Ahmad rizahashimkpfka2006ttt

1,199 views
1,041 views

Published on

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,199
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
4
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
20
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Ahmad rizahashimkpfka2006ttt

  1. 1. MAINTENANCE MANAGEMENT AND SERVISES (CASE STUDY: PERKESO BUILDING’S IN PENISULAR OF MALAYSIA) AHMAD RIZA BIN HASHIMA Project Report Submitted as a partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degree of Master of Science in Construction Management Faculty of Civil Engineering Universiti Teknologi Malaysia December, 2006
  2. 2. PSZ 19:16 (Pind. 1/97) UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA BORANG PENGESAHAN STATUS TESIS JUDUL: MAINTENANCE MANAGEMENT AND SERVISES (CASE STUDY: PERKESO BUILDING’S IN PENISULAR MALAYSIA) SESI PENGAJIAN: 2006/2007 Saya AHMAD RIZA BIN HASHIM (HURUF BESAR) mengaku membenarkan tesis (PSM/Sarjana/Doktor Falsafah)* ini disimpan di Perpustakaan Universiti Teknologi Malaysia dengan syarat -syarat kegunaan seperti berikut: 1. Tesis adalah hakmilik Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. 2. Perpustakaan Universiti Teknologi Malaysia dibenarkan membuat salinan untuk tujuan pengajian sahaja. 3. Perpustakaan dibenarkan membuat salinan tesis ini sebagai bahan pertukaran antara institusi pengajian tinggi. 4. **Sila tandakan ( ) SULIT (Mengandungi maklumat yang berdarjah keselamatan atau kepentingan Malaysia seperti yang termaktub di dalam AKTA RAHSIA RASMI 1972) TERHAD (Mengandungi maklumat TERHAD yang telah ditentukan oleh organisasi/badan di mana penyelidikan dijalankan) TIDAK TERHAD Disahkan oleh __________________________________ _____________________________________ (TANDATANGAN PENULIS) (TANDATANGAN PENYELIA) Alamat Tetap:NO 15, LORONG 2,JALAN SP5, TAMAN SERI PANDAN PROF MADYA AZIRUDDIN RESSANG75250 MELAKA Nama Penyelia Tarikh: DECEMBER 8, 2006 Tarikh: DECEMBER 8, 2006 CATATAN: * Potong yang tidak berkenaan. * * Jika tesis ini SULIT atau TERHAD, sila lampirkan surat daripada pihak berkuasa/organisasi berkenaan dengan menyatakan sekali sebab dan tempoh tesis ini perlu dikelaskan sebagai SULIT atau TERHAD. Tesis dimaksudkan sebagai tesis bagi Ijazah Doktor Falsafah dan Sarjana secara penyelidikan, atau disertasi bagi pengajian secara kerja kursus dan penyelidikan, atau Laporan Projek Sarjana Muda (PSM).
  3. 3. SUPERVISOR’S DECLARATIONI hereby declare that I have read this project report and in my opinion this project report is sufficient in terms of scope and quality for the award of the degree of Master of Science (Construction Management)Signature : ....................................................Name of Supervisor : PROF MADYA AZIRUDDIN RESSANGDate : ....................................................
  4. 4. DECLARATION“I declare that this project report entitled “Maintenance Management and Services (CaseStudy: PERKESO Building’s in Peninsular of Malaysia) is the result of my own researchexcept as cited in references. The project report has not been accepted for any degree and isnot is not currently submitted in candidature of any degree”Signature : ……………………………………….Name of Candidate : Ahmad Riza Bin HashimDate : December 8, 2006
  5. 5. Special dedication to my entire family member and for my beloved wife’s Lina Fazlyanna Mac Fadzli and daughter’s Aisyah Ahmad Riza. Thanks for your support
  6. 6. ACKNOWLEDGMENT First of all, I would like to thank Allah SWT for allowing me accomplishes thisproject work in time. In preparing this project report, I was in contact with many people,researchers, and academicians. They have contributed towards my understanding andthoughts. In particular, I would like to express highly appreciation to my supervisor,Associate Professor Aziruddin Ressang who gives me support and guidance during mystudy, for his invaluable assistance, guidance, and understanding through out the researchwork and especially during the writing of this report. Through this study and report writing,he had thought me to be more systematic and professional in my works. I am very grateful to the Property Unit Senior Manager, PERKESO State Manager,Managers Property Unit, Staff Property Unit, Staff Contractor Maintenance, StaffPERKESO and the fellows, and all the students that have supported and helped me inresponding to the questionnaires and reacted kindly to my entire question in the interviews. I am especially thankful to my parents for their patient and understanding throughout my study and during the writing of this project report. Last but not least, my sincere thanks go to the Faculty of Civil Engineering forgiving me the opportunity to pursue the Master of Science in Construction Management
  7. 7. ABSTRACTMaintenance Management and Services is a combination of several actions in which toretain or restore an item to perform its required action. PERTUBUHANKESELAMATAN SOSIAL (PERKESO) as one of the semi government sector inMalaysia that has many assets, needs maintenance to prevent the assets fromdeterioration. Maintenance in PERKESO was monitor and control by Property Unit andLocal PERKESO Office. There are two maintenance system presently implemented atPERKESO: Preventive maintenance and Corrective Maintenance. The maintenanceand services in PERKESO are divided to two building type: stand alone building andshop lot building. Maintenance and services for stand alone PERKESO building is totalpreventive maintenance and services scope and for shop lot PERKESO building scopemaintenance and services only cover cleaning, M&E preventive maintenance and PestControl. Aim of this study to propose maintenance management & services system. Toachieve the aim of this study, five objectives have been set, to study the maintenancemanagement system presently implemented. To identify the common problem inmaintenance management and services. To identify the tenant satisfactory level uponthe maintenance and services implemented. To identify tenant opinion to makeimprovement for maintenance management and services. From the data analyze andpropose maintenance management and services system. This research focused onPERKESO Building’s in Peninsular of Malaysia. To obtain the data the followingknowledge acquisition methods were used by interview, questionnaire and archives. Aninterview were set for two session, pre-interview done before set questionnaire andinterview after the analysis data had done Result of the study showed the responds ofthe end user customer for the overall building conditions and the services given is fair.To achieve the tenants’ satisfaction level, a new maintenance management system isproposed.
  8. 8. ABSTRAK Penyelenggaraan adalah gabungan dari beberapa tindakan untuk mencegah ataumembaikpulih sesuatu item untuk menunjukkan arah tindakbalas yang diperlukan.Pertubuhan Keselamatan Sosial (PERKESO) adalah salah satu badan berkanun di Malaysiayang sudah semestinya mempunyai banyak aset, memerlukan sistem penyelenggaraanuntuk melindungi aset daripada mengalami kerosakan. Di PERKESO, Property Unit adalahunit yang bertanggungjawab penuh untuk mengawal dan menyelaras semua harta milikPERKESO terutamanya bangunan milik PERKESO. Sasaran kajian ini adalah untukmenyelidik sistem pengurusan penyelenggaraan dan perkhidmatan untuk bangunanPERKESO di Semenanjung Malaysia. Untuk mencapai sasaran kajian ini, empat objektiftelah ditetapkan, iaitu menyelidik pengurusan penyelenggaraan yang dilaksanakan diPERKESO di Semenanjung Malaysia; mengenalpasti keadaan sebenar bangunanPERKESO; mengkaji tahap kepuasan penyewa mengenai perkhidmatan penyelenggaraandan perkhidmatan di bangunan PERKESO; dan mengusulkan cadangan untuk pengurusanpenyelenggaraan dan perkhidmatan di bangunan PERKESO. Beberapa kaedah kajian telahdigunakan dalam menjayakan kajian ini termasuk menimba pengetahuan dari Property UnitPERKESO, penguna bangunan PERKESO, dan penyewa ruang banguanan PERKESO.Hasil keputusan kajian menunjukkan responden yang diwakili oleh penguna fasiliti untukkeseluruhan keadaan bangunan dan perkhidmatan adalah agak baik. Untuk mencapai tahapkepuasan penyewa, satu system pengurusan penyelenggaraan baru telah dicadangkan.
