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Industrial en lowres Industrial en lowres Document Transcript

  •  Best Practice in Steel Construction - Industrial Buildings INDUSTRIAL Contents The Steel Construction Institute (SCI) develops and promotes the effective use of steel in construction. It is an independent, 01 Introduction 1 membership based organisation. SCI’s research and development activities cover multi-storey structures, industrial buildings, bridges, civil engineering and offshore engineering. Activities encompass design guidance on structural steel, light steel and stainless steels, dynamic performance, fire engineering, sustainable construction, architectural design, building physics (acoustic and thermal performance), value engineering, and information technology. 02 Key Design Factors 2 www.steel-sci.org This publication presents best practice for the design of steel construction technologies used in industrial buildings, and is aimed at architects and other members of the design team in the early stages of planning an industrial building project. It was prepared as one of a series of three under an RFCS 03 Support Structures dissemination project Euro-Build in Steel (Project n° RFS2-CT-2007-00029). The project’s objective is to present design information on best practice in steel, and to take a forward look at the next generation of steel buildings. The other 15 publications cover best design practice in commercial and residential buildings. The Euro-Build project partners are: 04 Roof & Wall Systems ArcelorMittal Bouwen met Staal Centre Technique Industriel de la Construction Métallique (CTICM) 25 Forschungsvereinigung Stahlanwendung (FOSTA) Labein Tecnalia SBI The Steel Construction Institute (SCI) 05 National Practice Technische Universität Dortmund Although care has been taken to ensure, to the best of our knowledge, that all data 33 and information contained herein are accurate to the extent that they relate to either matters of fact or accepted practice or matters of opinion at the time of publication, the partners in the Euro-Build project and the reviewers assume no responsibility for any errors in or misinterpretations of such data and/or information or any loss or 06 Case Studies damage arising from or related to their use. ISBN 978-1-85942-063-8 47 © 2008. The Steel Construction Institute. This project was carried out with financial support from the European Commission’s Research Fund for Coal and Steel. Front cover: Mors company building, Opmeer / Netherlands Photograph by J. and F. Versnel, Amsterdam EURO-BUILD in Steel
  • Introduction 0101 IntroductionLarge enclosures or industrial type buildings are very common in businessparks, leisure and sports buildings. Their functionality and architecturalquality are influenced by many factors, e.g. the development plan, thevariety of usages and the desired quality of the building. Steel offersnumerous possibilities to achieve both pleasant and flexible functional use.For buildings of large enclosure, the In most cases, an industrial building iseconomy of the structure plays an not a single structure, but is extended byimportant role. For longer spans, the office and administration units or elementsdesign is optimised in order to minimise such as canopies. These additionalthe use of materials, costs and elements can be designed in a way thatinstallation effort. Increasingly, buildings they fit into the whole building design.are designed to reduce energy costs andto achieve a high degree of sustainability. This publication describes the common forms of industrial buildings and largeIndustrial buildings use steel framed enclosures, and their range of applicationstructures and metallic cladding of all in Europe. Regional differences that maytypes. Large open spaces can be created exist depending on practice, regulationsthat are efficient, easy to maintain, and and capabilities of the supply chain,are adaptable as demand changes. are presented in Section 5.Steel is chosen on economic grounds,as well as for other aspects such as fire, The same technologies may be extendedarchitectural quality and sustainability. to a range of building types, including sports and leisure facilities, halls, supermarkets and other enclosures.Figure 1.1 Leisure building using a steel framed structure EURO-BUILD in Steel 
  • 02 Best Practice in Steel Construction - INDUSTriAL Buildings 02 Key Design Factors The design of industrial buildings is affected by many factors. The following general guidance is presented to identify the key design factors and the benefits offered by steel construction. Industrial buildings are generally Forms of Industrial Buildings Forms of Industrial designed as enclosures that provide The most elementary system used for functional space for internal activities, an industrial building consists of two Buildings which may involve use of overhead columns and a beam. This configuration cranes or suspended equipment as can be modified in numerous ways using well as provision of office space or various types of connections between the Fire Safety mezzanine floors. beams and columns and for the column base. The types of structures most Various structural forms have been commonly used in industrial buildings are developed over the last 30 years that portal frames with hinged column bases. optimise the cost of the steel structure Portal frames provide sufficient in-plane Building Physics in relation to the space provided. stability, and thus only require bracings However, in recent years, forms of for out-of-plane stability. expressive structure have been used in architectural applications of industrial Figure 2.1 shows a variety of rigid frames Loading buildings, notably suspended and with fixed (a) or hinged (b) column bases. tubular structures. Fixed column bases may be considered when heavy cranes are used, as they Concept Design A single large hall is the main feature deflect less under horizontal forces. of most industrial buildings. Hinged column bases have smaller Considerations The construction and appearance foundations and simple base of an industrial building provides the connections. In examples (c) and (d), design engineer with a wide range of the structure is located partly outside the Floors possible configurations in order to building, and so details concerning the realise the architectural ideas and the piercing of the building envelope have to functional requirements. Generally, be designed carefully. The complex detail an industrial building has a rectangular in these types of structure also serve floor space, which is extendable in its architectural purposes. Service Integration long direction. The design of the building has to be coordinated with functional In Figure 2.2, different structures consisting requirements and the energy-saving of beam and columns are presented. concept, including lighting. Figure 2.2 (a) shows an example of a Lighting structure without purlins, that is stiffened The following forms of industrial buildings by diaphragm action in the roof and represent an overview of the possible bracings in the walls. In Figure 2.2 (b), architectural and constructional solutions. purlins are used, leading to a simple Exhibition halls, railway stations, airports design of the roof cladding, which has and sports arenas tend to be special reduced spans and only serves to structures. However, the following support vertical loads. The roof is general issues are restricted to stiffened by plan bracing. The structure ‘standard’ floor plans. without purlins may offer a more pleasant  EURO-BUILD in Steel View slide
  • Key Design Factors 02 (a ) Frame with fixed column bases (b) Frame with hinged column bases Figure 2.1 Examples of rigid (c) Frame with lattice girders (d) Suspended portal frame framed sructures (a ) Structure without purlins, roof (b) Structure with purlins stiffened by trapezoidal sheeting (c) Lattice girder with purlins (d) Cable suspended beams with purlins Figure 2.2 Examples of column and beam structuresappearance when viewed from the inside. individual directional load paths. In addition to the primary steel structure,Figures 2.2 (c) and (d) show lattice trusses Spatial structures and space trusses are a wide range of secondary componentsand cable suspended beams, which may non-directional structures; they can be has also been developed, such asbe beneficial to achieve larger spans, as expanded, but would become heavy for cold formed steel purlins, which alsowell as desirable for visual reasons. long spans. Figure 2.4 shows some provide for the stability of the framework examples of spatial structures. (see Figures 2.6 and 2.7).Arch structures offer advantageous load-carrying behaviour as well as having a Portal frames These simple types of structural systemspleasant visual appearance. In Figure 2.3 Steel portal frames are widely used can also be designed to be architecturally(a), a building with a three-hinged arch is in most of the European countries more appealing by using curvedshown. Alternatively, the structure can be because they combine structural members, cellular or perforated beamselevated on columns or integrated in a efficiency with functional application. etc., as illustrated in Figure 2.8.truss structure, as in Figure 2.3 (d). Various configurations of portal frames can be designed using the same Innovative structural systems have alsoThe forms of buildings with primary and structural concept as shown in Figure 2.5. been developed in which portal framessecondary structural elements described Multi-bay frames can also be designed, are created by moment resistingabove are all directional structures, for as in Figure 2.5 (e) and (f), either using connections using articulations and ties,which the loads are carried primarily on single or pairs of internal columns. as given in Figure 2.9. EURO-BUILD in Steel  View slide
  • 02 Best Practice in Steel Construction - INDUSTriAL Buildings (a ) Three-hinge lattice (b) Elevated curved beams arch with purlins (c) Arch-structure using space frame (d) Elevated curved trusses Figure 2.3 Examples of curved or arch structures (a ) Girder grid on columns (b) Suspended girder grid with fixed bases (c) Space frame on columns (d) Curved space frame on with fixed bases columns with fixed bases Figure 2.4 Examples of spatial structures 6˚ 6m 6m 25 - 40 m 25 - 30 m (a) Portal frame - medium span (b) Curved portal frame 6˚ 8m 8m 3.5 m 8m 9m 8m 25 m (c) Portal frame with mezzanine floor (d) Portal frame with overhead crane 6˚ 6m 25 m (e) Two bay portal frame 6˚ 6˚ 8m 3.5 m 10 m (f ) Portal frame with integral office 3˚ 10˚ 6m 40 m (g) Mansard portal frame Figure 2.5 Various forms of portal frames  EURO-BUILD in Steel
  • Key Design Factors 02Figure 2.6 Linked single bay portal frameFigure 2.7 Two bay portal frame with purlins and roof bracing Kingspan LtdFigure 2.8 Curved beams used in a portal frame structure EURO-BUILD in Steel 
  • 02 Best Practice in Steel Construction - INDUSTriAL Buildings Figure 2.9 Innovative moment- resisting connections in an industrial building Figure 2.10 Installation process for a modern portal frame Barrett Steel Buildings Ltd The installation process of the primary However, columns can also be internal forces are accounted for in the structure and secondary members, such constructed in a similar way, as illustrated design of the lattice members, when the as purlins, is generally carried out using in Figure 2.13, in order to provide lattice truss acts to stabilise the building mobile cranes, as illustrated in Figure 2.10. in‑plane stability. against lateral loads. Lattice trusses Using lattice structures, a comparatively Suspended structures Long span industrial buildings can be high stiffness and load bearing resistance By using suspended structures, long- designed with lattice trusses, using C, H can be achieved while minimising material span buildings with high visual and or O sections. Lattice trusses tend to be use. Besides the ability to create long architectural quality can be realised. beam and column structures and are spans, lattice structures are attractive rarely used in portal frames. Various and enable simple service integration. The division into members that are configurations of lattice trusses are predominantly subject to either tension illustrated in Figure 2.11. The two generic A pinned structure is an idealisation used or compression permits the design of forms are W or N bracing arrangements. in design. Moment-resisting connections lightweight structures. However, structures In this case, stability is generally provided can be designed using bolted or welded that save on materials use do not by bracing rather than rigid frame action. connections. The resulting additional necessarily lead to economic solutions.  EURO-BUILD in Steel
  • Key Design Factors 021.5 m 1.5 m 1.5 m 6˚ 8m 8m 8m 25 m 25 m 25 m (a) Lattice girder - W form (b) Lattice girder - N form (c) Duo-pitch lattice girder 2.5 m 2.5 m1.5 m 1.0 m 1.0 m 8m 8m 8m 25 m 25 m 20 m (d) Articulated lattice girder (e) Curved lattice girder (f ) Curved lattice truss and canopy 1.0 m 6˚2.5 m 6m 6m 20 m 20 m (g) Articulated bow-string (h) Mono-pitch lattice girder with canopy Figure 2.11 (Above) Various forms of lattice truss used in industrial buildings Figure 2.12 (Left) Lattice truss using tubular members EURO-BUILD in Steel 
