Increasing impact of journal articles (web version)
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  • Focus of this session will be on published literature – with journals primarily as we are looking at impact factors and they form the primary means of communication in many disciplines.Tracing citations e.g. for a literature review – related material or the impact of an article compared to others in that journal. The holy grail of performance measurement? Explosion of metrics in last 5 years.b) Understanding bibliometrics to inform choice of where to publish – changes in scholarly communicationc) Briefly - helping search engines find your article – potentially adds to number of downloads/readers/citers.NOT focus on writing articles themselves.Caveat: Not endorsing any particular system, just helping you understand the tools and terminology available. Not the aim of this session that by the end you will know where to publish… only that you will have a better understanding of the tools and measures available and hopefully be better prepared to make an informed decision.
  • Quick survey as to how many attendees have heard of any of these.WoK/WoS: Web of Knowledge / Web of Science.“Web of Knowledge is the umbrella platform providing access resources including Web of Science, BIOSIS Citation index, Medline and Journal Citation Reports. Web of Science contains over 100 years of research covering primarily sciences but also social sciences and arts & humanities. with functionality including citation searching, the ability to create citation reports etc.JIF: Journal Impact Factor – will be exploring in more detail later in the sessionJCR: Journal Citation Reports – provide annual metrics on journals, most recent publication being the 2011 edition which covers more than 10,675 journals from over 2,550 publishers in approximately 232 disciplines from 82 countries. The Sciences Edition covers over 8,000 journals; the Social Sciences Edition covers over 2,650.Eigenfactor – Where the Journal Impact Factor provides a measure of the number of citations a journal might generate over a period of time, the Eigenfactor also looks to add a measure of thequality of those citations.“The Eigenfactor Score calculation is based on the number of times articles from the journal published in the past five years have been cited in the JCR year, but it also considers which journals have contributed these citations so that highly cited journals will influence the network more than lesser cited journals.  References from one article in a journal to another article from the same journal are removed, so that Eigenfactor Scores are not influenced by journal self-citation.”SciVerse Scopus – rival to WoK/WoS, provided by Elsevier. Currently not available at Durham.SCImagoJR – similar to Eigenfactor, but from data provided by Elsevier (Thomson Reuters provide data for WoK/WoS), in that it gives different citations a different weighting depending on which journal they originate from.PoP Software – Publish or Perish – free to download tool fro researchers to measure citation performance. Uses citation data from Google Scholar.SNIP – Elsevier/Scopus metric. Adds weighting based on prevalence of citations in subject area: The impact of a single citation is given higher value in subject areas where citations are less likely, and vice versa.Juliet – database providing an overview of funders open access and data management policies for researchers in receipt of funding.H-index – hirsch index, a author-metric. A tool for measuring the impact of an individual authors research as opposed at the article or journal level.
  • So, looking at citations to an article level, and also citations at an author level.
  • Why is it important to publish? Two reasonsdissemination/communication/collaboration assessment e.g. REF and bibliometrics INFORMING process (not driving) - NB Whilst several Panels are taking into account citation data in their decisions, it has been explicitly stated that no panel will be considering Journal Impact Factors for the REF. - NB What has been confirmed is that future REF submissions will be required to have been made available open access. - NB One focus of the REF is ‘Impact’ in terms of a measurable social or economic benefit resulting from the research, and a clear strategy to maximise this. Obviously dissemination of research is one part of this.How? Different options communicate and purpose of this session is to highlight a few things that may influence your choice but ultimately your peers and supervisors will know best.Do you publish in an established academic journal? - will that reach the intended audience as effectively? (open access journal may be more accessible to none academic audiences who do not have subscription access to traditional journals)What funding or institutional requirements do you have to meet in terms of open access, open data etc.? Even if you publish in a journal, have you also maximised discoverability of your research by depositing in a subject or institutional repository that is open to web search engines? Have you taken advantage of repository deposit or publishing in OA journals which do not hide your research behind pay walls to promote your research through social media tools?The power of networks and research clusters. Using conferences to promote your research.It is now your job to disseminate your research on as many platforms and in as many different ways as possible.General caveat that citation and publication cultures vary across disciplines and at different stages of a career. Depends also on an audience – niche publication, for practitioners or academics.The session focusses on j articles because this is where the weight of data is and because they dominate/are the primary mode of communication in so many disciplines (tho acknowledge not at all).
  • Multidisiplinary research where you may not be sure where to publish initially – don’t simply go by a journal based on its impact factor as can be misleading.Illustration on difference between disciplines. Numbers don’t matter at this stage but it indicates that authors tend to be cited more in some disciplines than others – why? Citation cultures.
  • This graph shows how it can even vary quite a bit in a single subject area – therefore no generalisations can be made or comparisons between subject areas. An article that get 6 citations could be excellent for one discipline but sub-standard for another.
  • Citation cultures:As have seen, number of citations varies dramtically by discipline, and by specific subject of study.Publication cultures: Sciences tend to focus more on journal publishing than traditioanlly the Arts and Humanities might.Different career stages:early career thinking about getting your name known, showing you can get articles published and attract funding. Impact factors are one consideration, but will the time taken to identify and get published in a higher impact journal provide that benefit in relation to the cost in your time?
  • So, looking at citations to an article level, and also citations at an author level.
  • Links – helps you trace academic debate, evaluate what you find, explore the development of ideas and demonstrate how ideas can be built upon, or challenged.The number of citations an article might receive might be a useful indication of the impact an article has had, but not all citations are positive. Could be highly cited as attracted much criticism over methodology or conclusions.e.g. cold fusion (nuclear reaction without high energy) widely criticised; the original article ELECTROCHEMICALLY INDUCED NUCLEAR-FUSION OF DEUTERIUM by FLEISCHMANN and PONS (1989) has 774 citations (as of Oct 2012 – from WoS). I imagine a fair few are critical because the research methods were not detailed enough for replication by other researchers and those that aren’t may be from energy strapped countries which are desperate for it to be true – so really need to examine the context in which a citation is made.Stress that sum of citations useful indication of impact of an author – not the only method but one that increasingly being used. Certainly informing judgements now. Useful as researcher to establish impact/importance of an article and as an author to monitor your impact.