  9. 9. TABLE OF CONTENTSLIST OF CONTENTS PAGETitle iDeclaration iiDedication iiiAcknowledgment ivAbstract vTable of Contents viiList of Tables xiList of Figures xiiList of Charts xiiiList of Appendices xivCHAPTER TITLE PAGE I INTRODUCTION 1 1.1 Introduction 1 1.2 Background of Study 2 1.3 Problem Statement 10 1.4 Aim and Objective of Study 11 1.5 Scope of Study 11
  10. 10. 1.6 Research Methodology 13II LITERATURE REVIEW: MAINTENANCE MANAGEMENT 14 2.1 Introduction 14 2.2 Definition 15 2.3 Maintenance Classification 15 2.4 Maintenance Standard 19 2.5 Maintenance Objective 20 2.6 Life Cycle Cost 21 2.7 Maintenance Cost 23 2.7.1 Costing System 24 2.7.2 Setting Up a Costing System 25 2.7.3 Maintenance Budget 26 2.8 Design Effect of Building Maintenance 28 2.9 The Role of Designer 30 III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 33 3.1 Introduction 33 3.2 Archives Data 34 3.3 Questionnaire 34 3.4 Interview 35 3.5 Data Analysis 36 IV MAINTENANCE MANAGEMENT AND SERVICES AT PERTUBUHAN KESELAMATAN SOSIAL 38 4.1 Introduction 38 4.2 Historical Background 40 4.3 Organizational Structure 43 4.4 Scope of Work 45 4.5 Standard Operational Procedure 47 4.5.1 Preventive Maintenance 47 4.5.2 Corrective Maintenance 49
  11. 11. 4.6 Common Defect Problem In Maintenance Management And Services 53 4.7 Satisfaction level to maintenance management And Services. 54 4.8 User opinion on improving maintenance Management and services 55 4.9 General Building Condition 57 4.10 Problem in maintenance Management and Services Industry 59 4.11 Maintenance Unit Work Performance 60V DATA ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS 61 5.1 Introduction 61 5.2 Respondent Characteristics 63 5.3 Gender of respondents 65 5.4 Length of Using Facilities 65 5.5 Background Distribution Of Respondents 66 5.6 What are the common problem in maintenance And management 67 5.6.1 Menara PERKESO Kuala Lumpur 69 5.6.2 Pejabat PERKESO Seberang Perai 71 5.6.3 Pejabat PERKESO Langkawi, 72 5.6.4 Pejabat PERKESO Kangar 73 5.6.5 Pejabat PERKESO Seremban 75 5.6.6 Pejabat PERKESO Batu Pahat 76 5.6.7 Pejabat PERKESO Kulim 78 5.6.8 Pejabat PERKESO Klang, 80 5.6.9 Pejabat PERKESO Sungai 81 5.6.10 Pejabat PERKESO Muar 83 5.6.11 Pejabat PERKESO Kluang, 84
  12. 12. 5.6.12 Pejabat PERKESO Rawang 85 5.6.13 Pejabat PERKESO Segamat 87 5.6.14 Pejabat PERKESO Ipoh 88 5.6.15 Pejabat PERKESO Taiping 90 5.6.16 Pejabat PERKESO Teluk Intan 915.7 Cause of Building Defect 93 5.7.1 Lift Service 94 5.7.2 Electric Installation 94 5.7.3 Waterproofing Leakage 95 5.7.4 Plumbing System 96 5.7.5 Internal Fixture 97 5.7.6 Alarm System 97 5.7.7 Roof Defect 98 5.7.8 Others 985.8 Satisfaction Level With Management And Servises 100 5.8.1 Menara PERKESO 102 5.8.2 Pejabat PERKESO Seberang Perai 103 5.8.3 Pejabat PERKESO Langkawi 105 5.8.4 Pejabat PERKESO Kangar 106 5.8.5 Pejabat PERKESO Seremban 108 5.8.6 Pejabat PERKESO Batu Pahat 109 5.8.7 Pejabat PERKESO Kulim 111 5.8.8 Pejabat PERKESO Klang, 112 5.8.9 Pejabat PERKESO Sungai Petani 114 5.8.10 Pejabat PERKESO Muar 115 5.8.11 Pejabat PERKESO Kluang 117 5.8.12 Pejabat PERKESO Rawang 118 5.8.13 Pejabat PERKESO Segamat 120 5.8.14 Pejabat PERKESO Ipoh, 121 5.8.15 Pejabat PERKESO Taping 123
  13. 13. 5.8.16 Pejabat PERKESO Teluk Intan 1245.9 Respondent opinion on improve maintenance Management and services that be apply to PERKESO 126 5.9.1 Menara PERKESO 127 5.9.2 Pejabat PERKESO Seberang Perai 129 5.9.3 Pejabat PERKESO Langkawi 131 5.9.4 Pejabat PERKESO Kangar 133 5.9.5 Pejabat PERKESO Seremban 135 5.9.6 Pejabat PERKESO Batu Pahat 137 5.9.7 Pejabat PERKESO Kulim 139 5.9.8 Pejabat PERKESO Klang, 141 5.9.9 Pejabat PERKESO Sungai Petani 143 5.9.10 Pejabat PERKESO Muar 145 5.9.11 Pejabat PERKESO Kluang 147 5.9.12 Pejabat PERKESO Rawang 149 5.9.13 Pejabat PERKESO Segamat 151 5.9.14 Pejabat PERKESO Ipoh, 153 5.9.15 Pejabat PERKESO Taping 155 5.9.16 Pejabat PERKESO Teluk Intan 1575.10 Analysis and Discussion 159 5.10.1 Weakness of the Existing Maintenance Management and Services 160 5.10.2 The Fragmented Management Cultural. 160 5.10.2.1 The solution For Fragmented Management 161 5.10.3 Structural and Organization 162 5.10.3.1 Control and Monitor System 164 5.10.3.2 Proposal improvement to corrective maintenance and preventive maintenance 164
  14. 14. 5.10.3.3 Preventive Maintenance Shop Lot PERKESO Buildings 166 5.10.4 Relation Building And Maintenance Team 167 5.10.5 Relation Maintenance Team And End User Customer 167 5.10.6 Relation Maintenance Team And Other Department 167 5.10.7 Training And Skill 168 VI CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 169 6.1 Introduction 169 6.2 Conclusion 169 6.2.1 PERKESO Maintenance Management & Services 170 6.3 What Are The Problems In Maintenance Management And Services? 170 6.4 Satisfaction Level with Maintenance Management And Services 171 6.5 Respondents Opinion on Improvement Maintenance Management And services That That Best Be Apply To PERKESO 171 6.4 Recommendation 172REFERENCES 175-176APPENDICES 81 – 92
  15. 15. LIST OF TABLESTABLE NO. TITLE PAGE 1.1 List of PERKESO buildings in the scope of research 12 3.1 Rating scale of average index 29 4.1 Maintenance team scope of work 45 4.2 Common problem occur in PERKESO 53 4.3 Indicator to define the satisfactions level of respondent 54 4.4 Itemize the ideal opinion to make improvement to Maintenance management and services for the respondent 56 5.1 Question for get respondent information 63 5.2 Showed the distribution and return of the questionnaire63 5.3 Point/Marks for common problem in maintenance management and services. 67 5.4 The common problem occurred at the PERKESO buildings 68 5.5 Five (5) top common problem maintenance at PERKESO Buildings 69 5.6 Defect List at Menara PERKESO Kuala Lumpur 70 5.7 Five (5) top common problem maintenance at Menara PERKESO Kuala Lumpur 70 5.8 Defect List at Pejabat PERKESO Seberang Jaya 71 5.9 Five (5) top common problem maintenance at Pejabat PERKESO Seberang Jaya 72 5.10 Defect List at Pejabat PERKESO Langkawi 73
  16. 16. 5.11 Five (5) top common problem maintenance at Pejabat PERKESO Langkawi 735.12 Defect List at Pejabat PERKESO Kangar 745.13 Five (5) top common problem maintenance at Pejabat PERKESO Kangar 755.14 Defect List at Pejabat PERKESO Seremban 765.15 Five (5) top common problem maintenance at Pejabat PERKESO Seremban 765.16 Defect List at Pejabat PERKESO Batu Pahat 775.17 Five (5) top common problem maintenance at Pejabat PERKESO Batu Pahat 785.18 Defect List at Pejabat PERKESO Kulim 795.19 Five (5) top common problem maintenance at Pejabat PERKESO Kulim 795.20 Defect List at Pejabat PERKESO Klang 805.21 Five (5) top common problem maintenance at Pejabat PERKESO Klang 815.22 Defect List at Pejabat PERKESO Sungai Petani 825.23 Five (5) top common problem maintenance at Pejabat PERKESO Sungai Petani 825.24 Defect List at Pejabat PERKESO Muar 835.25 Five (5) top common problem maintenance at Pejabat PERKESO Muar 845.26 Defect List at Pejabat PERKESO Kluang 855.27 Five (5) top common problem maintenance at Pejabat PERKESO Kluang 855.28 Defect List at Pejabat PERKESO Rawang 865.29 Five (5) top common problem maintenance at Pejabat PERKESO Rawang 865.30 Defect List at Pejabat PERKESO Segamat 875.31 Five (5) top common problem maintenance at Pejabat PERKESO Segamat 87
  17. 17. 5.32 Defect List at Pejabat PERKESO Ipoh 895.33 Five (5) top common problem maintenance at Pejabat PERKESO Ipoh 905.34 Defect List at Pejabat PERKESO Taiping 915.35 Five (5) top common problem maintenance at Pejabat PERKESO Taiping 915.36 Defect List at Pejabat PERKESO Teluk Intan 925.37 Five (5) top common problem maintenance at Pejabat PERKESO Teluk Intan 935.38 Five (5) major categories causes of defect Rating scale of average index 935.39 List of causes defect to lift service 945.40 List of causes defect to electric installation 955.41 List of causes defect to waterproofing leakage 955.42 List of causes defect to plumbing system 965.42 List of causes defect to internal fixture 975.44 Respond of satisfaction level with Maintenance Management and Services at PERKESO Buildings 1005.45 Five (5) top the lowest satisfaction level with Maintenance Management and Services at PERKESO Buildings 1015.46 Respond of satisfaction level with Maintenance Management and Services at Menara PERKESO Kuala Lumpur 1025.47 Five (5) top the lowest satisfaction level with Maintenance Management and Services at Menara PERKESO Kuala Lumpur 1025.48 Respond of satisfaction level with Maintenance Management and Services at Pejabat PERKESO Seberang Jaya 103