  • 02 Best Practice in Steel Construction - INDUSTriAL Buildings Figure 2.13 Lattice frame using lattice columns Particularly in space structures, the joints the following fire safety issues should performing fire tests, three levels of fire may be very complex and more time be addressed: design calculations: consuming to construct and install. • Means of escape (number of Level 1: Classification of structural Therefore, possible applications of this emergency exits, characteristics of components by using tables. type of structure are industrial buildings exit signs, number of staircases, Level 2: Simplified calculation methods. that also serve architectural purposes width of doors). Level 3: Advanced calculation methods. rather than merely functional buildings. • Fire spread (including fire resistance and reaction to fire). Building physics Suspended structures can be designed • Smoke and heat exhaust Thermal insulation by extending columns outside the building ventilation system. The main purpose of thermal insulation envelope, as illustrated in Figure 2.14. • Active fire fighting measures (hand in industrial buildings is to ensure an Suspended structures accomplish longer extinguishers, smoke detectors, adequate indoor climate depending spans, although the suspension cables or sprinklers, plant fire brigade). on the use of the building. During the rods also penetrate the building envelope, • Access for the fire brigade. heating season, one of the main and can be obstructive to the use of the functions of the building envelope is external space. Fire resistance requirements should be to reduce the heat loss by means of based on the parameters influencing fire effective insulation. This is particularly Lattice and suspended structures are growth and development, which include: true for buildings with normal indoor complex and are not covered in detail in • Risk of fire (probability of fire temperatures, such as retail stores, this Best Practice Guide. occurrence, fire spread, fire duration, exhibition halls and leisure centres, fire load, severity of fire, etc.). it is true to a lesser extent for Fire Safety • Ventilation conditions buildings with low indoor temperatures, Even though the general context of fire (air input, smoke exhaust). such as workshops and warehouses. safety regulations is the same throughout • Fire compartment Europe, national differences do exist. (type, size, geometry). For large panels, thermal bridges For example a single-storey industrial • Type of structural system. and airtightness of joints have a major building in the Netherlands with a • Evacuation conditions. influence on the energy-balance of compartment size of 50 x 100 m has no • Safety of rescue team. the building. The thermal insulation requirements concerning fire resistance, • Risk for neighbouring buildings. has to be placed without gaps and whereas in France, a fire resistance of • Active fire fighting measures. the building envelope must be sealed 30 minutes is required in many cases, and made airtight at longitudinal and and in Italy the requirement is possibly as The new generation of European transverse joints. high as 90 minutes. At the design stage, regulations allow, in addition to  EURO-BUILD in Steel
  • Key Design Factors 02 Figure 2.14 Suspended structure used at the Renault Factory, Swindon, UK built in the 1980’s Architect:Richard Rogers PartnershipIn the summer, the role of the building for industrial buildings, it may be are given in Eurocodes EN 1991‑1‑1,envelope is to reduce the effects of solar necessary to limit values of acoustic 1991‑1‑3 and 1991‑1‑4. Table 2.1 showsgain on the interior space. The summer emissions from particular machinery. the relevant actions and structuralheat reduction depends on the total area components and Figure 2.15 shows aand orientation of openings, as well as the In steel framed buildings, acoustic insula- typical load scheme.effectiveness of solar protection measures. tion is mainly achieved by the construction of the building envelope. All measures of Vertical loadsCondensation risk acoustic insulation are based on the Self weightThermal and moisture protection are following physical principles: Where possible, unit weights of materialslinked closely, because damage arising • Interruption of transmission, e.g. should be checked with manufacturers’from high local humidity is often the result by using multi-skin constructions. data. The figures given in Table 2.2 mayof missing or improperly installed thermal • Sound absorption, e.g. by using be taken as typical of roofing materialsinsulation. On the other hand, lack of perforated sheeting or cassettes. used in the pre-design of a portal framemoisture protection can lead to • Reducing response by increasing the construction. The self weight of the steelcondensation in the construction, mass of a component. frame is typically 0.2 to 0.4 kN/m2,which in turn affects the effectiveness expressed over the plan area.of the thermal insulation. For single sound sources, a local enclosure or isolation is recommended. Service loadsIn multi-skin roof or wall constructions, In order to reach a high level of acoustic Loading due to services will vary greatly,condensation risk has to be controlled insulation, special sound-absorbing roof depending on the use of the building. In aby installing a vapour barrier on the inner and wall cladding are effective. For multi- portal frame structure, heavy point loadsskin of the structure. Wall constructions skin panels the level of sound insulation may occur from such items as suspendedthat are vapour proof on both sides, can be controlled by varying the acoustic walkways, runway and lifting beams or airlike sandwich panels, prevent diffusion. operating mass. Due to the complexity of handling units. The following loads mayHowever, the humidity in the internal this issue, it is recommended to consult be used for pre-design:space also has to be regulated by air the specialist manufacturers. • A nominal load over the whole ofconditioning. Section 4 covers roof and the roof area of between 0.1 andfloor systems. Loading 0.25 kN/m² on plan depending on the The actions and combinations of actions use of the building, and whether orAcoustic insulation described in this section should be not a sprinkler system is provided.In all European countries, minimum considered in the design of a single-requirements exist on the sound storey industrial building using a steel Imposed load on roofsinsulation of buildings. In addition, structure. Imposed, snow and wind loads EN 1991-1-1 and -3 define characteristic EURO-BUILD in Steel 
  • 02 Best Practice in Steel Construction - INDUSTriAL Buildings wind uplift snow load dead load sway imperfection sway imperfection wind wind pressure suction Frame span Figure 2.15 Loading scheme on a portal frame Action Applied to Self-weight Cladding, purlins, frames, foundation Snow Cladding, purlins, frames, foundation Concentrated snow Cladding, purlins, (frames), foundation Wind Cladding, purlins, frames, foundation Wind (increase on single element) Cladding, purlins, fixings Wind (peak undertow) Cladding, purlins, (fixings) Thermal actions Envelope, global structure Service loads Depends on specification: roofing, purlins, frames Crane loads Crane rails, frame Dynamic loads Global structure (Depends on building use and locality) Second order effects Wall bracings, columns Table 2.1 Actions and relevant (Sway imperfections) structural components Material Weight (kN/m²) Steel roof sheeting (single skin) 0.07 - 0.20 Aluminium roof sheeting (single skin) 0.04 Insulation (boards, per 25 mm thickness) 0.07 Insulation (glass fibre, per 100 mm thickness) 0.01 Liner trays (0.4 mm – 0.7 mm thickness) 0.04 - 0.07 Composite panels (40 mm – 100 mm thickness) 0.10 - 0.15 Purlins (distributed over the roof area) 0.03 Steel decking 0.20 Three layers of felt with chippings 0.29 Slates 0.40 / 0.50 Tiling (clay or plain concrete) 0.60 - 0.80 Tiling (concrete interlocking) 0.50 - 0.80 Table 2.2 Typical weights of Timber battens (including timber rafters) 0.10 roofing materials10 EURO-BUILD in Steel
  • Key Design Factors 02values of various types of imposed Wind uplift forces on cladding can In the first instance, it is necessary toloads on roofs: be relatively high at the corner of the identify the size of the enclosure and to• A minimum load of 0.6 kN/m² (on plan) building and at the eaves and ridge. develop a structural scheme, which will for roof slopes less than 30° is applied, In these areas, it may be necessary provide this functional space taking into where no access other than for cleaning to reduce the spacing of the purlins account all the above considerations. and maintenance is intended. and side rails. The importance of each of these conside-• A concentrated load of 0.9 kN - this rations depends on the type of building. will only affect the sheeting design. Imperfections For example, the requirements concerning• A uniformly distributed load due to Equivalent horizontal forces have to a distribution centre will be different from snow over the complete roof area. be considered due to geometrical and those of a manufacturing unit. The value of the load depends on the structural imperfections. According to building’s location and height above EN 1993‑1‑1 for frames sensitive to To develop an effective concept design, sea level. If multi-bay portal frames buckling in a sway mode, the effect of it is necessary to review these conside- with roof slopes are used, the effect of imperfections should be allowed for in rations based on their importance, concentrated snow loads in the frame analysis by means of an equivalent depending on the type of building. valleys has to be coonsidered. imperfection in the form of: Table 2.3 presents a matrix which• A non-uniform load caused by snow • initial sway deflections; and / or relates the importance of each drifting across the roof due to wind • individual bow imperfections consideration to particular types of blowing across the ridge of the of members. industrial buildings. Note that this building and depositing more snow matrix is only indicative, as each on the leeward side. This is only Other horizontal loads project will be different. However, the considered for slopes greater than Depending on the project, additional matrix can serve as a general aid. 15° and will not therefore apply to horizontal loading may have to be most industrial buildings. considered, such as earth pressure, Compartmentation & mixed use force due to operation of cranes, Increasingly, larger industrial buildingsHorizontal loads accidental actions and seismic action. are designed for mixed use, i.e. in mostWind loading cases integrated office space and / orWind actions are given by EN 1991‑1‑4. Concept design staff rooms for the employees areWind loading rarely determines the size considerations provided. There are different possibleof members in low-rise single span portal General issues locations for these additional spacesframes where the height : span ratio is Prior to the detailed design of an industrial and uses, as shown in Figure 2.16:less than 1:4. Therefore, wind loading building, it is essential to consider many • For single-storey industrial buidings,can usually be ignored for preliminary aspects such as: creation of separate space insidedesign of portal frames, unless the • Space optimization. the building and possibly twoheight-span ratio is large, or if the • Speed of construction. storeys high, separated bydynamic pressure is high. Combined • Access and security. internal walls.wind and snow loading is often • Flexibility of use. • In an external building, directlycritical in this case. • Environmental performance. connected to the hall itself. • Standardization of components. • For two-storey industrial buildings,However, in two span and other multi- • Infrastructure of supply. partly occupying the upper floor.span portal frames, combined wind • Service integration.and vertical load may often determine • Landscaping. This leads to special concept designthe sizes of the members, when alternate • Aesthetics and visual impact. requirements concerning the supportinternal columns are omitted. The • Thermal performance and structure and the building physicsmagnitude of the wind loading can air-tightness. performance. If the office area isdetermine which type of verification • Acoustic insulation. situated on the upper storey of thehas to be provided. If large horizontal • Weather-tightness. industrial building, it may be designeddeflections at the eaves occur in • Fire safety. as a separate structure enclosed bycombination with high axial forces, • Design life. the structure of the building. In this case,then second order effects have to be • Sustainability considerations. floor systems from commercial buildingsconsidered in the verification procedure. • End of life and re-use. can be used, often based on composite EURO-BUILD in Steel 11
  • 02 Best Practice in Steel Construction - INDUSTriAL Buildings Considerations for concept design Thermal performance and air tightness Standardization of components Aesthetics and visual impact Environmental performance Flexibility of use and space Specialist infra structure Speed of construction End of life and reuse Access and Security Services integration Space optimization Weather tightness Acoustic isolation Sustainability Landscaping Design life Type of single-storey industrial buildings High bay warehouses                Industrial manufacturing facilities              Distribution centres                Retail superstores               Storage / cold storage              Small scale fabrication facilities             Office and light manufacturing                Processing plants              Leisure centres                Sports hall complexes               Exhibition halls                Aircraft or maintenance hangars                 Legend No tick = Not important  = important  = very important Table 2.3 Important design factors for industrial buildings structures, e.g. integrated floor beams. the design, even if there is no internal located on the top floor of the building, Another possible solution is to attach the office space. In order to prevent fire spread, additional escape routes are required and office to the main structure. This requires the compartment size is limited to a active fire fighting measures have to be particular attention to be paid to the stabili- certain value. Therefore fire walls have to considered. Fire-spread has to be sation of the combined parts of the building. be provided for separation and should prevented from one compartment to ensure at least 60 and often 90 minutes another, which can be achieved, for Apart from structural issues, special fire resistance. This is even more vital if example by a composite slab between attention has to be paid to: hazardous goods are stored in the building. the office and industrial space. Fire protection Because the office is designed for use by Thermal insulation For large industrial buildings, fire compart- a larger number of people, fire safety As for fire safety, offices also have mentation may play an important role in demands are stricter. If the offices are higher requirements on thermal insulation.12 EURO-BUILD in Steel
