARNING ENGLISH HEAVEN AND HELL (Joke) An engineer dies and reports to the pearly gates ofheaven. St. Peter checks his dossier and says: "Ah,youre an engineer; youre in the wrong place. So the engineer reports to the gates of hell and is letin. Pretty soon the engineer becomes dissatisfied withthe level of comfort in hell, and starts designing andbuilding improvements. After a while theyve got airconditioning and flush toilets and escalators, and theengineer is a pretty popular guy.
POINTS TO PONDER ABOUT LEARNING ENGLISHOne day God calls Satan up on the telephone and says witha sneer: “So hows it going down there in hell?” Satanreplies: “Hey, things are going great! Weve got airconditioning and flush toilets and escalators, and theres notelling what this engineer is going to come up with next.”God replies: “What?! Youve got an engineer? Thats amistake. He should never have gotten down there: sendhim up here!”Satan says: “No way! I like having an engineer on the staff,and Im keeping him.”God says: “Send him back up here, or Ill sue you!"Satan laughs out loud and answers: “Yeah, right! And justwhere are YOU going to get a lawyer?"
POINTS TO PONDER ABOUT LEARNING ENGLISH EL CONDOR PASA (Song by Paul Simon) Id rather be a sparrow than a snail. Yes I would. If I could, I surely would. Id rather be a hammer than a nail. Yes I would. If I only could, I surely would.
POINTS TO PONDER ABOUT LEARNING ENGLISH CHORUS Away, Id rather sail away Like a swan thats here and gone A man gets tied up to the ground He gives the world Its saddest sound, Its saddest sound.
POINTS TO PONDER ABOUT LEARNING ENGLISH Id rather be a forest than a street. Yes I would. If I could, I surely would. Id rather feel the earth beneath my feet, Yes I would. If I only could, I surely would.
POINTS TO PONDER ABOUT LEARNING ENGLISH BIBLIOGRAPHY• ALLEN, W. S. Living Structure for schools. 7th ed. London - GB: Longman, 1990• CARDOSO, S. H. B. Discurso e Ensino. 2ª. Ed. Belo Horizonte: Autêntica/FALE- UFMG, 2005.• DIXON, R. J. Graded Exercises in English - a new revised edition, Rio de Janeiro: Ao Livro Ténico AS, 1989• GREENALL, S.; SWAN, M. Effective Reading: reading skills for advanced students.Cambridge: University Press, 1986.• KOCH, I. V. A inter-ação pela linguagem. 10ª Ed. São Paulo: Contexto, 2006.• MURPHY, R. Essential Grammar in Use. 2nd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994 (tenth printing 1997).• ORNBY, A. S. at al The Advanced Learners dictionary of current English. Lodon: Oxford University Press• THOMPSON, A. J. & MARTINET, A. V. A Practical English Grammar. 4th ed. London GB: Oxford University Press. 1990 (eighth impression)