  18. 18. 5.49 Five (5) top the lowest satisfaction level with Maintenance Management and Services at Pejabat PERKESO Seberang Jaya 1045.50 Respond of satisfaction level with Maintenance Management and Services at Pejabat PERKESO Langkawi 1055.51 Five (5) top the lowest satisfaction level with Maintenance Management and Services at Pejabat PERKESO Langkawi 1055.52 Respond of satisfaction level with Maintenance Management and Services at Pejabat PERKESO Kangar 1065.53 Five (5) top the lowest satisfaction level with Maintenance Management and Services at Pejabat PERKESO Kangar 1075.54 Respond of satisfaction level with Maintenance Management and Services at Pejabat PERKESO Seremban 1085.55 Five (5) top the lowest satisfaction level with Maintenance Management and Services at Pejabat PERKESO Seremban 1085.56 Respond of satisfaction level with Maintenance Management and Services at Pejabat PERKESO Batu Pahat 1095.57 Five (5) top the lowest satisfaction level with Maintenance Management and Services at Pejabat PERKESO Batu Pahat 1105.58 Respond of satisfaction level with Maintenance Management and Services at Pejabat PERKESO Kulim 111
  19. 19. 5.59 Five (5) top the lowest satisfaction level with Maintenance Management and Services at Pejabat PERKESO Kulim 1115.60 Respond of satisfaction level with Maintenance Management and Services at Pejabat PERKESO Klang 1125.61 Five (5) top the lowest satisfaction level with Maintenance Management and Services at Pejabat PERKESO Klang 1135.62 Respond of satisfaction level with Maintenance Management and Services at Pejabat PERKESO Sungai Petani 1145.63 Five (5) top the lowest satisfaction level with Maintenance Management and Services at Pejabat PERKESO Sungai Petani 1145.64 Respond of satisfaction level with Maintenance Management and Services at Pejabat PERKESO Muar 1155.65 Five (5) top the lowest satisfaction level with Maintenance Management and Services at Pejabat PERKESO Muar 1165.66 Respond of satisfaction level with Maintenance Management and Services at Pejabat PERKESO Kluang 1175.67 Five (5) top the lowest satisfaction level with Maintenance Management and Services at Pejabat PERKESO Kluang 1175.68 Respond of satisfaction level with Maintenance Management and Services at Pejabat PERKESO Rawang 118
  20. 20. 5.69 Five (5) top the lowest satisfaction level with Maintenance Management and Services at Pejabat PERKESO Rawang 1195.70 Respond of satisfaction level with Maintenance Management and Services at Pejabat PERKESO Segamat 1205.71 Five (5) top the lowest satisfaction level with Maintenance Management and Services at Pejabat PERKESO Segamat 1205.72 Respond of satisfaction level with Maintenance Management and Services at Pejabat PERKESO Ipoh 1215.73 Five (5) top the lowest satisfaction level with Maintenance Management and Services at Pejabat PERKESO Ipoh 1225.74 Respond of satisfaction level with Maintenance Management and Services at Pejabat PERKESO Taiping 1235.75 Five (5) top the lowest satisfaction level with Maintenance Management and Services at Pejabat PERKESO Taiping 1235.76 Respond of satisfaction level with Maintenance Management and Services at Pejabat PERKESO Teluk Intan 1245.77 Five (5) top the lowest satisfaction level with Maintenance Management and Services at Pejabat PERKESO Teluk Intan 1255.78 List of opinion on improves maintenance management and services that best to be apply to PERKESO 1265.79 Five (5) top opinion on improves maintenance management and services that best to be apply to PERKESO 127
  21. 21. 5.80 List of opinion on improves maintenance management and services that best to be apply to Menara PERKESO Kuala Lumpur 1285.81 Five (5) top opinion on improves maintenance management and services that best to be apply to Menara PERKESO Kuala Lumpur 1285.82 Comparison of the top five (5) results for all PERKESO Buildings vs. top five (5) results for Menara PERKESO Kuala Lumpur 1295.83 List of opinion on improves maintenance management and services that best to be apply to Pejabat PERKESO Seberang Jaya 1305.84 Five (5) top opinion on improves maintenance management and services that best to be apply to Pejabat PERKESO Seberang Jaya 1305.85 Comparison of the top five (5) results for all PERKESO Buildings vs. top five (5) results for Pejabat PERKESO Seberang Jaya 1305.86 List of opinion on improves maintenance management and services that best to be apply to Pejabat PERKESO Langkawi 1325.87 Five (5) top opinion on improves maintenance management and services that best to be apply to Pejabat PERKESO Langkawi 1325.88 Comparison of the top five (5) results for all PERKESO Buildings vs. top five (5) results for Pejabat PERKESO Langkawi 1325.89 List of opinion on improves maintenance management and services that best to be apply to Pejabat PERKESO Kangar 134
  22. 22. 5.90 Five (5) top opinion on improves maintenance management and services that best to be apply to Pejabat PERKESO Kangar 1345.91 Comparison of the top five (5) results for all PERKESO Buildings vs. top five (5) results for Pejabat PERKESO Kangar 1355.92 List of opinion on improves maintenance management and services that best to be apply to Pejabat PERKESO Seremban 1365.93 Five (5) top opinion on improves maintenance management and services that best to be apply to Pejabat PERKESO Seremban 1365.94 Comparison of the top five (5) results for all PERKESO Buildings vs. top five (5) results for Pejabat PERKESO Seremban 1375.95 List of opinion on improves maintenance management and services that best to be apply to Pejabat PERKESO Batu Pahat 1385.96 Five (5) top opinion on improves maintenance management and services that best to be apply to Pejabat PERKESO Batu Pahat 1385.97 Comparison of the top five (5) results for all PERKESO Buildings vs. top five (5) results for Pejabat PERKESO Batu Pahat 1385.98 List of opinion on improves maintenance management and services that best to be apply to Pejabat PERKESO Kulim 1405.99 Five (5) top opinion on improves maintenance management and services that best to be apply to Pejabat PERKESO Kulim 140
  23. 23. 5.100 Comparison of the top five (5) results for all PERKESO Buildings vs. top five (5) results for Pejabat PERKESO Kulim 1415.101 List of opinion on improves maintenance management and services that best to be apply to Pejabat PERKESO Klang 1425.102 Five (5) top opinion on improves maintenance management and services that best to be apply to Pejabat PERKESO Klang 1425.103 Comparison of the top five (5) results for all PERKESO Buildings vs. top five (5) results for Pejabat PERKESO Klang 1435.104 List of opinion on improves maintenance management and services that best to be apply to Pejabat PERKESO Sungai Petani 1445.105 Five (5) top opinion on improves maintenance management and services that best to be apply to Pejabat PERKESO Sungai Petani 1445.106 Comparison of the top five (5) results for all PERKESO Buildings vs. top five (5) results for Pejabat PERKESO Sungai Petani 1455.107 List of opinion on improves maintenance management and services that best to be apply to Pejabat PERKESO Muar 1465.108 Five (5) top opinion on improves maintenance management and services that best to be apply to Pejabat PERKESO Muar 1465.109 Comparison of the top five (5) results for all PERKESO Buildings vs. top five (5) results for Pejabat PERKESO Muar 147
  24. 24. 5.110 List of opinion on improves maintenance management and services that best to be apply to Pejabat PERKESO Kluang 1485.111 Five (5) top opinion on improves maintenance management and services that best to be apply to Pejabat PERKESO Kluang 1495.112 Comparison of the top five (5) results for all PERKESO Buildings vs. top five (5) results for Pejabat PERKESO Kluang 1495.113 List of opinion on improves maintenance management and services that best to be apply to Pejabat PERKESO Rawang 1505.114 Five (5) top opinion on improves maintenance management and services that best to be apply to Pejabat PERKESO Rawang 1505.115 Comparison of the top five (5) results for all PERKESO Buildings vs. top five (5) results for Pejabat PERKESO Rawang 1515.116 List of opinion on improves maintenance management and services that best to be apply to Pejabat PERKESO Segamat 1525.117 Five (5) top opinion on improves maintenance management and services that best to be apply to Pejabat PERKESO Segamat 1525.118 Comparison of the top five (5) results for all PERKESO Buildings vs. top five (5) results for Pejabat PERKESO Segamat 1535.119 List of opinion on improves maintenance management and services that best to be apply to Pejabat PERKESO Ipoh 153