  • Key Design Factors 02 office office office hall hall hall (a) inside (b) outside (c) on top floor Figure 2.16 Possible location of an office attached to an industrial buildingIn industrial buildings used for storage is required, typically using two layers of ventilation depends on the size andpurposes of non-sensitive goods, thermal synthetic material. orientation of the building. Roof ventsinsulation may not be required. In offices, are a common option for naturalhowever, a high level of comfort is Service integration ventilation in buildings without suitablyneeded, which makes thermal insulation For industrial buildings, special large openings, however these need tonecessary. Therefore the interfaces requirements for building services are be carefully positioned so as to maximizebetween the cold and the warm often defined, which may be necessary their performance. Hybrid ventilationcompartments have to be designed to for the operation of machines and systems are now popular in industrialprovide adequate insulation. manufacturing lines. buildings. They use predominantly natural ventilation, but with mechanicallyAcoustic performance The service integration should be taken driven fans to improve predictability ofEspecially in industrial buildings with into account in the early planning stages. performance over a wider range ofnoise-intensive production processes, In particular, the position and size of weather conditions.a strict separation between the production ducts should be coordinated with theunit and the office areas has to be realised. structure and provisions for natural lighting. Mechanical Heat and VentilationThis may require special measures for Recovery (MHVR) systems use the heatacoustic insulation, depending on the The use of structural systems, such as from the exiting warm stale air to heat upproduction processes. cellular beams and trusses, can facilitate the fresh cool air as it enters the building. integration of services and help to The warm air is vented out of the buildingFloors achieve a coherent appearance alongside the incoming fresh air, allowingIn most cases, the floors for industrial of the building. heat transfer from the exiting to thebuildings are used for vehicles or incoming air. Although this heat transferheavy machinery. They are designed The design of the servicing machinery will never be 100% efficient, the use ofto support heavy loads and have to and rooms can be of major importance MHVR systems can significantly reducebe ’flat’. Concentrated loads due to in industrial buildings. Centralisation of the amount of energy required to warmvehicles, machines, racking and the building services can offer the the fresh air to a comfortable level.containers have to be considered, advantage of easy maintenance.depending on the application. Figure 2.17 shows different possible Further issues which may need solutions of the positioning of the consideration in services design include:Most industrial buildings have a concrete service rooms. • The possible affect of elements forfloor with a minimum thickness of solar protection on air exchange.150 mm on top of a layer of sand or Natural ventilation reduces the reliance • Odour extraction.gravel, which is also at least 150 mm on air conditioning systems, which in turn • Control of humidity.thick. For large floor areas, a sliding layer means a reduction in the building’s CO2 • Control of airtightness.between the base layer and the concrete emissions. The effectiveness of natural • Acoustic insulation. EURO-BUILD in Steel 13
  • 02 Best Practice in Steel Construction - INDUSTriAL Buildings Lighting Requirements for the lighting of industrial buildings depend on the type of use. The concept and arrangement of openings to provide natural lighting permit diversity in architectural design. Rooflights and gable glazed roofs are common, along with lightbands in the façade (Figure 2.18). Openings for natural lighting can serve as smoke and (a) separate servicing rooms (b) servicing rooms on the roof heat outlets in case of fire. Well-designed natural daylighting can have a significant impact on a building’s carbon emissions. However, too much natural daylighting can result in excessive solar gain in the summer, leading to overheating, and increased heat loss through the envelope in the winter. The decision to utilise natural daylight (c) internal servicing rooms (d) servicing rooms in the basement within a building and the type of day- lighting selected have important implica- tions for the overall building design. (a) Uniformly distributed rooflights (b) Light-bands in façade Figure 2.17 (Top right) Possible arrangements of the servicing rooms and service routes (c) Linear rooflights (d) Shed bands in roof Figure 2.18 (Right) Examples of ways of providing natural lighting in industrial buildings14 EURO-BUILD in Steel
  • Support Structures 0303 Support StructuresThis section describes common systems used for main supportstructures in industrial buildings. The characteristics of portal framesas well as column and beam structures are described, together withinformation on secondary components and connections.Portal frame structures A number of types of structure can be Portal frame structuresPortal frame buildings are generally low- classified broadly as portal frames.rise structures, comprising columns and The information given with regard tohorizontal or sloping rafters, connected spans, roof pitch, etc. is typical of theby moment-resisting connections. forms of construction that are illustrated. Column and beam structuresPortal frames with hinged column bases Steel sections used in portal frameare generally preferred as they lead to structures with spans of 12 m to 30 msmaller foundation sizes in comparison to are usually hot rolled sections and are Secondary componentsfixed bases. Furthermore, fixed columns specified in grades S235, S275 or even and bracingrequire more expensive connection S355 steel. Use of high-strength steel isdetails and therefore are predominately rarely economic in structures whereused only if high horizontal forces have to serviceability (i.e. deflection) or stabilitybe resisted. However, pinned columns criteria may control the design. Connectionshave the disadvantage of leading toslightly heavier steel weights due to the Frames designed using plasticlower stiffness of the frame to both global analysis offer greater economy,vertical and horizontal forces. although elastic global analysis is preferred in some countries.This form of rigid frame structure is stable Where plastic analysis is used,in its own plane and provides a clear the member proportions must bespan that is unobstructed by bracing. appropriate for the developmentStability is achieved by rigid frame action of plastic bending resistance.provided by continuity at the connectionsand this is usually achieved by use of Types of steel portal frameshaunches at the eaves. Pitched roof portal frame One of the most common structures forOut-of-plane stability in most cases has industrial buildings is the single-spanto be provided by additional elements, symmetrical portal frame, as shown insuch as tubular braces and purlins Figure 3.2. The following characteristics(Figure 3.1). By using profiled sheeting, emerged as the most economical andthe stiffening of the roof can be obtained can therefore be seen as a basis at anby stressed skin diaphragm action early design stage:without additional bracing. Shear walls, • Span between 15 m and 50 mcores and the use of fixed ended (25 to 35 m is the most efficient).columns can also provide out‑of‑plane • Eaves height between 5 and 10 mrestraint to the portal frames. (5 to 6 m is the most efficient). EURO-BUILD in Steel 15
  • 03 Best Practice in Steel Construction - INDUSTriAL Buildings Stiffening in two directions by using Stiffening in longitudinal direction by using bracings in roof and walls as well as in gable bracings in roof and walls with frame in gable wall (roof cladding also provides in-place stiffness) wall for possible further expansion Stiffening in longitudinal direction by using Stiffening in longitudinal direction by using bracings in roof and special bracings for bracings in roof and portal frame in wall for integration of a door in the wall integration of a door Figure 3.1 Examples of out-of plane bracing of a portal frame • Roof pitch between 5° and 10° It can be designed to stabilise the frame. Where the crane is of relatively low (6° is commonly adopted). Often the internal floor requires additional capacity (up to about 20 tonnes), • Frame spacing between 5 m and fire protection. brackets can be fixed to the columns 8 m (the greater spacings being to support the crane (see Figure 3.5). associated with the longer span Portal frame with Use of a tie member between haunches portal frames). external mezzanine across the building or fixed column bases • Haunches in the rafters at the eaves Offices may be located externally to the may be necessary to reduce the relative and if necessary at the apex. portal frame, creating an asymmetric eaves deflection. The outward movement portal structure, as shown in Figure 3.4. of the frame at crane rail level may be of Table 3.1 can be used as an aid for The main advantage of this framework is critical importance to the functioning of pre-design of single span portal frames. that large columns and haunches do not the crane. The use of haunches at the eaves and obstruct the office space. Generally, this apex both reduces the required depth of additional structure depends on the portal For heavy cranes, it is appropriate to rafter and achieves an efficient moment frame for its stability. support the crane rails on additional connection at these points. Often the columns, which may be tied to the portal haunch is cut from the same size of Crane portal frame with frame columns by bracing in order to section as the rafter. column brackets provide stability. Cranes, if needed, have an important Portal frame with a influence on the design and the Propped portal frame mezzanine floor dimensions of portal frames. Where the span of a portal frame is Office accommodation is often provided They create additional vertical loads greater than 30 m, and there is no need within a portal frame structure using as well as considerable horizontal forces, to provide a clear span, a propped portal a mezzanine floor (see Figure 3.3), which influence the size of the column frame (see Figure 3.6) can reduce the which may be partial or full width. section, in particular. rafter size and also the horizontal forces16 EURO-BUILD in Steel
  • Support Structures 03 Eaves Frame RequiredSnow load Span Roof pitch height spacing cross‑section [kN/m²] [m] [m] [°] [m] Column Rafter 30.0 6.0 6.0 5.0 IPE 600 IPE 550 25.0 6.0 6.0 5.0 IPE 500 IPE 500 0.75 20.0 6.0 6.0 5.0 IPE 450 IPE 450 15.0 5.0 6.0 5.0 IPE 360 IPE 360 12.0 4.0 6.0 5.0 IPE 300 IPE 300 30.0 6.0 6.0 5.0 HEA 500 HEA 500 25.0 6.0 6.0 5.0 IPE 600 IPE 550 1.20 20.0 6.0 6.0 5.0 IPE 500 IPE 500 15.0 5.0 6.0 5.0 IPE 450 IPE 450 12.0 4.0 6.0 5.0 IPE 360 IPE 360 30.0 6.0 6.0 5.0 HEA 650 HEA 650 25.0 6.0 6.0 5.0 HEA 550 HEA 550 2.00 20.0 6.0 6.0 5.0 IPE 600 HEA 600 15.0 5.0 6.0 5.0 IPE 500 IPE 500 12.0 4.0 6.0 5.0 IPE 400 IPE 400 Table 3.1 Pre-design table for portal frames Roof pitch Apex Rafter Eaves Apex haunch Eaves haunch Column Figure 3.2 Single span symmetrical portal frame Mezzanine Figure 3.3 Portal frame with internal mezzanine floor Mezzanine Figure 3.4 Portal frame with external mezzanine floor EURO-BUILD in Steel 17
  • 03 Best Practice in Steel Construction - INDUSTriAL Buildings Column bracket Figure 3.5 Portal frame with column brackets Possible location * of out of plane restraint Prop Clear internal height Figure 3.6 Propped portal frame at the bases of the columns, thus leading applications. The rafter can be curved wall is not provided by a portal frame, to savings in both steelwork and to a radius by cold bending. For spans bracings or rigid panels are needed, foundation costs. greater than 16 m, splices may be required as shown in Figure 3.11. in the rafter because of limitations of This type of frame is sometimes referred transport. For architectural reasons, Column & beam structures to as a ‘single span propped portal’, but it these splices may be designed to be Column and beam structures require an acts as a two-span portal frame in terms visually unobtrusive. independent bracing system in both of the behaviour of the beam. directions. The beams may be I‑sections Alternatively, where the roof must be or lattice trusses. Tied portal frame curved but the frame need not be curved, In a tied portal frame (see Figure 3.7), the rafter can be fabricated as a series of Column & beam structures with the horizontal movements of the eaves straight elements. hinged column bases and the moments in the columns are For simple beam and column structures, reduced, at the cost of a reduction in the Cellular portal frame the columns are loaded mainly in com- clear height. For roof slopes of less than Cellular beams are commonly used pression which leads to smaller columns. 15°, large forces will develop in the in portal frames which have curved Compared to a portal frame, the internal rafters and the tie. rafters (see Figure 3.10 and Figure 2.9). moments in the beam are greater, Where splices are required in the rafter leading to larger steel sections. Since Mansard portal frame for transport, these should be detailed to pinned connections are less complex A mansard portal frame consists of a preserve the architectural features for this than moment resisting connections, series of rafters and haunches (as in form of construction. fabrication costs can be reduced. Table Figure 3.8). It may be used where a large 3.2 gives some indicative column and clear span is required but the eaves Gable wall frames beam sizes for a hinged column base. height of the building has to be minimised. Gable wall frames are located at the ends A tied mansard may be an economic of the building and may comprise posts For this type of support structure, solution where there is a need to restrict and simply-supported rafters rather than bracings in both directions are required eaves spread. a full-span portal frame (see Figure 3.11). in the roof as well as in the walls in order If the building is to be extended later, to provide stability for horizontal loads. Curved rafter portal frame a portal frame of the same size as the For that reason, it is often used for Curved rafter portals (see Figure 3.9 and internal frames should be provided. predominantly enclosed halls (i.e. no Figure 2.8) are often used for architectural In cases in which the stability of the gable substantial openings). This fact also has18 EURO-BUILD in Steel
  • Support Structures 03 Hangers may be required on long spans Tie Figure 3.7 Tied portal frame Figure 3.8 Mansard portal frame Figure 3.9 Curved rafter portal frame Figure 3.10 Cellular beam used in portal frame Industrial door Gablebracing Finished floor level Personnel door Figure 3.11 End gables in a frame structure EURO-BUILD in Steel 19
  • 03 Best Practice in Steel Construction - INDUSTriAL Buildings Eaves Frame Required Snow load Span Roof pitch height spacing cross‑section [kN/m²] [m] [m] [°] [m] Column Beam 30.0 6.0 6.0 5.0 IPE 270 HEA 550 25.0 6.0 6.0 5.0 IPE 270 IPE 600 0.75 20.0 6.0 6.0 5.0 IPE 240 IPE 500 15.0 5.0 6.0 5.0 IPE 200 IPE 360 12.0 4.0 6.0 5.0 IPE 160 IPE 300 30.0 6.0 6.0 5.0 IPE 300 HEA 700 25.0 6.0 6.0 5.0 IPE 300 HEA 550 1.20 20.0 6.0 6.0 5.0 IPE 270 IPE 550 15.0 5.0 6.0 5.0 IPE 220 IPE 450 12.0 4.0 6.0 5.0 IPE 180 IPE 360 30.0 6.0 6.0 5.0 IPE 330 HEA 900 25.0 6.0 6.0 5.0 IPE 300 HEA 700 2.00 20.0 6.0 6.0 5.0 IPE 300 HEA 500 15.0 5.0 6.0 5.0 IPE 240 IPE 500 Table 3.2 Pre-design table for column and 12.0 4.0 6.0 5.0 IPE 200 IPE 450 beam structures Sheet thickness 1.5 - 3 mm H H Height H 175 mm 195 mm 210 mm 240 mm 260 mm Z-shape Sheet thickness 1.5 - 4 mm max. 350 mm Height H min. 80 mm 0 min. 30 mm depending on H max. 10 0 mm C-shape Sheet thickness 1.5 - 4 mm max. 350 mm Height H min. 80 mm 0 min. 30 mm depending on H max. 10 0 mm Figure 3.12 Cold-formed sections typically U-shape used for purlins20 EURO-BUILD in Steel