  25. 25. 5.120 Five (5) top opinion on improves maintenance management and services that best to be apply to Pejabat PERKESO Ipoh 1545.121 Comparison of the top five (5) results for all PERKESO Buildings vs. top five (5) results for Pejabat PERKESO Ipoh 1545.122 List of opinion on improves maintenance management and services that best to be apply to Pejabat PERKESO Taiping 1555.123 Five (5) top opinion on improves maintenance management and services that best to be apply to Pejabat PERKESO Taiping 1565.124 Comparison of the top five (5) results for all PERKESO Buildings vs. top five (5) results for Pejabat PERKESO Taiping 1565.125 List of opinion on improves maintenance management and services that best to be apply to Pejabat PERKESO Teluk Intan 1575.126 Five (5) top opinion on improves maintenance management and services that best to be apply to Pejabat PERKESO Teluk Intan 1585.127 Comparison of the top five (5) results for all PERKESO Buildings vs. top five (5) results for Pejabat PERKESO Teluk Intan 159
  26. 26. LIST OF FIGURESFIGURE NO. TITLE PAGE 1.1 Procedure of tender flow process 7 1.2 Research methodology flow chart 13 2.1 Cyclic nature of design process 32 4.1 Property Unit Structure Organizations 42 4.2 Preventive Maintenance flow chart 49 4.3 Corrective Maintenance flow chart 51 4.2 Combination continuously corrective maintenance flow chart and preventive maintenance 52 5.1 Existing Organization Chart Property Unit 162 5.2 Proposal new organization chart for Property Unit 163 5.2 Flow process existing for preventive maintenance and corrective maintenance 164 5.3 Proposal new organization chart for Property Unit 163 5.4 Proposal new process flow in corrective maintenance 165
  27. 27. LIST OF CHARTSCHART NO. TITLE PAGE 5.1 Questionnaire return/answer From each PERKESO Buildings 64 5.2 The respondent gender distribution 65 5.3 The respondent length of using facilities. 66 5.4 The respondent background distribution 67 5.5 Percentage of the satisfaction level due to maintenance management and services at PERKESO buildings. 101 5.6 Percentage of the satisfaction level due to maintenance management and services at Menara PERKESO Kuala Lumpur. 103 5.7 Percentage of the satisfaction level due to maintenance management and services at Pejabat PERKESO Seberang Jaya. 104 5.8 Percentage of the satisfaction level due to maintenance management and services at Pejabat PERKESO Langkawi 105 5.9 Percentage of the satisfaction level due to maintenance management and services at Pejabat PERKESO Kangar 107
  28. 28. 5.10 Percentage of the satisfaction level due to maintenance management and services at Pejabat PERKESO Seremban 1095.11 Percentage of the satisfaction level due to maintenance management and services at Pejabat PERKESO Batu Pahat 1105.12 Percentage of the satisfaction level due to maintenance management and services at Pejabat PERKESO Kulim 1125.13 Percentage of the satisfaction level due to maintenance management and services at Pejabat PERKESO Klang 1135.14 Percentage of the satisfaction level due to maintenance management and services at Pejabat PERKESO Sungai Petani 1155.15 Percentage of the satisfaction level due to maintenance management and services at Pejabat PERKESO Muar 1165.16 Percentage of the satisfaction level due to maintenance management and services at Pejabat PERKESO Kluang 1185.17 Percentage of the satisfaction level due to maintenance management and services at Pejabat PERKESO Rawang 1195.18 Percentage of the satisfaction level due to maintenance management and services at Pejabat PERKESO Segamat 1215.19 Percentage of the satisfaction level due to maintenance management and services at Pejabat PERKESO Ipoh 122
  29. 29. 5.20 Percentage of the satisfaction level due to maintenance management and services at Pejabat PERKESO Taiping 1245.21 Percentage of the satisfaction level due to maintenance management and services at Pejabat PERKESO Teluk Intan 125
  30. 30. LIST OF APPENDICESAPPENDIX TITLE PAGE A Full Set of Questionnaire 177-183 B Questionnaire Results 184-190
  31. 31. CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION1.1 Introduction A successful construction industry is essential to us all. We all benefit fromhousing, hospitals or infrastructure project that are constructed. Malaysia as one ofthe development countries in South East Asia was growing rapidly almost in allsectors, including construction sector. Large and complex project have been built dueto the demands of both the public and private sectors. To meet the high demand ofboth sectors’ need, it is expected that many error and defects will have occurredduring the design and construction phase of the project, later resulting the high costof maintenance. Under normal condition all building begins to deteriorate the moment afterthey are constructed, and of course maintenance is needed. One research conductedin United Kingdom revealed about 20% of the average annual expenditure on repairsin building arises from defects (Sadi Assaf et al, 1996). As consequences if thenumber of defects could be reduce it would reduce the maintenance expenditures. It is obvious that the need of maintenance is very important and needed for allsectors including properties sectors. Regard to the highly cost of maintenance it isimportant to study maintenance problem so that an effective maintenance can becarried out.
  32. 32. 2 We know that is not easy to sustain radical improvement in an industry asdiverse as maintenance and services. But, we must do so to secure our future. Wehave to commit to driving forward the modernization of the maintenancemanagement and services industry.1.2 Background of Study Project construction life cycles are divided to few stages: 1. Conceptual and feasibility stage, 2. Engineering and design, 3. Procurement, 4. Construction, 5. Implementation, 6. Utilization, But for building life cycles not only until the ulitilization stage but it continues to next stages they are: 7. Maintenance, 8. Demolition. In the industry practice in Malaysia, in the construction stage the contractorare responsible to maintain the building until handling over stage from contractor tothe project owner after finish the defect liability period. Once project handled over,the responsibility will be transferred from contractor to the owner, including theresponsibility of maintaining the property after the defect liability period.Maintenance stage is the longest period among the other construction process untilthe property demolished. In the maintenance period there are included activitiesrenovation, upgrading facilities, refurbishment and repair works. That is whymaintenance is separately from construction phase the group of management team.Our practices in Malaysia not define those process or cycle as one, seem likefragmented and divided to construction stage and separated from maintenance stage.There no cross functional culture of work, no collaborative teamwork amongdevelopment team and maintenance team. In PERKESO the maintenance team not
  33. 33. 3involved in the engineering and design stage, the maintenance team is not involvedin feasibility study stage either in development project or in acquires project/facility.This type of management by sequent rigid movement some author called “separateover the wall syndrome”. After the construction stage is completed, and the “DefectLiability Period” has expired then the responsibility to maintain given to themaintenance team. There is having positive and negative impacts from thefragmented management cultural. The positive side with these separationmanagement culture make the team more focus to their job and responsible. Thenegative sides create the flow of work become rigid and every team not shares asame goal. The concept of the cross functional team by four principles: i. Consideration of downstream requirement during the design development. ii. The use of the cross functional teamwork. iii. Consideration of the customer requirements in the product development. iv. Use of lead time as source of competitive advantage. Regarding to Reginald Lee (1986), to put the maintenance problem asmentioned above, it is important to view maintenance in the context of the overallbuilding process. The role played by maintenance in the construction process can bestarted from design stage. The involvement of maintenance department in this stageis as an adviser for the designer to figure out the maintenance problem in the future. Some of the advantages of the involvement of maintenance department inearly stage are it would able to check the practicability of the design details, thesuitability of patent joint, anticipate leaks, staining, expansion joints, and many otherthings that can prevent further defects in the future caused by miss-design(Armstrong R. W., 1984).