  • Support Structures 03to be taken into account during stiffness acts in both directions, and the Purlinsthe installation stage by providing structure is stable after installation Purlins transfer the forces from thetemporary bracings. without additional bracing. roof cladding to the primary structural elements, i.e. rafters. Furthermore, theyColumn & beam structures with Secondary components can act as compression members as partfixed column bases & bracing of the bracing system and provide limitedWhen using fixed-ended columns, A typical steel portal frame structure with restraint against lateral torsional bucklinglarger foundations are required as a its secondary components is shown in of the rafter. For frame spacings up toresult of the additional bending moment. Figure 3.14. Similar systems are provided 7 m, it can be economic to span theAs the columns have low axial forces, for beam and column splices. profiled sheeting between the raftersthe required size of the foundation without the use of purlins. Larger framewill be large and possibly uneconomic. The bracing systems shown in Figure 3.1 spacings reduce the number of primaryLarge columns for industrial buildings are generally achieved by bracing structural elements and foundations,with a crane may be designed as (usually circular members) in the plane but require the use of heavier purlins.lattice structures. of the roof or wall. Purlins and side In industrial buildings, hot-rolled rails support the roof and wall cladding, I‑sections as well as cold-formed profilesCompared to portal frames, internal and stabilise the steel framework against with Z-, C‑, U- or custom-made shapesmoments in the beams and lateral lateral buckling. Alternatively, panels are used, as shown in Figure 3.12.deformations are greater. The providing shear stiffness or steel profiledadvantages of this system are its sheeting used in diaphragm action When cold-formed purlins are used,insensitivity to settlement and, in the can be used to provide sufficient out-of- they are usually located at spacingscase of the fixed supports, the base plane stability. of approximately 1.5 m to 2.5 m. (a) Support for continuous (b) Support for single-span hot-rolled purlin hot-rolled purlin (c) Support for continuous (d) Support for continuous cold-formed cold-formed Z-shaped purlin custom-shaped purlin Figure 3.13 Possible solutions for purlin-rafter connections EURO-BUILD in Steel 21
  • 03 Best Practice in Steel Construction - INDUSTriAL Buildings Purlins Cold rolled Rafter eaves beam 5 Apex haunch Side 4 rails 3 1 Eaves haunch Positions of restraint 2 to inner flange of Column column and rafter Dado wall Base plate FFL Tie rod (optional but not common) Foundation (a) Cross-section showing the portal frame and its restraints Cold rolled purlins Sag bars if necessary Cold-rolled eaves beam Eaves beam strut Plan bracing (b) Roof steelwork plan Sag rod Side rails Diagonal ties Side wall bracing Figure 3.14 Overview of secondary structural components in (c) Side elevation a portal frame structure22 EURO-BUILD in Steel
  • Support Structures 03 Tension flange welds Rib (tension) stiffener (if needed) hot-rolled I-section Eaves haunch Bolts Grade 8.8 or 10.9 End-plate Compression stiffener (if needed) hot-rolled I-section Figure 3.15 Typical eaves connections in a portal frameThe spacing between the purlins is In order to reduce manufacturing costs,reduced in zones of higher wind and it is preferable to design the eavessnow load, and where stability of the connection without the use of stiffeners.rafter is required, e.g. close to the eaves In some cases, the effects of the reducedand valley. Often manufacturers provide joint stiffness on the global structuralapproved solutions for the connections to behaviour may have to be considered,the rafter section using pre-fabricated i.e. effects on the internal forces andsteel plates, as shown in Figure 3.13. deflections. EN 1993‑1‑8 provides a design procedure, which takes theseConnections ‘semi-rigid’ effects into account.The three major connections in a singlebay portal frame are those at the eaves, The apex connection is often designedthe apex and the column base. similarly, see Figure 3.16. If the span of the frame does not exceed transportationFor the eaves, bolted connections are limits (about 16 m), the on-site apex con-mostly used of the form shown in nection can be avoided, thus saving costs.Figure 3.15. A haunch can be createdby welding a ‘cutting’ to the rafter to The base of the column is often kept simpleincrease its depth locally and to make with larger tolerances in order to facilitatethe connection design more efficient. the interface between the concrete andThe ‘cutting’ is often made from the steelwork. Typical details are presentedsame steel section as the rafter. in Figure 3.17. Pinned connections are often preferred in order to minimizeIn some cases, the column and the foundation sizes although stability duringhaunched part of the beam are construction must be considered.constructed as one unit, and the High horizontal forces may require theconstant depth part of the beam is use of fixed based connections.bolted using an end plate connection. EURO-BUILD in Steel 23
  • 03 Best Practice in Steel Construction - INDUSTriAL Buildings Bolts Grade 8.8 or 10.9 End-plates hot-rolled rafter section Figure 3.16 (Right) Typical apex connections in a portal frame Apex haunch Figure 3.17 (Below) Typical examples (if needed) of nominally pinned column bases in a portal frame24 EURO-BUILD in Steel
  • Roof & Wall Systems 0404 Roof & Wall SystemsThis section describes common systems for roofing and cladding thatserve as the building envelope and may at the same time provide stabilityfor the main support structure. Also, mainly architectural aspects forindustrial building such as service integration and lighting are discussed.Roof systems Generally steel sheeting is made of Roof systemsThere are a number of proprietary types galvanised steel grades S280G, S320Gof cladding that may be used in industrial or S275G to EN 10326. Due to the widebuildings. These tend to fall into some range of product forms, no standardbroad categories, which are described in dimensions for sheeting exist, although Wall systemsthe following sections. there are strong similarities between products and shapes. The steel sheetsSingle-skin trapezoidal sheeting are usually between 0.50 and 1.50 mmSingle-skin sheeting is widely used in thick (including galvanisation).agricultural and industrial structureswhere no insulation is required. It can Double skin systemgenerally be used on roof slopes down Double skin or built-up roof systemsto as low as 4° provided that the laps usually use a steel liner tray that isand sealants are as recommended by fastened to the purlins, followed by athe manufacturers for shallow slopes. spacing system (plastic ferrule andThe sheeting is fixed directly to the spacer or rail and bracket spacer),purlins and side rails, and provides insulation and an outer sheet. Becausepositive restraint (see Figure 4.1). the connection between the outer andIn some cases, insulation is suspended inner sheets may not be sufficiently stiff,directly beneath the sheeting. the liner tray and fixings must be chosenFigure 4.1 Single-skin trapezoidal sheeting EURO-BUILD in Steel 25
  • 04 Best Practice in Steel Construction - INDUSTriAL Buildings so that they provide the level of restraint boundary. Alternatively, an impermeable that significantly less restraint is provided to the purlins. Alternative forms of membrane on top of the liner tray may to the purlins than with a conventionally construction using plastic ferrule and Z- be provided. fixed system. Nevertheless, a correctly or rail and bracket spacers are shown in fixed liner tray will provide adequate Figure 4.2 and Figure 4.3. Standing seam sheeting restraint to the purlins. Standing seam sheeting has concealed As insulation depths have increased to fixings and can be fixed in lengths of up Composite or sandwich panels provide greater insulation performance, to 30 m. The advantages are that there Composite or sandwich panels are there has been a move towards ‘rail are no penetrations directly through the formed by creating a foam insulation and bracket’ solutions, as they provide sheeting that could lead to water leakage, layer between the outer and inner layer of greater stability. and fixing is rapid. The fastenings are in sheeting. Composite panels have good the form of clips that hold the sheeting spanning capabilities due to composite With adequate sealing of joints, the liner down but allow it to move longitudinally action in bending. Both standing seam trays may be used to form an airtight (see Figure 4.4). The disadvantage is (see Figure 4.5) and direct fixing systems Outer sheeting Insulation Z spacer Liner tray Hot-rolled rafter or purlin Plastic ferrule Figure 4.2 Double-skin construction using plastic ferrule and Z spacers Sheeting Rail Insulation Liner tray Bracket Figure 4.3 (Bottom right) Double-skin construction using ‘rail and bracket’ spacers26 EURO-BUILD in Steel
  • Roof & Wall Systems 04are available. These will clearly without or with few joints. The basic Requirements for corrosion protection ofprovide widely different levels of material for the outer layers is usually sandwich or composite panels are therestraint to the purlins. galvanised coated steel sheeting with same as for trapezoidal steel sheets. thicknesses of 0.4 to 1.0 mm. For foam insulation, the followingSandwich elements for roofs generally solutions have been developed:have a width of 1000 mm with thicknesses The inner layers of sandwich panels are • Polyurethane PUR rigid foam;between 70 and 110 mm, depending on often lined or slotted; special designs • Mineral fibre insulating material;the required insulation level and structural are available with plane surfaces. • Polystyrene (only used in exceptionsdemands. Despite being relatively Close‑pitch flutings have also been due to its lower insulation behaviour).thick elements, the self-weights are established, which are fully profiled,comparatively low. Thus the elements yet appearing as a plane surface from The steel skin and the insulating foamare easy to handle and assemble. a certain distance. Some patterns for are physiologically harmless duringComponent lengths of up to 20 m for external surfaces of sandwich panels production and assembly as well as inroofs and walls permit constructions are shown in Figure 4.6. the permanent use in the building. Sheeting Insulation Standing seam clip Hot-rolled rafter or purlin Figure 4.4 Standing seam panels with liner trays Sheeting Insulation Standing seam clip Figure 4.5 Composite or sandwich panels with clip fixings EURO-BUILD in Steel 27
  • 04 Best Practice in Steel Construction - INDUSTriAL Buildings Flat Wide profiled Narrow profiled Micro-profiled Trapezoidal Corrugated Figure 4.6 Types of external surfaces for sandwich panels Composite or sandwich The core insulation is odourless, free buckling of the panel. The darker panels offer numerous from rot and mould-resistant. Further- the colour of the panel, the higher are advantages: more it offers good recycling possibilities. the compression forces. Therefore, for continuous panels, checks for • Panel manufacturing A key factor to be taken into account for ‘temperature in summer’ and provides short the design of sandwich panels is the ‘temperature in winter’ design temperature difference across the element. situations have to be performed, construction time and The separation of the inner and outer skins taking into account the colour of the cost-efficiency leads to heating and therefore extension panel. At a European level, EN 14509 of the outer sheet due to solar radiation. (in preparation) defines the structural • Good building physics design method as well as the production performance For single span panels, this results in and quality principles of sandwich and a flexure of the panel. Even though composite panels. • Can be installed in this does not lead to additional internal nearly all weather forces, it might influence the appearance Manufacturers should be consulted for conditions of the envelope. more information. • Long-span capabilities For continuous panels, restaint of flexure Special roofing systems which minimise the leads to bending and to compressive A flat roof of an industrial building spans support structure forces in the skins, which can lead to a large area and is exposed to solar effects. Figure 4.7 Solar cells and water cooling Source: Corus28 EURO-BUILD in Steel
  • Roof & Wall Systems 04 Sandwich Sandwich Profile sheet long. joint transv. joint Type of fastening Steel Sub- Timber Sub- Steel Sub- sheets/sheet sheets/sheet element structure structure structure A A Z Stahl-Informations-Zentrum: Dach und Fassadenelemente aus Stahl - Erfolgreich Planen und Konstruieren, Figure 4.8 Range of application for Dokumentation 588, Düsseldorf, 2005 fastening elements in various claddingsAdvantage can be taken from this exposure For the fastening of steel sheeting, Wall Systemsby integrating a membrane with photo- (self-tapping) screws or rivets are used. Numerous systems exist for theconductive cells into the roof to capture For profiled sheeting, at least every design of external walls for industrialsolar energy. There are economic and second rib has to be fixed to the supporting buildings. Cladding types made ofeasy to process products on the market. structure. If sheets are used as a stressed steel sheeting are most frequently skin diaphragm, the number of fixings used, because they offer high-qualityAnother steel roof cladding system has have to be designed so that they resist standards, short construction time andbeen developed with an integrated system the applied shear flow. cost-efficiency. Generally, steel sheetof water channels in order to collect and wall cladding follows the same genericuse the heat (a solar thermal collector). For sandwich elements, the designer has types as roof cladding, and the main to consider the influence of the fastening types are:Fastening elements method on the strength of the panel. • Sheeting, orientated vertically andFastening techniques include the supported on side rails;connections of the sheets to the Figure 4.8 shows the different types of • Sheeting or structural liner trayssupporting structure and the fastening elements depending on the spanning horizontally betweenconnections between sheets. support structure. primary frame; Figure 4.9 Horizontal spanning sheeting EURO-BUILD in Steel 29