  34. 34. 4 British standard (BS 3811: 1984) classified maintenance as three parts asfollow, i. Planned maintenance; described as organized maintenance and carried out with forethought, control, and the use of records to predetermined plan. ii. Preventive maintenance, it is carried out at predetermined or to other prescribed criteria and intended to reduce the likelihood of an item not meeting an acceptable condition. iii. Running maintenance, which can be carried out whilst an item is in service. These research which focus on the maintenance management and services. Maintenance Management and Services is a combination of several actions in which to retain or restore an item to perform its required action. PERTUBUHAN KESELAMATAN SOSIAL (PERKESO) as one of the semi government sector in Malaysia that has many assets, needs maintenance to prevent the assets from deterioration. Maintenance in PERKESO was monitor and control by Property Unit and Local PERKESO Office. There are two maintenance system presently implemented at PERKESO: i. Preventive maintenance. ii. Corrective maintenance. The maintenance and services in PERKESO are divided to two building type: i. Stand alone building ii. Shop lot building. Maintenance and services for “stand alone” PERKESO building is total preventive maintenance package. The total preventive maintenance scope included of: i. Specification for Mechanical and Electrical. ii. Specification of Civil and Structure. iii. Specification of cleaning. iv. Specification of pest control. v. Specification of security services.
  35. 35. 5Maintenance and services for the “shop lot” PERKESO building scopemaintenance and services only cover the scope cleaning work, M&E preventivemaintenance and Pest Control. In the PERKESO property management for PERKESO building are dividedto (2) two main department or unit responsibility: i. Rental buildings manage by the Administration PERKESO Department. ii. PERKESO own buildings were managed by PERKESO Property Unit.This project research are focused on PERKESO own buildings in Peninsular ofMalaysia which not included those PERKESO rented buildings. To obtain thedata the following knowledge acquisition methods were used by: i. Interview, ii. Questionnaire iii. Archives. Interviews done into (2) two times in separate section/stage in this research: i. Pre-interview : Before finally produce the questionnaire. ii. Interview : During stage analyze data gained from questionnaire The important of the pre-interview are development process get to produce agood questionnaire, and the target is to get valuable data shall be analyzed.The interview which are arrange after the analyze data process is to study andsection finding the root of the problem by using the transition law from macro tomicro. After recognize the root of the problem then define the corrective action tobe taken. Continuingly the corrective actions propose also other meant is to setup the proposal of the maintenance management and services system. Correctiveactions were categories into two namely: i. Short – term corrective actions; and ii. Permanent corrective actions.The short – term corrective actions do not remove or improve the factors ofmaintenance management and services problem but is aimed at correcting theproblem i.e. to recover or improve maintenance management and servicessystem. Permanent corrective actions aim is to correct or improve the
  36. 36. 6maintenance management and services system critical factors and this type ofcorrective action is more economical and effective compared to the earlier type.. Corrections are the action taken to improve the situation by first identifying theroot – causes (factors), specifically factors of maintenance management andservices system. The correction should also include improving the process itselfand corrective actions taken to improve performance can be permanentlyembedded in the process. The maintenance cost implemented in PERKESO by the yearly systembudgeting. Those budget will estimated by every branch PERKESO office andevery department office. The budget maintenance management and services wereincluded: i. Budget for repair works “corrective maintenance”. ii. Budget for renovation works. iii. Budget upgrading/refurbishment. iv. Budget of “preventive maintenance”.For unforeseen budget, emergency budget will propose by Property Unit for allPERKESO building which indicates as contingency budget. The entire yearlybudgets to be spend with the open tender. In PERKESO practice and wellimplemented to appoint any contractor or any consultant for any job/work by theopen tender system. Open completion tender culture is implemented inPERKESO. These cultural of open tendering system create the low profitable tothe industry. The reflected in following: i. Unreliable rates of profitability which are usually too low to sustain healthy development. ii. Little investment in research and development which are damaging the industry’s ability to keep abreast with innovation in processes and technology, iii. Declining levels of trained personnel, skills shortages and ill- defined career structure to develop supervisory and management grades, iv. The continued practice, by clients, of selecting designers and contractors almost exclusively on the basis of tendered priced.
  37. 37. 7 All the scopes of work and specification for maintenances management and services in PERKESO were prepared by Property Unit. The scope and specification must to be check and verify by a committee. For confirmation and validity the scope of work and the specification suitable for any maintenance tender will be by committee’s specification of tender. The committee responsible to checks and go through all the scope of works and specification document, if the entire member agree to all the content of the document then the document can to be bind and it’s valid as the tender document. These committees were appointed by Chief Executive Officer PERKESO. Usually which department or unit are given responsible to produce the scope of work and specification will be also appoint as one of the committee member in the specification tender committee. Specificati Yes on Open Tender Complaint/data Approval Valuation Tender Document No Not approved, record and Manager acknowledge Prepare Tender to the whom Appoint Document l Contractor Yes No Progress Of Approval work / motoring Estimation “Lembaga” & controlling budget No Yes Defect recovered No Yes Yes Valuation the budget Payment for Pengarah Finish /completed contractor Negeri & workFigure 1.1 Procedure of tender flow process (produce from gain information by interview with Manager Property Unit PERKESO)
  38. 38. 8 When the contractor or the consultant appoint, the progress of work will be monitor and control to which department or state office involve to the project. The progress of work will be monitor and control by the Manager Office PERKESO. Usually the Manager of the State office is non technical personnel. Role of Property Unit in maintenance management and services in PERKESO: i. Property unit responsible to produces the scope of work and specification document tender for maintenance and services for all PERKESO buildings. ii. Property Unit totally fully control and monitoring the Maintenance Management and Services for stand alone buildings. iii. PERKESO Branch / PERKESO State fully control and monitoring the Maintenance Management and Services for branch/ state PERKESO building. iv. By appointed by Chief Executive Officer as committee for: a. Specification of tender b. Open tender c. Valuation of tender. v. Recommendation payment of contractor for all maintenance and services claims. Organizing is the process by which managers establish the structure ofworking relationship among employees to allow them to achieve organizational goalsefficiently and effectively. Organizational structure is the formal system of task andreporting relationship that determines how employees use resource to achieveorganizational goals. Organizational design is the process by which managers makespecific organizing choice that result in the construction of a particular organizationalstructure.The differential of group and team in an organization. i. Group: two or more people who interact with each other to accomplish a goal. ii. Team: group who work intensively with each other to achieve a specific common goal.
  39. 39. 9All teams are groups, BUT, not all groups are teams. Teams often are difficult toform. Takes time for members to work together. Teams can improve organizationalperformance. Property unit is a small unit if to compare to the burden of work andresponsibility given by PERKESO. To fulfill all the requirement and demand needs,Property Unit with (11) eleven number of people with different specialization ordiscipline background were organize and structure divide to two main groups: i. Maintenance team. Main responsibilities and role to manage maintenance management andservices of PERKESO buildings in Malaysia. There are (33) thirty three numbers ofPERKESO buildings in Peninsular of Malaysia, Sabah and Sarawak. Themaintenance team will cooperate and work together with Branch PERKESO officeclosely to realize the objective of maintenance of PERKESO building can beachieved. ii. Development team. Main responsibilities and role to manage and control development PERKESOproject in Malaysia, currently there are 8 projects is in construction stage out of from10 total numbers planned. The other balance 2 numbers of the construction projectare in feasibility stage. The development team are responsible from process from feasibility stage,engineering and design stage, procurement stage, construction stage, implementationstage, utilization stage meant it a continue from the inception of the project untilhandling over of the building to user. Included the project closes activities is monitorand control by development team. After the D.L.P “defect liability period” finishedthe building will be handing over to the maintenance team. During the D.L.P “Defect Liability Period” the maintenance is taken underresponsibility of the contractor, unless for the defect that caused by vandalism ormiss-used by the user. It is critical to identify the defective works under constructiondone by contractor or the malfunction, faults, or broken items done by user.