  • 04 Best Practice in Steel Construction - INDUSTriAL Buildings Figure 4.10 Horizontally orientated composite panels and long ‘ribbon’ corridors. Figure 4.11 Large window and composite panels with ‘dado’ brick wall • Composite or sandwich panels with a thickness of 40 to 120 mm, and in For the completion of the facades, spanning horizontally between the some cases up to 200 mm for elements special formed components for the columns, eliminating side rails; used in cold stores. transitions between wall and roof have • Metallic cassette supported been developed. For high quality facades, by side rails. To achieve a good appearance of the manufacturers offer angled or rounded building, the following aspects are important: components for the roof or corner Different forms of cladding may be used • Texture of the surface. sections. These special components together for visual effect in the same • Colour. have to be of the same quality and colour facade. Some examples are illustrated • Detailing of joints. as the adjacent elements. in Figure 4.9 to Figure 4.11. • Type of fixing. Fire design of walls Brickwork is often used as a ‘dado’ In addition, for a modern construction Where buildings are close to a site wall for impact resistance, as shown system, the client expects practically boundary, national building regulations in Figure 4.11. invisible fixings and clean transitions at usually require that the wall is designed the building’s corners. Nevertheless, to prevent spread of fire to adjacent Sandwich or composite panels through fixings are still commonly used. property. Fire tests have shown that a Sandwich or composite panels are The details comprise either hidden fixings number of types of panels can perform double skin continuously produced or elements with additional clip fasteners; adequately, provided that they remain elements with various types of core as shown in Figure 4.5 and Figure 4.12. fixed to the structure. Further guidance insulation. They are the most common By the use of additional clip fasteners, should be sought from the manufacturers. choice of wall cladding for industrial slight dents that may occur at the fixings buildings in Europe. For walls, sandwich due to improper assembly or temperature It is often considered necessary to elements have widths of 600 to 1200 mm influence can be avoided. provide slotted holes in the side rail30 EURO-BUILD in Steel
  • Roof & Wall Systems 04connections to allow for thermal The use of this architectural high-quality colours for the façade. A variety ofexpansion. In order to ensure that this façade does not automatically lead to colours, including pastel shading anddoes not compromise the stability of the higher costs. In the example shown in metallic finishes, are available from manycolumn by removing the restraint under Figure 4.14, hot-rolled sections are used sheeting suppliers. Figure 4.15 showsnormal conditions, the slotted holes are for the structure as well as a standardised an example of a building well integratedfitted with washers made from a material façade-system. By integrating solar gains with its surroundings by the use ofthat will melt at high temperatures and into the thermal balance, running costs coloured facades.allow the side rail to move relative to are also reduced significantly. The structurethe column under fire conditions only. supporting the façade and the detailing As an additional feature, photovoltaicAn example of this type of detail is can be adapted from solutions for multi- panels may be integrated in the façade.shown in Figure 4.13. storey buildings, where these kinds of Despite the fact that the angle to the sun building envelopes are common practice. is not optimal, the use of multi-layerOther types of façades coatings makes the solar cells lessMany other types of façade materials Another modern way of designing dependent on the angle of incidence ofmay be used for industrial buildings, for industrial buildings in an architecturally the sun’s rays. An example of thisexample glass, as shown in Figure 4.14. appealing way is of the use of different technology is shown in Figure 4.16. with hidden bolts with additional element fastener (a) Through fixings (b) Invisible fixings Figure 4.12 (Above) Examples of fixing methods for walls made of sandwich panels. Stahl-Informations-Zentrum: Dach und Cladding rail Fassadenelemente aus Stahl - Erfolgreich Planen und Konstruieren, Dokumentation 588, Düsseldorf, 2005 Slotted hole for expansion Cleat Splice plate Figure 4.13 Typical fire wall details showing slotted holes for expansion in fire EURO-BUILD in Steel 31
  • 04 Best Practice in Steel Construction - INDUSTriAL Buildings Figure 4.14 Industrial building with a glazed façade Bauen mit Stahl e.V. Figure 4.15 Industrial building with a coloured façade www.tks-bau-photos.com Figure 4.16 Façade with integrated solar panels www.tks-bau-photos.com32 EURO-BUILD in Steel
  • National Practice 0505 National PracticeIn this section, some national practices are given for several countries.The construction systems have been identified as good practice in thecountries concerned, although they may not be widely used in Europe.Current Practice in It is equally common for the sheetingGermany to span between rafters and between GermanyStructure purlins. About 40% of purlins are hotIn Germany, industrial buildings are rolled and 60% are cold formed, with thetypically constructed as portal frames cold formed proportion rising.with pinned column bases. The span ofthe frames varies from 12 m to 30 m The Netherlands The design is almost exclusively carriedwhen hot-rolled or welded I-sections are out by using elastic calculation of theused, and spans are most commonly internal forces and moments, andbetween 15 m and 20 m. Lattice trusses comparing these with either elastic orare a typical solution for spans greater plastic resistances of the cross section. Spainthan 30 m. If there are no restrictions in The current design standard isthe building usage, multi-bay portal DIN 18800, Parts 1-5, which is similarframes using I-sections are often used to European standard EN 1993‑1‑1.with spans of up to 20 m. Sweden RoofingOther load-bearing structures, such as Roofs of industrial buildings in Germanysimply-supported beams on columns, are usually trapezoidal steel sheetingarches, grids, shells, etc. are less often spanning directly between the portal UKused, except for some architecturally frames or supported by the purlins.expressive buildings. Currently the single-layer, insulated steelThe column spacing usually ranges sheeting roof, as shown in Figure 5.1 (left)between 5 m and 8 m, while up to 10 m is is the most widely used type of roofpossible. The eaves height of the frame cladding in industrial buildings inis about 4.5 m in standard cases, Germany. For this type of cladding,increasing to 8 m and more, if overhead the slope should be not less than 2°cranes are provided. in order to ensure sufficient drainage. This type of roof is comparatively low inThe columns of portal frames made of cost, but is susceptible to mechanicalIPE- or HE-sections are often designed damage of the weather-proofing layer.with rafters which are haunched in thehighly stressed regions. Bolted connections Sandwich panel construction, as shownare mostly used with continuous columns in Figure 5.1(right), has gained morecombined with beams having end-plates, importance, because it is easy toas shown in Figure 3.15. In some cases, maintain and achieves longer useful life.the haunched part of the beam is Further advantages are a higherattached to the column in the fabrication resistance to damage and good acousticshop and the part of the beam with insulation and fire resistance. Often theconstant height is then connected on site waterproofing layer is fixed to the load-using a bolted connection. bearing layer by a clamped joint with EURO-BUILD in Steel 33
  • 05 Best Practice in Steel Construction - INDUSTriAL Buildings water-proofing layer sliding system sealing trapezoidal sheeting insulation synthetic coating insulation beam or purlin Figure 5.1 Common roofing system for vapour barrier purlin or beam of frame vapour barrier load-bearing layer (if needed) industrial buildings in Germany using trapezoidal steel sheeting special sliding system, so that the transmission losses through the The easier the calculation method, waterproofing layer does not need building envelope have to be satisfied. the more conservative is the result. to be penetrated. The heating installation does not have to be considered. There are also fewer Using the simplified calculation method 1, External walls restrictions concerning the thermal single-storey industrial buildings can be For industrial buildings in Germany, many insulation, which leads to smaller designed in unprotected steel up to a types of walls are used depending on the thicknesses of insulation. plan area of 1,800 m² without providing building use, building physics require- any active fire-fighting measures. By use ments and the fire boundary conditions. Fire safety of automatic sprinkler units, the maximum In March 2000, a new guideline compartment size can reach 10,000 m². Systems of profiled, lightweight and concerning the fire protection of If fire-walls are provided, the size of the large-sized sandwich panels are gaining industrial buildings came into effect, building can be increased by adding all importance as fire protection requirements taking into account results of recent the compartments together. are reduced with the introduction of research projects dealing with natural the ‘Muster-Industriebau-Richtlinie’. fires. In combination with DIN 18230, Single-storey buildings used as retail These panels can be installed rapidly it regulates the use of fire-protection premises also have similar low and easily and are not affected by in industrial buildings in terms of the requirements in the fire resistance of the weather conditions. They also offer fire resistance period of structural structural components, if sprinklers are high levels of thermal insulation. components, the size and arrangement provided. The maximum size of the of fire compartments, location and length compartments is 10,000 m² also. Thermal behaviour of escape routes. In Germany, the ‘Energy Saving Act’ The more precise calculation method 2 is (ENEV 2002) differentiates between The guideline provides three calculation based on DIN 18230‑1, which determines buildings with ‘normal internal temperature’ methods, of increasing level of complexity: an equivalent fire-duration. This value and buildings with ‘low internal temperature’ 1. Simplified calculation method. relates the parametric heating curve (below 19°C) which can very often be 2. More precise calculation method with considering the specific parameters for found in the industrial sector. For buildings determination of the fire-load density, the project to the ISO-curve. It takes into with low internal temperature, only the based on DIN 18230-1. account project-specific parameters like requirements concerning the heat 3. Fire-engineering methods. ventilation conditions, etc. By this method, Fire-fighting measures No requirements F30 No active fire fighting measures (K1) 1,800 m² * 3,000 m² Automatic fire detection system (K2) 2,700 m² * 4,500 m² Automatic fire detection system and 3,200-4,500 m² * 6,000 m² plant fire brigade (K3) Automatic fire-extinguishing system (K4) 10,000 m² 10,000 m² *Area of heat extraction surfaces ≥ 5% and width of building ≤ 40 m Table 5.1 Allowable size of fire compart- ments for industrial buildings34 EURO-BUILD in Steel
  • National Practice 05compartment areas up to 30,000 m² can • Lightweight; For single-storey buildings higherbe designed using unprotected steel. • Pre-fabricated systems; than 6 m, a steel frame with hinged • Industrially produced components; connections and wind bracing is moreIn addition to the two simplified calculation • Flexibility in use; economic. In this case, the connectionsmethods, fire-engineering analysis can • Easily demountable; are more complex but material use isalso be used. The guideline formulates • Reusability at three levels: material, more efficient.basic principles for appropriate checks to element and building.satisfy the aims of the regulations. A common industrial building in the Construction Netherlands consists of portal framesCurrent Practice in the The vast majority of industrial buildings of hot-rolled sections. The columns areNetherlands are single-storey, single-bay ‘sheds’. HEA180 and the roof beams are IPE500For many years in the Netherlands, These sheds are sometimes combined at 5.4 m spacing. Cold-formed profiledsteel has been the most commonly with offices. Multi-bay structures are roof elements of typically 106 mm depthused material for structural, roof and a minority. are popular. Wall elements are commonlyfaçade systems for industrial and 90 mm deep liner trays with claddingagricultural buildings. The attributes For single-storey buildings with a span profiles fixed to the outside.of steel construction are beneficial to up to approximately 25 m and a heightsingle-storey buildings with long spans: up to approximately 6 m, portal frames For single-storey buildings with spans• Speed of construction; with fixed connections are the preferred longer than 25 m, trussed beams are• Economic building cost; solution (Figure 5.2). preferred (Figure 5.3). Castellated andFigure 5.2 For free spans up to 25 m, hot- rolled sections are preferredFigure 5.3 For longer spans trussed beams are a popular alternative EURO-BUILD in Steel 35
  • 05 Best Practice in Steel Construction - INDUSTriAL Buildings non-steel cellular beams are becoming a popular the Netherlands, except for barns and 10% sandwich alternative to solid web sections. stables in the agricultural sector. 45% Suspended and cable-stayed Approximately 80% of the roofs on cladding constructions can be economic for industrial buildings consist of roll-formed 45% extremely long spans and for profiled sheet fixed directly to the roof Figure 5.4 Market shares of steel façade suspending heavy installations. beams or to intermediary beams. About systems in industrial buildings in 15% are sandwich elements and 5% the Netherlands (2006) Façades are non-steel. In the year 2007, Bouwen met Staal carried out a market survey of the use of Ponding on flat roofs façade and roof elements in industrial A point of interest is the ponding of large buildings in the Netherlands. It showed amounts of water on flat roofs. On one that steel cladding has a market share of day in 2002, six roofs collapsed due to approximately 90%. The remaining 10% heavy rainfall. In response to these comprise largely of masonry walls below problems, the Ministry of Housing, the window sill. Spatial Planning and the Environment set up a research team. One of the Approximately half of the steel façades results is the practical guideline NPR in industrial buildings consist of trapezoi- 6773, which is published as an amend- dal profiled sheet fixed to liner trays. ment to NEN 6702: Technical principles Figure 5.5 Trapezoidal roll-formed profiled The other half comprise steel sandwich for building structures. Loadings and sheet fixed to liner trays panels. With respective outputs of 2 and deformations. This simpler and more 1.5 million m2 per year, these two façade robust calculation method, in combination systems are, together with brickwork, with more accurate supervision and the most commonly used products for control, has led to a significant decrease exterior walls. in problems caused by flat roofs. Roofs Unlike other European countries, the vast majority of industrial buildings in the Netherlands have flat roofs. Pitched roofs are very rare in single-storey buildings in Figure 5.6 Sandwich panels Figure 5.7 (Right) The majority of industrial buildings are single-storey, single-bay sheds combined with offices. Most industrial buildings have flat roofs. Pitched roofs are common in agricultural buildings (Inset)36 EURO-BUILD in Steel
  • National Practice 05Figure 5.8 (a) Parking next to the building, (b) Under the building, (a) (b) (c) (d) (c) On top of the building, (d) Below ground levelFire protection will be renovated, and it is encouraged to industrial buildings can be identified as:The main reason for the high market find a parking solution inside the building • Built-up ‘I’ shaped sections for theshare of steel products in industrial envelope to decrease the pressure on primary structure of portal framesbuildings is the requirement for fire public space (Figure 5.8). (tapered columns and rafters fromresistance. In the Netherlands, these 750 mm deep to 1280 mm deep,requirements are relatively low in Energy usually from steel grade S275JR).comparison to other European countries. In 2012, all new industrial buildings will • Cold-formed ‘Z’ and ‘C’ shaped have to be ‘energy neutral’. This means sections for the secondary structuralFor single-storey buildings and most that the energy consumption has to be members (roof purlins, side walls, etc.).industrial buildings with a small office, equal to or less than the energy produced. • Roof and wall cladding systems inthere are no requirements for fire In the town of Zaandam, an experimental compliance with new fire regulations.resistance from the construction. In some ‘zero-energy shed’ has been built withcases, 30 or 60 minutes is required for promising results, and this technology Generally, tapered rafters have spans ofescape routes, for fire compartments or is potentially useable more widely. 25-50 m but it is possible to design spansfor prevention of fire spread between of 60-70 m without intermediate supports.spaces and to adjacent buildings. These Current Practice in Spain On the other hand, the typical spacingsrequirements are usually easy to meet Structure between portal frames are 9-10 m, andwith simple fire protection measures. Most industrial buildings in Spain are columns are of 7-12 m height. constructed from built‑up sections,Parking although hot rolled sections are often The complementary sub‑systems consistAt the moment about 70,000 hectares of used for bespoke shed designs. of mezzanine floors, crane runway beams,land is in use as an industrial development Construction components include crane beams, roof platforms, canopies,area. This is approximately 2% of the structural systems, roof and wall cladding parapets, and all accessories needed fortotal area of the Netherlands. The Dutch systems. The pre-engineered systems a complete and functional building.government is trying to stop the rapidly are delivered on site ready to beincreasing area zoned for economic assembled. This complete process is The foundation requirements of theseactivities. Increasingly, industrial and quick, efficient and economic. steel buildings are reduced significantlycommercial buildings in these districts The structural elements in many Spanish because of the open spaces provided byFigure 5.9 Single portal frames with tapered columns and rafters under construction in Spain EURO-BUILD in Steel 37
  • 05 Best Practice in Steel Construction - INDUSTriAL Buildings Figure 5.10 Interior structure of an industrial building with tapered columns Table 5.2 Regulations affecting the design of industrial buildings in Spain Code Description Spanish Structural Steel Design Code (Instrucción de Acero Estructural). This regulation will be EAE compulsory in 2009. Spanish Technical Building Code (Código Técnico de la Edificación): Basic Documents: Basis of design CTE (DB-SE), actions (DB­‑SE­‑AE) and design of steel structures (DB‑­SE‑­A). EN 1993-1-1 Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures. Part 1-1: General rules and regulations for buildings. Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures. Part 1-3: Supplementary rules for cold formed thin gauge members EN 1993-1-3 and sheeting. Spanish Regulation of Fire Security in Industrial Building (RSCIEI - Reglamento de Seguridad Contra RSCIEI Incendios en los Establecimientos Industriales) The RSCIEI is a compulsory document for the fire safety design of industrial buildings. the clear span system, the longer bay • The use of tapered built-up primary Public and private companies, lengths and the lower weight of the structure. structural members (columns and contractors and designers benefit as a rafters) results in up to a 40% weight result of the cost savings and from the Steel industrial buildings use a variety of advantage for the main rigid frames faster construction process. materials that satisfy a wide range of when compared to the use of structural requirements. This flexibility conventional hot rolled sections. Regulations provides an unlimited range of building • The use of ‘Z’ shaped secondary The main regulations affecting the design configurations and applications. structural members (roof purlins and of industrial buildings in Spain are given side rails), particularly the overlapping in Table 5.2. Structural advantages of the ‘Z’ shaped purlins at the frames, This structural system offers many results in up to a 25% weight saving Fire safety engineering advantages compared to traditional for the secondary members. The Spanish Fire Safety Regulation for construction. Advanced design and • Generally, all the components are industrial buildings (RSCIEI) requires an fabrication methods help to reduce costs factory-produced on automated assessment of the fire resistance of the through faster construction and production lines, saving many building according to the expected fire minimised labour on site. problems in installation. loads, compartment size and • The steel scrap from the manufacture neighbouring buildings. Structural systems, walls, roofs and of built-up plate members and cold compatible accessories have the formed ‘Z’ sections is reduced. Although it is possible to design industrial following advantages: • All steel is structurally efficient. buildings without additional structural fire38 EURO-BUILD in Steel
  • National Practice 05 Figure 5.11 (Above) Exterior appearance of industrial building in Spain Figure 5.12 Full scale model in fire conditions showing collapse mechanismresistance, i.e. detached sheds with low Current practice in Sweden 150 mm of mineral wool. The buildingsfire load, fire safety engineering offers a A typical Swedish industrial building often comprise an office space in parts ofmore competitive approach in the case of Open plan buildings, such as industrial the building using an intermediate floor.high fire loads or layouts requiring larger buildings, are a very important market forcompartment sizes. An example of a steel in Sweden (SBI, 2004). Common The most common and often mostmodel used to determine structural dimensions for light industrial buildings economic way of stabilising an openperformance and time to collapse of a are spans between 15 and 25 m with a plan building is to insert wind bracingsteel framed industrial building in fire is height of 5 to 8 m. Building plan areas at the ends and in the long sides andgiven in Figure 5.12. of 1500-2000 m² are common. Often to utilise the profiled sheeting in the companies specialising in these systems roof as a stiff stressed skin diaphragm,Acknowledgements deliver the building as a turnkey product. as shown in Figure 5.13. The columnsThe images shown have been provided are designed as pinned. The wallby Prado Transformados Metálicos S.A. Modern buildings of this type are usually sheeting may also be used as a(www.pradotm.com). insulated with approximately 120 to stressed skin diaphragm. EURO-BUILD in Steel 39
  • 05 Best Practice in Steel Construction - INDUSTriAL Buildings N qah/2 qah/2+N N h qah/2 b a Figure 5.13 (Above) Industrial building stabilised by wind bracing in the walls and diaphragm of trapezoidal sheetin in the roof. SBI Publication 174, 2002 Figure 5.14 A light insulated industrial building SBI Publication 130 A typical open plan building is shown in considered as pin-ended at the base, Roof cladding Figure 5.14. Often a gabled roof with an four bolts are recommended in order to There are a number of products for angle of 3.6° or 5.7° is used. The spacing provide column stability during erection. roofs, mainly profiled sheeting and tiles. between rafters is typically 6 to 10 m. The profiled sheeting is typically of the The walls are made from composite panels For non-insulated industrial buildings, form shown in Figure 5.15. Roof tiles or profiled sheeting placed on light steel the profiled sheeting is supported by may be used for roof slopes of 14° and side rails. The insulation is placed on top purlins, and Z‑profiles are often used more. Roofing tiles use traditional colours of the profiled sheeting and covered with as purlins up to 12 m span. and are significantly lighter than ceramic a suitable roof material. A plastic membrane or concrete tiles. is used for air and moisture-tightness. Using pinned columns, it is essential to stabilise the building during erection. Deep profiled sheeting may be used for Lattice trusses are generally used for It is often necessary to brace columns insulated roofs with spans up to around the rafters. Spans up to 45 m can be and sometimes the rafters too. As bracing 11 m and the longer spans are achieved achieved with standard sections. of the columns is necessary during erection, with sheeting stiffened in both directions. The columns are typically HEA-sections, it is common to design the bracing as Shorter spans, up to 8 m, are achieved fastened with four anchor bolts on a permanent, thus not considering with more traditional profiles. base plate. Although the columns are diaphragm action of the walls.40 EURO-BUILD in Steel
  • National Practice 05Figure 5.15 Example of different products on the Swedish market for roofs and wallsFigure 5.16 Plannja 40 roof cladding (for use on low sloping roofs from 3-6O) www.plannja.seFigure 5.17 Fasetti façade lamella www.ruukki.comFigure 5.18 Composite panel Left: Plannja panel Right: Liberta Grande façade cassette Ruukki EURO-BUILD in Steel 41
  • 05 Best Practice in Steel Construction - INDUSTriAL Buildings The roof is usually designed to also act as There are products on the Swedish the high value activities for which these a stressed skin diaphragm which enables market that can satisfy and exceed the buildings are employed. The introduction it to be constructed without bracing. Swedish building regulations as to the of a revised Part L, with its more onerous heat insulation of industrial buildings. requirements, and the European ‘Energy Profiled sheeting is used as load bearing Typical U-values for a 150 mm composite Performance of Buildings’ Directive in elements for insulated roofs. The height panel are 0.24-0.28 W/m²K and there are April 2006 have led to the following of the profile is chosen depending on the standard solutions for U-values down to requirements: span. Insulation in the form of mineral 0.17 W/m²K. • The need to achieve a saving of wool is used in two layers with plastic foil around 23 to 28% in CO2 emissions as a damp proof layer and an air barrier. Current Practice in the UK when measured against the equivalent General Issues building to 2002 Regulations; Trapezoidal sheeting is used as the The construction of large single-storey • The introduction of energy passports external roof material. A minimum roof industrial buildings, widely known as for many types of buildings. angle of 3.6° is required. ‘sheds’, is a significant part of the UK steel construction sector. They are used Selection of Steel for Single-storey U‑values of below 0.3 W/m²K can be as retail stores, distribution warehouses, Industrial Buildings achieved, dependant on the thickness of manufacturing facilities and leisure centres. The following criteria can affect the the insulation. This meets the Swedish value that the building brings to the building regulations. Examples of innovations are the use of clients and users: plastic design of portal frames, IT systems Cladding for design and manufacture, cold formed Architectural Design Profiled sheeting used as cladding is components, such as purlins, and highly Architects have a strong influence on often the same as the sheeting used efficient cladding systems. the choice of building form and its for roofing. appearance, as well as issues such as The single-storey industrial sector in the thermal performance. Although the Composite or sandwich panels provide UK has an annual value of approximately structural form is still the province of the thermal insulation, fire protection and £1 billion for frames (1.4 billion Euros) structural engineer and steel fabricator, appearance. Panels have steel sheeting and £1.5 billion (2.1 billion Euros) for the use of modern forms of structural on both sides with an insulation of mineral associated envelope systems. systems is adopted by architects, who wool or EPS in between. Depending on are increasingly involved in the industrial the thickness of the insulation, U-values The architectural design of industrial building sector. Examples of the can be typically from 0.18 to 0.3 W/m²K. buildings and other enclosures has architectural use of steel are illustrated in The systems include air and water resisting developed considerably over the last Figures 2.9 and 5.20. systems between panels. If mineral wool 10-15 years, since major architectural is used, the system provides good fire practices have been involved in iconic Speed of Construction integrity and acoustic performance. buildings such as the Renault Distribution For logistics or similar businesses, The panels can be delivered as large Centre, Swindon and the Schlumberger speed of construction is vital. This can units up to 10 m long. factory, Cambridge. affect the design in many ways, i.e. layout and components can be designed so The steel panels may be combined Steel portal frames, nevertheless, still that parallel rather than sequential with other material as stone, timber, account for the majority of the industrial construction can take place. glass, stucco and concrete. The panel building market. However, many variants can be delivered with different surface of this simple manufacturing technique Flexibility in Use finish, with deep and shallow profiling. are employed, such as use of cellular The long spans and minimal use of beams or curved sections, as illustrated columns typical of steel construction offer There are systems for refurbishment of in Figure 5.19. the maximum opportunity for the building facades. The refurbishment is usually to be able to accommodate different combined with an insulation of the façade. Today there are many more demands on processes and change of use. There are slotted separators for fastening envelope systems, in particular related to of the profiled sheeting, allowing for the energy conservation demands of The client may at some point wish to sell mineral wool as insulation. Part L of the UK Building Regulations and the building to an investment42 EURO-BUILD in Steel