  40. 40. 10 In these processes and responsibilities briefly mentioned above, Property Unitis involved and deal with big quantities of reports and records. The keeping record isa very important in PERKESO, and the system to keeping those records must be anefficient and easy to access.1.3 Problem Statement Derek Miles et al (1986) described three main problems in maintenance;inadequate financial, bad management, and poor building design. Financial is the main measurement for the action will take for maintenanceactivities and for some householders’ maintenance budget is the easiest part to cut ifthey faced financial problem. The second problem is bad management, which could be interpreted asidleness and waste among the maintenance personnel. The maintenance manager andthe staff’s dexterity and responsive to the maintenance problem is one of the tool ofeffective maintenance management. The building design also part of the problem in maintenance. It is importantto give more attention to decide which materials and elements will be use, andunfortunately it is uncommon at the design state both designer and owner takemaintenance as one of the design consideration. Poor building design also includethe poor quality materials used. • The PERKESO buildings have different capacity and facility. The differences will trigger a different approach in maintenance management. • It is important to identify whether the present maintenance management and services system is suitable for the all buildings.
  41. 41. 11 Regarding to PERKESO’s maintenance management & services, it isimportant to identify whether the present maintenance management & servicesimplemented still appropriate with all buildings. The development of buildings inPERKESO since 1998 has dramatically changes the capacity and facilities provided.Obviously, the Menara PERKESO 21 floor building with the bigger capacity upabout to 30 to 40 staff per floor and new facilities such as lift that is totally differentwith the previous buildings. The differences in capacity and facility would triggereda different maintenance treatment requires the study to identify whether the presentmaintenance system is can be implemented to the all buildings. The fact that some ofthe new multi storey buildings are still under Defect Liability Period (D.L.P) willmake this study appropriate and important to be conducted.1.4 Aim and Objective Aim of this study is to improve the maintenance management and servicessystem for PERKESO building. To achieve the above aim, the following objectiveshave been identified: 1. To study the maintenance management & services system presently implemented at PERKESO buildings. 2. To identify the defect normally occur in PERKESO Building. 3. To find out the satisfactory factors of tenants/students at PERKESO Buildings. 4. To improve the maintenance management & services system for buildings at PERKESO.1.5 Scope of Study The scope of this study is focus on the buildings in PERKESO at PeninsularMalaysia. The study covers only the PERKESO own buildings.
  42. 42. 12 Table 1.1 List of PERKESO buildings in the scope of research . AreaBil. Building Name Location Building type i ) Lot ii ) Floor net ( KPS )1 Menara 281 Jln.Ampang, Stand alone i) 38,000.00 PERKESO, 50538 Kuala Lumpur. 20 storey ii ) 224,000.002 Pejabat PERKESO Lot PT 3969, Mukim 1 Stand alone i) 56,713.00 Seberang jaya Seberang Perai Tengah 7 storey ii ) 59,863.00 Pulau Pinang.3 Pejabat PERKESO No.8, Lebuh Bunga Shop lot i) 1,119.00 Langkawi Raya 5, Langkawi Mall 2 storeys. ii ) 2,238.00 07000 Kuah, Langkawi. ( 1intermidiate lot )4 Pejabat PERKESO Lot 30, Komplek Kedai Shop lot i) 1,200.00 Kangar 3 Tingkat Fasa III, Jalan 3 storey ii ) 3,420.00 Hospital, Kangar. ( 1intermidiate lot )5 Pejabat PERKESO Lot 37, Betaria Business Shop lot i) 2,243.00 Seremban Centre, Seremban. 4 storey. ii ) 7,786.00 Negeri Sembilan. ( 1 intermediate lot )6 Pejabat PERKESO Lot PTD 25084 & 25085 Shop lot i) 1,540.00 Batu Pahat Tmn.Setia Jaya, Jln.T.S. 3 storey. ii ) 7,720.00 Hoe, Batu Pahat, Johor. ( 2 intermediate lot )7 Pejabat PERKESO Plot 4 & 5 di atas lot 926, Shop lot i) 2,800.00 Kulim Mukim Keladi, 3 storey. ii ) 6,628.00 Kulim, Kedah. ( 2 intermediate lot )8 Pejabat PERKESO No.2, Jalan Tiara 2, Shop lot i) 4,125.00 Klang Bandar Baru Klang, 5 storey. ii ) 17,175.00 Selangor. (Conner lot)9 Pejabat PERKESO No.30 & 31, Lengkok Shop lot i) 2,800.00 Sungai Petani Cempaka, Amanjaya, 3 storey. ii ) 7,130.00 Sg.Petani, Kedah. ( 2 intermediate lot )10 Pejabat PERKESO PTB 10956 & 10957, Shop lot i) 3,080.00 Muar Tmn.Tun Dr.Ismail ( 1 ) 3 storey. ii ) 7,784.00 Bandar Maharani, Muar. ( 2 intermediate lot )11 Pejabat PERKESO Lot 8927, No.28 Jln.Duku, Shop lot i) 4,373.00 Kluang Kampung Haji Manan, 3 storey. ii ) 8,559.00 Kluang, Johor. (Conner Lot )12 Pejabat PERKESO No.29, Jalan Setia Shop lot i) 2,100.00 Rawang Rawang 1, 48000 Rawang, 3 storey ii ) 5,785.00 Selangor. (Conner lot )13 Pejabat PERKESO No.13, Jalan Emas, Shop lot i) 1,540.00 Segamat Taman Bukit Hampar, 4 storey. ii ) 4,786.00 85000 Segamat, Johor. (intermediate lot)14 Pejabat PERKESO Lot No.9587N, Stand alone i) 26,237.00 Ipoh Jalan Hospital, Ipoh, 5 storey ii ) 2,941.55 Perak Darul Ridzwan.15 Pejabat PERKESO Lot PT No. 1233 & 1234, Shop lot i) 3,338.00 Taiping Bandar Taiping 3 storey ii ) 7,183.00 Daerah Larut Matang (2 Lot) Perak Darul Ridzwan (Conner lot)16 Pejabat PERKESO No. 8, 9 & 10 Shop lot i) 3,600.00 Teluk Intan Medan Sri Intan 3 storey. ii ) 8,806.00 Jalan Sekolah (3 lot) Teluk Intan, Perak (intermediate lot)
  43. 43. 131.6 Research Methodology To carry out the study, several research methodologies were used, whichincludes literature review, knowledge acquisition, and data analysis techniques.Figure 1.1 showed the activity flow used to achieve the objectives that have been set. Literature review Brainstorming discussion Topic Identification Archives Data Preliminary Interview Brainstorming for fine- Questionnaire and Question tuning Interview List Design Questionnaire launching Reply from respondent Follow up Storing data,Analyze and consolidate analyzing, and results summarizing results Propose Maintenance Management Figure 1.2 Research methodology flow chart
  44. 44. CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW: MAINTENANCE MANAGEMENT & SERVISES2.1 Introduction As a part of construction process, maintenance has an important role toensure the long live of the constructed building. The building maintenance can bedefined as the regular inspection of all parts of the building and the execution ofwork necessary to keep the structure, finishes and fitting in a proper and acceptablestate of repair, including decoration both internally and externally (Cripps, 1984). Any constructed facility can be considered as an asset or investment thatneeds to be maintained to ensure its long life cycle. Owner is always expected itsasset to be long life to ensure their capital investment returned and profitable. There are many literatures that discussed on maintenance. Most of them(British Standard 3811; Robert Milne, 1985; Cripps, 1984; Noble, 1984) have thesame concept about maintenance, which defined as an action that prevent or restore acondition to its original condition.