  • National Practice 05 Figure 5.19 Curved steel sections used in a modern industrial building in the UKorganisation. To facilitate this option, quality materials with a longer life Value for moneycriteria such as minimum height and expectancy and reduced maintenance Steel has achieved a large market sharehigher imposed loads are often specified costs are encouraged. in this sector because of responsivenessto maintain the asset value and provide to client demand. With the increasingflexibility for future uses. Sustainability complexity in design, there is also an Energy costs and the reduction of CO2 increased inter-dependency between theMaintenance emissions are becoming increasingly various elements and a high degree ofMany buildings are constructed for important and sustainability is now a cooperation and coordination.owner occupation. Where a building is key issue within the planning process.let, ‘full repairing 25 year leases’ In the future, it is likely that planning Design Issues(where the tenant is responsible for permission will be easier to obtain with Steel construction is one of the mostmaintenance), are being replaced by sustainable, environmentally friendly efficient sectors in the constructionshorter leases, where the owner carries solutions. Many clients, potential clients industry. Leading suppliers manufacturemaintenance responsibility. Where the and occupiers have sustainability the components offsite, using computeroriginal owner has responsibility for policies against which their performance controlled equipment driven directly bymaintenance, the choice of better is monitored. information contained in 3D computer Figure 5.20 Curved cellular beams for a leisure centre Westok EURO-BUILD in Steel 43
  • 05 Best Practice in Steel Construction - INDUSTriAL Buildings models used for detailing. In addition to Energy performance the interfaces between the various informing the manufacturing process, Reductions in U‑values over recent years specialist systems. This task is traditionally the information in the model is also used for have lead to a considerable increase in undertaken by the architect, but better ordering, scheduling, delivery and erection. insulation thickness, with implications for coordination is achieved if the main stability (particularly of built-up systems), contractor is responsible for the design. Choice of primary frame cladding weight and consequential The most popular choice of structural handling requirements. However, the Design process form for single-storey buildings with point has now been reached where Attributes that should be considered, spans of 25 to 60 m is the portal frame further increases in insulation thickness in addition to those required by the because of its structural efficiency and are unlikely to lead to significant Regulations, include: ease of fabrication and erection. Portal improvements in energy performance. • Overall geometrical considerations. frames may be designed using elastic or • Minimum height (clearance for crane plastic analysis techniques. Elastically For many applications, roof lights are beams, depth of haunch, etc.). designed portal frames are likely to be important because they reduce the amount • Achieving maximum lettable area heavier, but are simpler to design and of artificial lighting that is needed and, according to the conventions for detail using non‑specialist design software. consequently, the energy demands of the measurement. building. However, they also increase • Column layouts to give appropriate For longer spans, lattice trusses may be solar gain, which can lead to overheating future flexibility of use. used as an alternative to portal frames. in summer and increase cooling demand. • Loading and future loading Trusses are likely to be more efficient for requirements. spans over 60 m and in buildings of Heat loss through thermal bridging • Selection of purlins and side rails shorter spans where there is a significant also becomes more significant as • Control of deflections. amount of mechanical plant. the insulation thickness increases, • Cladding system and available requiring the use of enhanced details guarantees. Inter‑dependence of frames & envelopes and specialised components. • Adequate access for possible future The structural efficiency of portal frames vehicle needs. is achieved partly due to the provision of Air-tightness • Tolerances of the floor slab. restraint to the rafters and columns by the The introduction of air-tightness testing • Potential for reuse/recycling of purlins and side rails respectively. Similarly, has highlighted the importance of materials. the efficiency of the purlins is dependent designing and delivering a building that • End of useful life requirements. on restraint provided by the cladding. is not subject to excessive heat loss. • Energy consumption and reduction of ‘Stressed skin’ action may also be utilised Recent studies have demonstrated that CO2 emissions. in the design, if only to reduce deflections. controlling airtightness is a very effective way of improving energy conservation. The effects of the site conditions on The design methods for the steel the structural solution, together with structure are now well understood and As an example, while the current minimum the engineering design of external works, the focus of attention has turned to the standard for airtightness testing of buildings will normally require the appointment of building envelope. There are three major is 10 m3/m2/hr at 50 Pascals, levels of a consulting engineer to work alongside reasons for this: airtightness as low as 2 m3/m2/hr are the architect prior to letting the Design • The use of steel structures is possible with standard construction, and Build contract. The duties will include common in industrial and but achieving this level depends on a the selection and design of a suitable commercial applications. high quality of construction and detailing. foundation system. In the majority of • The need to promote client image and For buildings with floor areas less than buildings, the structural frame has public access has meant more 5,000 m2, achieving good levels of air- pinned bases. attention has been given to planning tightness becomes difficult to achieve, and aesthetics. due to the higher proportion of openings Sustainable Construction • The focus on the energy saving of the relative to the clad area. The requirement for sustainable envelope and the increased significance construction is being encouraged in many of the ‘Energy Performance of Design Coordination ways, ranging from EU Directives on Buildings’ Directive (EPBD) with its A significant part of the design process of thermal efficiency to the increasing requirement for energy labelling. the actual building is the coordination of adoption of Corporate Social44 EURO-BUILD in Steel
  • National Practice 05Responsibility policies by companies. Summary of Industrial BuildingThe ability to demonstrate a sustainable Trends in the UKapproach is becoming an essential part Table 5.3 below shows a summary ofof obtaining planning permission. The trends in modern industrial warehouseconcept of sustainability is under-pinned design, which is adapted from a report byby the need to balance the ‘triple bottom the Steel Construction Institute.line’ of economic, social andenvironmental viability. Modern steel Table 5.3 Summary of trends in modern industrial warehouse designconstruction should meet all three criteria. in the UK Aspect of Design Current Designs Future Designs (in addition to current practice) Multi‑span rectangular plan buildings of up to 90 m × 150 m plan area 15 m height to haunch 8‑12 m height to haunch Portal frames of 30‑35 m span with 6° roof slope Steel portal frames with 2° slope Building form and structure 6‑8 m bay width with internal columns at 12‑16 m spacing Fibre reinforced 200 mm concrete ground slab Post‑tensioned concrete ground slab Adjoining steel framed office of 13.5 m depth in 6 and 7.5 m spans Composite panels (sandwich panels) Composite panels for roof for roof and upper walls ‘Green’ roof in selective areas over marshalling area (approx 20 m) Precast concrete panels for lower part of walls ‘Tilt up’ precast concrete panels for walls Cladding Composite slab over distribution area U‑values of 0.35 W/m K for walls 2 U‑values of 0.25 W/m2K for walls and 0.25 W/m2K for roof and 0.20 W/m2K for roofs 15% roof light area for natural lighting 15% roof lights (triple layer) Fibre reinforced plastic‑timber beam and purlin Good air‑tightness sought (10 m3/hr/m2 at 50 Pa) system considered for 16 m span Jet nozzle heating Greater use of Photovoltaics (PVs) on roof Wind turbines to generate primary Selective use of Photovoltaics (PV) on roof energy may be considered Fire‑wet suppression system Greater use of solar thermal hot water Services and Sprinklers to control fire spread, their installation maintenance Fit‑out of services by end user depends on client requirement Design life of 40 years – 25 years to first maintenance Pervious paviours in car park to assist drainage Rainwater collection from roof EURO-BUILD in Steel 45
  • 05 Best Practice in Steel Construction - INDUSTriAL Buildings46 EURO-BUILD in Steel
  • Case Studies 0606 Case StudiesA series of Case Studies are presented in this Section to illustrate thedesign and construction principles discussed earlier. The Case Studiescover a range of building forms and locations throughout Europe.The Case Studies and their structural • Netto Supermarket, Sweden. Cargo Hub,systems are summarised as follows: Lightweight column and beam• Cargo Hub, East Midlands Airport, UK. structure using stressed skin action. East Midlands Airport Two bay portal frame and cellular • Distribution Centre, beams for mezzanine floor and Waghäusel, Germany. adjacent office area. Rack-supported storage system Airbus Industrial Hall,• Airbus Industrial Hall, Toulouse, France. with cassette walls and a ‘green’ roof Toulouse Long-span lattice trusses using steel sheeting for economical for flexibility of space and fast- warehouse construction. track construction. Cactus Shopping Centre,• Cactus Shopping centre, Esch/Alzette, Luxembourg. Esch/Alzette Portal frames using curved cellular beams for column free internal space Netto Supermarket, and maximum transparency. Sweden Distribution Centre, Waghäusel EURO-BUILD in Steel 47
  • 06 Best Practice in Steel Construction - INDUSTriAL Buildings Air Cargo hub at East Midlands Airport, UK A new distribution warehouse and office has been built for DHL at Nottingham’s East Midlands Airport. The warehouse is constructed from 40 m span portal frames and the offices use 18 m span cellular beams. The total building cost was 45 million Euros. Application Benefits: • Simple portal frame solution provides efficient use of space • Mezzanine floor using cellular beams supports handling equipment • 3 storey office uses 18 m span cellular beams DHL has operated at Nottingham East 95 m by effective smoke control and by • 18 aircraft stands Midlands Airport in the UK for 25 years. use of smoke vents and smoke curtains. provided With business volume increasing, the existing ‘hub’ was unable to cope and a The office area provides 9,000 m2 of • 30 truck bays below a new major facility was designed, capable additional space for 650 staff and is 22.5 m span canopy of handling shipping volumes of over 3 storeys high. The structure also uses 1,000 tonnes per year. The 40,000 m2 cellular beams spanning 18 m. All internal facility comprises two distinct parts: walls are lightweight and demountable, a warehouse distribution area and permitting flexibility in current and future an office area. use. The first floor office space also had to span over the service road and the The distribution area uses a structural second floor was suspended from the grid that was dictated by the modular roof transfer trusses. mechanical handling system and allowed for future expansion. A double bay steel A 22.5 m span canopy was also portal frame was adopted with spans of included to give maximum flexibility 40 m. The mechanical handling system in arrangement of the loading area. was placed on a mezzanine level which was constructed after the building A curved roof was chosen for visual envelope had been completed. The reasons and used a standing seam mezzanine level was constructed using cladding system based on an on-site cellular beams which allow for incorpo- rolling process to speed up installation. ration of services within the structure. The whole project was completed in Due to the building size, a fire only 18 months and provided DHL with engineering strategy had to be adopted in efficient space that meets its current and order to extend the escape distance to future demands.48 EURO-BUILD in Steel
  • Case Studies 06Project Team Construction Details The fire engineering strategy was alsoClient: Roof and roof trusses key to the whole building concept and theDHL The two bay portal frame structures floor of the mezzanine was designed withArchitect: were designed plastically to achieve the an open steel grillage in order to allow forBurkes Green most efficient solution for the 40,000 m2 smoke extraction at high level.Consultant: warehouse building. Mechanical handlingBurkes Green equipment was supported by an The 2 bay portal frame was designedContractor: independent mezzanine structure with a ‘stiff’ line of columns and wasHoward Associates which used cellular steel beams. constructed before the design of theSteelwork mechanical handling system had beenWestcol The same technology was used for the completed. The flexible design of theServices: 9,000 m2 office building, which had to be steel structure made installation of thisCouch Perry Wilkes flexible in its use, as the predicted system easier in dry internal conditions. lifespan in its current format was only 15 years. Cellular beams were chosen to The open sided canopy was also proble- provide services integration through the matical, being 22.5 m span and 45 m 600 mm diameter openings. The design wide between supports. The canopy of the office area was further complicated projected at 45O and was connected to by the need to span over a service road, the portal frame structure for its stability. which necessitated supporting the floors The roof of the office comprised curved from a long span truss of roof level. steel beams of 150 m radius. EURO-BUILD in Steel 49
  • 06 Best Practice in Steel Construction - INDUSTriAL Buildings Airbus Industrial Hall in Toulouse, France Steel construction provides efficient long span and low weight structural frame for large industrial halls that will produce the next generation A380 Airbus aeroplane for intercontinental flights. Application Benefits: • Fast track construction • Efficient use of steel components • Flexibility of space organisation • Sustainable design approach • High crane facilities This industrial building covers • Two parallel industrial rolling cranes, 200,000 m² of floor space, is 45 m high 35 m span, 30 tonnes capacity for and provides spans of more than 115 m. fuselage transportation. Criteria to be met were efficient space • Two dual loads 2 x 4 suspended occupancy and flexibility in arrangement cranes for normal service. of the internal space. The wing‑lifting cranes roll on rails Due to the expected change in the suspended on the truss of the frame of industrial process after several years of the roof. Sliding doors provide a production, a reconfiguration/refurbishing 117 x 32 m² opening. They are supported approach design was considered, taking by their own structural frame. This huge count of rapid financial return. structure was designed and installed Architectural and structural appearance economically using fabricated sections were intended to be an attractive and a trussed upper beam. reflection of the company performance. The largest hall, which is 115 m long by 250 m wide, is equipped with the following heavy cranes: • Two parallel industrial rolling cranes, 50 m span, 22 tonnes capacity for lifting of the wings. Internal view of the building during construction50 EURO-BUILD in Steel
  • Case Studies 06Project Team Construction Details a simple operation and fast constructionClient: Roof and roof trusses process. The joints between the trussEADS The roof trusses span 117 m. The height elements and the top of the columnsArchitect: of the trusses varies from 8 m at the are pinned.ADPI supports up to 13.5 m at mid span.Design office: The main roof elements are composed This simple method provides theCooperation: ADPI & Jaillet-Rouby of two parallel truss frames of 33 m span following advantages:Contractor: along the building and made of rectan- • Rapid connection operations in aURSSA (Spain), CIMOLAI (Italy), gular hollow steel sections. Each roof critical erection phase.CASTEL et FROMAGET, JOSEPH element comprises a pair of front and • No welding operation during assembly.PARIS, RICHARD DUCROS (France), rear trusses, roof structure, roof service • The truss upper flange element isBUYCK (Belgium) equipments, fire safety network, etc., and connected and simply sits on a shortControl Office: when completed at ground level is lifted span beam on top of the column.SOCOTEC and VERITAS and positioned at the top of the columns in one piece. The vertical deflection of the trusses was limited to span/2000 due to crane Columns are rigidly fixed to the ground operation requirements. and have equal slenderness ratio in each direction to avoid any horizontal buckling The elements of the main truss spanning phenomenon during lifting operations. across the building were I shape fabricated sections and bolted on joints. Assembly of the trusses at ground level Each column was made of two separate has the advantage of achieving safe fabricated sections jointed by a construction, limited use of scaffolding, continuous truss web. Source of all images in this case study: Cabinet Jaillet‑Rouby, France EURO-BUILD in Steel 51
  • 06 Best Practice in Steel Construction - INDUSTriAL Buildings Cactus shopping centre in Esch/Alzette This urban project in Esch/Alzette, Luxembourg, provides a modern steel structure using curved cellular beams and a glazed façade. The building highlights the lightness of the exposed steel structure achieved by a modern fire engineering approach. Application Benefits: • Column-free internal space provides maximum flexibility • Attractive appearance due to use of curved cellular beams • Unprotected steel justified by a fire engineering approach This medium size supermarket is situated Due to the location of the supermarket in in the city centre of Esch/Alzette and it a city centre, the local authorities required replaces an older structure. The owner a fire resistance of 90 minutes for the wanted to have a modern bright shopping steel structure supporting the roof. centre and opted for an open space with The Natural Fire Safety Concept was huge glazed surface for two of the applied to calculate the development of façades. It was a requirement that the the fire in the supermarket. Using this steel structure, with its long span curved concept, the opportunity for a building cellular beams, should be visible. with a fully glazed façade and visible steel structure has been retained.52 EURO-BUILD in Steel
  • Case Studies 06Project Team Construction Details EN 1991‑1‑2 (Characteristic fire load forClient: Structure office building 730 MJ/m²) and took intoCactus S.A. The structure comprises a series of account active fire fighting measuresArchitect: portal frames using steel columns and (automatic alarm & transmission to thePaczowski Fritsch Associés curved cellular beams. The frames are fire brigade, smoke exhaust systems, etc.).Strucural Engineer: interconnected by means of steel roofSchroeder & Associés S.A. purlins and a bracing system. The frame No sprinklers were required due toContractor: has a single 20 m span. The column the small size of the building. The fireMABILUX S.A. height is 7.5 m and the maximum height temperature was calculated using theFire Engineering: in the middle of the curved beam is 2-zone software Ozone and localisedArcelorMittal 9.1 m. The distance between adjacent temperatures were calculated using the main frames is 7.5 m. Hasemi methodology. A set of simulations was performed to analyse the breaking ofBuilding Facts Frames are connected by continuous the glazed walls (front and back façadesConstruction period: 2003 purlins (IPE200). The roofing is made are completely glazed).Total height: 9.13 m with a steel decking (HOESCH TR44A),Ground-plan: 28.5 x 48.0 m insulation and waterproofing. The beams As the maximum resulting steel are ArcelorMittal Cellular Beams® made temperatures in the columns were from HEB450 in S235 steel. The height of 880°C, a 3-D finite element analysis the beam is 590 mm, the diameter of the was performed, taking into account the openings is 400 mm and the distance whole structure of the building at this between the openings is 600 mm. temperature. One complete model of the building in 3 dimensions was analysed. Natural Fire Safety Concept All the simulations were made using the ArcelorMittal was asked to perform the FE software SAFIR. The result of this fire fire engineering of the structure and the engineering approach was the decision authorities accepted the application of the that the steel structure did not require Natural Fire Safety Concept. The fire any passive fire protection. design was based on the prescriptions of EURO-BUILD in Steel 53
  • 06 Best Practice in Steel Construction - INDUSTriAL Buildings Netto Supermarket, Sweden This is an example of a typical Swedish lightweight industrial building consisting of columns, roof‑trusses and roof sheeting, designed for stressed skin action. Application Benefits: • Rapid building method • High level of prefabrication • Minimum size of load- bearing structure • Few internal supports providing large open spaces with easy use for other activities Lightweight single-storey buildings with a The small differences between the steel structure have a dominant position structures depend on the geographical in Sweden among buildings used as location, which gives varying snow loads industrial or warehouse facilities. and wind actions. The snow load varies between 1 and 3 kN/m² and the wind In Sweden, all Netto shops are designed speed between 21 and 26 m/s. in a similar way, which makes the building process exceptionally fast The structure consists of pinned columns, and very economical. rafters and trapezoidal sheeting on the roof together with wind bracings in the Netto’s new store in Smålandsstenar walls for stability. The roof sheeting is demonstrates this simple and cost- designed as a stressed skin diaphragm, efficient construction solution. which transfers horizontal loads to the wind bracing.54 EURO-BUILD in Steel
  • Case Studies 06 Project Team Construction Details possible to use vertical wind bracings in Client: The trapezoidal sheeting is between the walls, portal frames can be Netto Marknad AB 0.65 mm and 1.2 mm thick. The sheeting considered due to the use of smaller Architect: transfers both vertical and horizontal steel sections, and hence savings GL Consult actions, such as dead load, snow and wind in steel cost. Structural Engineer: loads, as well as inclined loads to the EAB AB foundation through the columns and The time needed to assemble columns, Steel Constructor: bracings, mainly HEA-profiles. HEA- trusses and roof sheeting was about EAB AB profiles are also used as gable beams. one week, which was done after the For single span ceiling joists with a casting of the foundation. The next step maximum span of 10 m, IPE-profiles was to assemble walls and to install the Building Facts are used. roofing. Finally, the services and the Shopping area: 750 m² interior work were completed in a Steel use: 20 tonnes When it is important to keep the building weather-proof building. Roof sheeting: 1000 m2 height to a minimum, or when it is not Total erection time: 5 weeks Total project time: 17 weeks (Above) 3D-model used for structural calculations(Right) The construction site showing roofing and intermediate floors in place EURO-BUILD in Steel 55
  • 06 Best Practice in Steel Construction - INDUSTriAL Buildings Distribution Centre in Waghäusel, Germany The third distribution centre of dm-drogerie markt was completed in 2004 with a storage area of 20,000 m2. By using the rack-supported building system, time and money was saved compared to traditional solutions. Application Benefits: • Maximum storage density • Building use is unaffected by the structure • Cheapest construction method for high- bay warehouse • Short construction period • Fast return of capital investment Dm-drogerie markt – one of the leading The commissioning store was a rack- drugstore chains in Europe – operates supported storage system, named because over 1,500 retail outlets and employs the construction of the steel racks also acts some 20,000 people. With a turnover of as the main support structure for roof and almost 3 billion Euros, dm-drogerie markt wall. Roof and wall cladding were rapidly offers a range of some 12,000 product attached to the racking construction parallel lines. In 2003, dm-drogerie markt decided to the assembly. Compared to traditional to build a further logistics facility in solutions comprising a main support Waghäusel, located in southern Germany structure and racks that only support between Karlsruhe and Mannheim. themselves, the construction period was significantly shorter, thus achieving an The distribution centre is divided into earlier return of the investment. four main parts. While the building for incoming and outgoing goods, servicing Apart from the short construction period rooms, as well as offices, social rooms and the comparatively low cost, the and canteen were built in reinforced significantly shorter amortization period is concrete, the heart of the complex, an additional advantage. However, the the commission store, is built in steel. racking system had to be designed taking The commission store is 90 m long, into account the additional load cases due 125 m wide and 20 m high and it to the self-weight of the building envelope provides space for 24,024 commissioning and imposed wind and snow loads. and storage bins.56 EURO-BUILD in Steel
  • Case Studies 06 Project Team Construction details of steel serve as connecting bridges Client: The steel construction of the rack- to the stairway towers. dm- drogerie markt GmbH & Co. KG supported structure of the commissioning Architects: store was erected on a floor slab of Fire protection BFK + Partner Freie reinforced concrete. The commissioning store, hall for Architekten BDA, Stuttgart incoming/outgoing goods and servicing General Contractor: The wall cladding was designed using rooms are separated by fire walls. Swisslog AG, Buchs, Switzerland isolated cassette elements. The interior The fire walls reach up to 0.5 m above Steel Construction: cassettes were attached to the gable the roof of the ingoing/outgoing goods Nedcon Magazijninrichting B.V, columns and the columns of the long- store. Furthermore, an impact resistant Doetinchem, Netherlands itudinal walls. The roof beams were roof strip made of reinforced concrete Fire Engineering: arranged in accordance with the division was erected to prevent the fire spread Brandschutz Hoffmann, Worms of the racks in the longitudinal direction at between commissioning store and hall Building Services: a spacing of 3.14 m. An extensive ‘green’ for incoming/outgoing goods. AXIMA GmbH, Karlsruhe roof was achieved using steel sheeting, 100 mm of thermal insulation, a sealant Both the commissioning store and the layer and soil covering. incoming/outgoing goods store are Building Facts equipped with full sprinkler systems, Construction period: There are a total of 5 stair towers with additional in-rack sprinklers in the 2003-2004 in reinforced concrete with a fire commissioning store. In addition, an Site area: resistance of 90 minutes. At the rear automatic fire alarm system was installed. 70,000 m² wall, external escape catwalks made Commissioning store: 200,000 m³ Hall for incoming/ outgoing goods: 4,500 m²Inside view of commissioning store Sectional elevation Plan EURO-BUILD in Steel 57
  • ArcelorMittalLong Carbon, Research and Development,66, rue de Luxembourg, L - 4009 Esch/Alzette, Luxembourgwww.arcelormittal.comBouwen met StaalBoerhaavelaan 40, NL - 2713 HX Zoetermeer,Postbus 190, NL - 2700 AD Zoetermeer, The Netherlandswww.bouwenmetstaal.nlCentre Technique Industriel de la Construction Métallique (CTICM)Espace Technologique, L’orme Des Merisiers - Immeuble ApolloF - 91193 Saint-Aubin, Francewww.cticm.comForschungsvereinigung Stahlanwendung (FOSTA)Sohnstraße 65, D - 40237 Düsseldorf,Germanywww.stahlforschung.deLabein - TecnaliaC/Geldo – Parque Tecnológico de Bizkaia – Edificio 700,48160 Derio, Bizkaia, Spainwww.labein.esSBIVasagatan 52, SE - 111 20 Stockholm,Swedenwww.sbi.seThe Steel Construction Institute (SCI)Silwood Park, Ascot, Berkshire,SL5 7QN, United Kingdomwww.steel-sci.orgTechnische Universität DortmundFakultät Bauwesen - Lehrstuhl für StahlbauAugust-Schmidt-Strasse 6, D - 44227 Dortmund, Germanywww.uni-dortmund.de