  45. 45. 152.2 Definition British Standard 8210 defined maintenance as the combination of alltechnical and administrative action intended to retain an item in, or restore it to, astate in which it can perform its required function. The previous version of British Standard (BS 3811: 1964), definedmaintenance as a combination of any actions carried out to retain an item, or restoreit to, an acceptable condition. According to Wordsworth (2001) the action is referredto the initiation, organization, and implementation of series of works. There are twoprocesses of works that envisage, retaining and restoring. Retaining is more to thework carried out in anticipating of failure, and restoring is the work carried out afterthe failure. Wordsworth further explanation is about maintenance acceptable standardconcept that is referred to the acceptability of the person who is paying the work tothe person receiving benefit or to some outside body with the responsibility forenforcing minimum standards. It is clear that there is no absolute standard for maintenance (Noble, 1984;Lee, 1987). The standard is depending on the request of each person or organizationas the client of the works. It could be higher or lower than the initial design standard,depend of the client inquires.2.3 Maintenance Classification The maintenance can be classified into several types. The most commonclassification consists of two main parts, which are preventive and correctivemaintenance.
  46. 46. 16 British standard 3811: 1964 classified maintenance into three parts, plannedmaintenance, preventive maintenance, and running maintenance. The differencebetween these types of maintenance can be described as follow. a. Planned maintenance, it is defined as maintenance that organized and carried out with forethought, control and the use of records to predetermined plan. b. Preventive maintenance, it is carried out at predetermined or to other prescribed criteria and intended to reduce the likelihood of an item not meeting an acceptable condition. c. Running maintenance, which can be carried out whilst an item is in service. Another maintenance classification was done by Milne (1985) that classifiedmaintenance into two categories, planned maintenance and preventive maintenance.Planned maintenance is a method whereby all of the work which can be foreseen inthe coming year or longer if necessary, is detailed, costed and mapped out on a chart,listed in diary form or entered on a computer program in such a way that themaintenance manager can see at a glance just what task are due to be carried out anytime of the year. Planned preventive maintenance, in the other hand, is an attempt toeliminate as far as possible the need of day-to-day maintenance and reduce thenumber of separately funded maintenance works by instituting a system of inspectionat regular predetermined intervals and carrying out any minor repairs before theyhave time to develop into tasks of some magnitude. According to Wood (2003) the background of the planned preventivemanagement is large scale programs of repair, maintenance and improvement oflarge stocks of buildings, particularly in the public sector. The fundamental reasonof preventive maintenance was related to thinking and operating on grand scale andwas logical extension of the kind of thinking that had dealt with sum clearance, therebuilding of large areas flattened by bombing and the blitz, and the planning andconstruction of complete new towns.
  47. 47. 17 Planned preventive maintenance will more worthwhile if it is meet somecriteria (Lee R, 1987), such as: a. it is cost effective b. it is wanted to meet statutory or other legal requirements c. it is meet a client need from operating point of view d. it will reduce the incidence of running maintenance necessitating requisitions for work from the user e. there is a predominant incidence of work for the craftsman rather than pure inspection Another maintenance classification was made by Noble (1984) thatclassified maintenance as five different types: a. Routine or cyclic maintenance, it is task carried out at more or less regular intervals without prior inspection, such as cutting grass, lamp changing, cleaning of drains and gutters. b. Planned maintenance; can be determined as selected services, plant and equipment. It is a regular inspection and servicing (lubrication and adjustment) with repairs and replacements made or programmed only when found to be necessary. c. Planned inspection, for selected elements of structure, fabric and finishes. It is a regular inspection but with maintenance work carried out or only when found to be necessary. d. Breakdown or emergency maintenance, an action taken to remedy failure. e. Minimum maintenance, often applied to premises awaiting disposal. No action except to meet mandatory requirements, e.g. for health or safety, to conform to the terms of a lease, or to keep the property wind and waterproof. All types of maintenance explained above are depending and restricting bysituation and factors. One of the factors is cost. Cost constrain together with the ratesat which building materials and elements deteriorate in use, make maintenance moredifficult. The cost of preventive action will increase if the work differed and if it isdelayed to the point of failure the cost will be many times greater than if the job had
  48. 48. 18been done at the right time. Another factor is time; the correct timing of maintenancework is therefore very important (Noble, 1984). Cripps (1984) classified building maintenance in the five main heading: Main fabric, determined as regular maintenance of the structure of building, including walls, floors, roofs, windows, doors, sanitary fittings and plumbing, drains, fire escapes, yard, roads and cleaning, and restoration of elevation. Internal finishes, including of redecoration of walls and ceilings, replacement of floor surfaces, and repairs to special finishes. Specific features, especially for public services, defined as all repairs to entrance doors and shop windows, including replacement of door springs, replacement of glass of the maintenance of electrical signs. Cleaning, defined as regular cleaning of parts of the building by maintenance staffs or outside contractors. Engineering services, this type of maintenance relate to mechanical and electrical equipment in the building. There are five headings that should be considered. 1. Electrical and gas services, periodic inspection of surface installation and major detailed surveys by professional consultants and subsequent execution of repairs found necessary. 2. Heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning, periodic inspection of installations, cleaning, lubricating and repairs including safety testing. 3. Lift, escalator, and mechanical equipment, periodic inspection as detailed under (2). 4. Fire precaution, periodic inspection and repair of sprinkler systems, fire detection system, fire extinguishers and blankets, hose-reels and hydrant. 5. Special equipment, periodic inspection of refrigeration installation, kitchen equipment, etc.
  49. 49. 192.4 Maintenance Standard As mentioned before, there is no absolute maintenance standard since theneed of building maintenance is typical for each building. But the generalmaintenance standard is needed as guide for the owner or tenants to maintain theirbuilding. Wordsworth (2001) mentioned the standard should be as a function ratherthan an object. Further he described maintenance standard as a balance between needand resource with the provider or controller of the resource usually having thegreatest influence over what this balance may be. The main idea about maintenance standard is basically the request ormaintenance work order from the owner to contractor, which area or defect thatshould be repair or replace, and this order should be clear as a standard for thecontractor to perform the job. The work order should include the sufficient detail inorder to enable the workman to take with him the correct quantity and type ofmaterial when making the maintenance work (Milne, 1985). In fact some of 40% of the maintenance standard was directed in site (Milne,1985). The engineer or the maintenance department has to visit the site and checkand determine the condition of building that should be maintained. The otheradvantage of site visit is it gives more attention and gives direct instruction to theiremployee or hired contractor to repair. Lee (1987) as mentioned in Building Maintenance Management described themaintenance standard as two part, lower level and upper level. Lower level is theneed of maintenance due to increasing probability of failure involving not onlyenhanced repairs costs but also consequential losses where the normal user of thebuilding is interfered with. For upper level of maintenance is set by the cost ofachieving it. Based on the building individual element, Reginald Lee (1987) divide themaintenance standard as three conditions, physical condition of the elements, times,
  50. 50. 20and financial criteria. Physical condition has two related terms, the condition ofelement that related to the magnitude of defect that calls for remedial action, and thesecond term is the performance or the environmental systems. This system is knownas condition controlled maintenance. This system suggests that there is a regularinspection to measure the condition or the performance of elements whether it isdeteriorated below that laid down. The second condition is times, which repairs or replacements are to be made.This method more to the frequent inspection and it need certain knowledge of therate of decoration. The balance between frequency inspections, risk, andconsequences of failure is the important part that should be achieved. The lastcondition is financial criteria; this criterion can be taken from the variable sum basedon the costs of some primary activity or replacement value, or taken from fixed sumbased on historic costs or an analysis of anticipated benefits.2.5 Maintenance Objective As well as the definition of maintenance, the primary aim of maintenance isto preserve the value of the asset so as to ensure a long term trouble free investmentcapable of providing a continuous and satisfactory return by minimum expenditure(David Arditi et al, 1999). Furthermore the specific objective of maintenance basedon Arditi can be described as follow:- Perform daily housekeeping and cleaning to maintain a properly presentable facility. Promptly respond and repair minor discrepancies in the facility. Develop and execute a system of regularly scheduled maintenance actions to prevent premature failure of the facility and its systems and components. Complete major repairs based on lowest life-cycle cost. Identify design and complete improvement projects to reduce and minimize total operating and maintenance costs.
  51. 51. 21 Operate the facility utilities in the most economical manner while providing necessary reliability. Provide for easy and complete reporting and identification of necessary repair and maintenance work. Perform accurate cost estimating to ensure lowest cost solutions to maintenance problems. Maintain a proper level of material and spare parts to support timely repairs. Accurately track the costs of all maintenance work. Schedule all planned work in advance, and allocate and anticipate staff requirements to meet planned and unplanned events. Monitor the progress of all maintenance work. Maintain complete historical data concerning the facility in general and equipment and components in particular. Continually seek workable engineering solutions to maintenance problems.2.6 Life Cycle Cost Building life cycle costs is the total costs of owning the building over itspredicted life span including initial capital cost, occupation costs, operating costs,and the cost incurred or benefit derived from the disposal of the asset at the end of itslife (Wordsworth, 2001; Chew M. Y. L et al, 2004). Basically, building life cycle is a technique to ascertain a suitable balancebetween capital cost on initial provision and costs incurred as a consequence of use.The basic concept of Life Cycle Cost, LCC is that decision on the design andacquisition of durable assets should take into account the long term financialconsequences and should not based solely on initial costs. LCC can be used toevaluate the economic value of the construction process at every stage as describedby Wordsworth (2001) as follow.
  52. 52. 22 a. LCC at Inception Stage At the inception stage, LCC is use to determine the most economic way of meeting a need for additional building space. The option to be compared may include: Rearrangement of the internal spaces within an existing building Building an extension Gradual redevelopment of the existing site Development of new site Purchase or lease of another building b. LCC at Design Stage The use of LCC at design stage is to assist the client and designer as well in developing the most economic plan shape, structural form, and internal layout. One thing that should keep on mind is the earlier the LCC applied, the greater the possibilities on savings and the lower the committed costs. At the detail design stage, LCC is used to help the designer identify the design features, components and finishing that have the lowest cost. This stage would culminate in the preparation of LCC plan which should be incorporated in the maintenance manual for guidance of the guidance of the property manager. c. LCC at Occupation of the Building During the occupation of building LCC can be used to assists in formulating planned maintenance and renewal policies. It also provides a means of identifying high cost areas and evaluating changes that will reduce these costs. Regarding to the Brandon P. S. (1987) there are five factors that should betaken into account when using LCC as evaluation technique. These factors will effectto the calculation of life cycle cost of the building. The five factors are componentperformance that depends on detail design, workmanship, building use, client attitudeto maintenance, exposure, weather climate and so on that effect to the buildingcondition. The second factor is the building life, which depends on the assumption onthe economic life span of the building. The next factors are inflation, technological
  53. 53. 23change and fashion, and taxation. The last three factors exclude taxation isunpredictable factors that have high uncertainty.2.7 Maintenance Cost Maintenance cost is one the important thing that should be considered if theproperty’s high rate of return is expected. For illustration, one housing developerbuilds some houses for rental purposes. For business purposes, a developer alwaysthinking how to build a house with lowest initial cost and have high quality income.This idea often takes the developer to pressure the initial cost to the lowest level andsometimes affected the quality of the building. The low quality of building has lowrental price and also will affected the revenue they have. In term of maintenance,developer will take the budget from rental value. As consequence, for the low qualitybuilding would have maintenance cost slightly higher rather than the high qualitybuilding. Some developer have to spent as much as 50% of their rental revenue tocover maintenance cost (Derek Miles et al, 1987), they are caught in vicious circle,because they are running low cost housing estates rents has to kept low, and it causedpoor maintenance. Basically, the value of the property can be determined from the first phase ofconstruction. When the owner has intention to build a new building he/she has toclearly state the purpose of the building. At the feasibility and design stage, thedesigner should know what are the purpose of the building, the owner needs and allother information that related to construction of the building. From this stage, adesigner should anticipate the effect of his/her design for the maintenance cost.Derek Miles et al (1987) stated from the feasibility and design amount that only 8 %of total project cost, the decision made during this stage commits nearly 95 % of thecost of building’s total life. From this fact, it is clear that the maintenance cost can bepredicted from the early stage of construction. The agreement and understandingbetween client and designer from early stage of construction influence the initial andrunning cost of the building.
  54. 54. 24 Another factor that influence the maintenance cost is the uncertainty of casualfactors such as intensity of use and changing maintenance requirements (Miles, et al1987). In this way, the maintenance cost need to be optimized not only at the designphase, but also during the management of the building in use. From the statement above, it is can be conclude the factors that affected themaintenance expenditure, there are: Material, to keep the lower initial cost of building, client ask the contractor to find cheaper prize of materials, that usually (not always) have lower quality and life time period rather that expensive materials. The lower quality materials need more maintenance to keep their quality form deterioration. Strategic design, poorly designed and constructed buildings may cost as much as more than a well designed and properly constructed building, depend on management and productivity at construction site. The important things in reducing future maintenance cost is that is strategic design of the building, that is shape, orientation, ratio of wall or floor, and so on rather than high initial cost. The uncertainty of casual factors, such as intensity of use and changing maintenance requirements.2.7.1 Costing system Maintenance costing can be classified into three categories, committed cost,variable cost, and managed cost (Miles et al, 1987). Committed cost cover the cost that cannot normally be altered duringparticular accounting period as fixed contract exists with supplier, for examplecovering the lease of office equipment. Variable cost is the cost that closely related to the activity of the organizationand their size is fairly close related to the output of the unit. Variable cost is based on
  55. 55. 25the labor productivity and the materials used. For example, for slab concretingactivity the cost is based on the area concreted and the materials used. It is possibleto measure the work content accurately and establish the cost based on the workdone. Managed cost is uncommitted and not directly related to the volume ofactivity, but specifically authorized at the discretion of the management. From these categories, committed cost is easier to identify and handle, sinceall the price and condition are mention at the contract. Any addition work in the fieldcan be considered as variation work. For this reason, some of building owner ormaintenance manager prefers to hire a contractor rather than hired their ownemployees to perform maintenance work (Miles et al, 1987). Based on variable cost system, a manager will measure the work performancebased on budgeted cost. If cost was under the budget it can be said that theperformance was perfect and thrifty, but if it was more than budget it can be said thatsomething going wrong. It is not easy to justified work performance solely based on budget. There aresome possibilities to explain why some works is under or above the budget. Forexample if the work done was under the budget, it might be the manager can performperfect job with low cost, or another possibility the work is under quality, or thebudget is over estimate.2.7.2 Setting up a costing system One of the objectives of costing system is to allow the manager to makedecision leading to effective cost control and then to study of the possibilities for costreduction. Derek Miles (1987) described the steps to set up costing system as follow,
  56. 56. 26 1. Collect all of the necessary data that related to running cost for building maintenance. To achieve this, all expenditure throughout the year must be collected into suitable expense centers according to the location and type. 2. Compared the collected costs data with the original estimates. It is important to look closely at those items where estimated costs have been exceeded, and to investigate the reason for excess. 3. Examine the possibilities for achieving cost savings by changes policy, techniques or replace of items that giving rise unacceptable maintenance or repair costs.2.7.3 Maintenance budget To maintain the effective cost control it is important to set out themaintenance budget as a cost standard. To make it effective, budget has to use asworking document throughout the year and managers are more likely to work hardlyto achieve budgets that have been set up. Budget is the vital link in the chain of control which involves three aspects(Miles, 1987), there are communication of information about plans and intentions,motivating people to achieve planned targets, and the last aspect is performancereporting. Basically, the important function of budgeting is to provide a factual basisfor cost control. Graham (1978) defined some factors that should be take in accountto set up the budget, there are; Changes in numbers/types of units comprising the estates The number of jobs is directly proportional to be increase or reduction in the number of units to be maintained, although the types of properties and services must be taken into account. Maintenance service standard Maintenance serviced standard should be agreed for each financial year. This standard should specify the service requirements and the average
  57. 57. 27job completion times in each trade and maximum acceptable jobcompletion periods. Changes to this standard may affect the likelynumber of jobs to be completed each week or certain period.Variation in the incoming number of jobsThe variations occur during the financial period, whether it wasrequested by tenants or the owner or by emergency situation should be aware and must be taking into account. In practice these fluctuation whenlow can be offset by feeding to the work force program routinemaintenance and preventive maintenance tasks. Peaks in the workloadwhich cannot be programmed economically for the labor force can coverby using contractors. Annual estimates should include a provision forthis.Work arising from pre-painting surveysTechnical staff should undertake a survey of properties in the year priorto that when external painting is programmed. The survey should beconcerned mainly with the fabric of the building and with identifying allmaintenance and repairs required to bring property up to acceptablestandard before painting is carried out. This work must be completedbefore the end of the current financial year and before commencement ofthe current external painting program.Work contentAn effective work study based incentive bonus scheme will require themeasurements of the work content of all jobs completed each year. Therecorded data will show the average work content per job for each tradein terms of Productive Standard Hours (PSH) per job. Using the records,together with a careful examination of anticipated trends, a accuratework content figure can be forecast for repairs and routine programwork.

×