  • Eugene Garfield founded the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI). In 1955 proposed a methodology for the creation of a citation index for science.Citation index not a completely new idea in other contexts, such as the legal field where case citation indexes to track the subsequent treatment of judicial decisions had been in place in the US since 1873, and in the UK from 1947.Key point: The original purpose of creating the tools to record and measure citations… was not to make judgments about performance of authors or journals.
  • One key tool in this area is WoS. Stress WoS and not WoK.Indexes approx 12, 000 journals. Aim to rank journals within categories.Some authors have described this shift in use of citation data to make judgments on performance as a “mortal sin”, but Web of Science has developed tools to help in this respect.But WoS indexes subject areas to varying degrees (2400 in Arts & Humanities compared to c. 8000 in sciences (March 2012))
  • Still only about 2427 Arts & Humanities journals covered in WoS (March 2012 data)Up until 2004, Web of Science was the tool to use. Still primary tool, and will be the focus of today, but there are other tools available.
  • So now 2 corporate players in the citation analysis market. Both bringing out new functions/facilities and trying to tie-in institutions as the platform of choice.Some book series covered and “trade publications”Durham has looked at it in the past but coverage wasn’t as good as WoS then and is more expensive.We are currently reviewing this, and in fact I’ve just submitted a report looking at coverage of both services:Rough details:-Both services cover about 11,000 of the same titles.WoS indexes c. 1400 titles not covered by Scopus.Scopus indexes c.7000 titles not covered by WoK, but there is some indication that these are perhaps smaller, focussed journals and just comparing on Scopus measures of impact, the is a distinct difference between those unique to Scopus and those covered by both services.But there are alternatives:
  • Another tool which is challenging domination of WoSMore comprehensive in some areas: for example, covers open access repositories so can pick up citations from different versions of the same article.There are oddities that do occur:For example, works being cited by works published in previous years.Some issues around author indexes… and distinguishing between authors with the same or very similar names (mention researcher id and ORCID)Citation index updated annually… current date was April 2012, so may not pick up very recent citation data in metric tools.“Take the book Quantum Computation and Quantum Information by M Nielsen and I Chuang (2000 Cambridge University Press), for example. According to Web of Science, this book has been cited more than 2800 times. However, Scopus says it has been cited 3150 times, Google Scholar 4300 times, Physical Review Online Archive 150 times, ScienceDirect 375 times, the Institute of Physics Journal Archive 290 times, and arXiv.org 325 times. If only Web of Science is used, we would miss all of the citations found through Google Book Search and arXiv.org plus hundreds of the citations found through the other databases or tools. “ Meho 2007Meho: We compared results of citation coverage from Web of Science, Scopus and Google Scholar for a sample of 25 highly published researchers in our field of information science and found that Scopus and Google Scholar increase the citation counts of scholars by an average of 35% and 160%, respectively.Increase in data means that multiple citation tools allow us to generate much more accurate maps or visualizations of scholarly communication networks in general, such as establishing links between authors, departments, disciplines, journals or countries that cite or influence each other. More tools mean it is a harder job as different documtns are included eg reports, dissertations, book chapters eprints and with that have to weigh up quality and value ofsource of the citation.
  • Just a quick mention. Useful sometimes as may pick up some citations from journals not indexed on the big three, but not very comprehensive in themselves.Narrow focus – only the journals they publish or cover e.g. JSTOR/ ScienceDirectOften draw information from elsewhere e.g. Google Scholar (for example, JSTOR does this)
  • N B – Some research done in 2007 found that Google Scholar seemed to find 160% greater number of citations across 25 highly regarded researchers in the field of information science.
  • Summary (as per handout)
  • So, looking at citations to an article level, and also citations at an author level.
  • More complex means of measuring citation than just counting numbers:both different ways of looking at consistency – obv penalises newer researchersThat is why citation report for journal in a specific year is good so you can compare like with likeBoth indexes and others calculable using Google Scholar data via ‘Publish or Perish’ software – free to download. Search for any name and select a subset of publications.James notes: (add in new slide with visual representation if needed)Smith , J articles /citations : (a:3, b:6, c:6, d:2, e:13, f:3, g:0, h:1, i:3)H-index = 3 - Not 6 (only 3 articles authored have 6 citations (or more). 6 articles have 3 or more citations, so h-index = 3. If article a, which currently has 3 citations was cited once more (so having 4 citations) would then have an h-index of 4 (as articles a, b, c and e have 4 or more citations)G-index = 5 - 5 because top 5 cited articles have received (13+6+6+3+3 =) 31 citations, which is greater than 5 squared. - Not 6 because top cited 6 articles total only (13+6+6+3+3+3 =) 34. Would need to be at least 36 (6 squared) to give a g-index of 6)
  • CHANCE FOR INTERACTION – ASK SOMEONE TO WORK OUT WHAT THE H-INDEX OF THIS AUTHOR IS.Smith , J articles /citations : (a:3, b:6, c:6, d:2, e:13, f:3, g:0, h:1, i:3)H-index = 3 - Not 6 (only 3 articles authored have 6 citations (or more). 6 articles have 3 or more citations, so h-index = 3. If article a, which currently has 3 citations was cited once more (so having 4 citations) would then have an h-index of 4 (as articles a, b, c and e have 4 or more citations)G-index = 5 - 5 because top 5 cited articles have received (13+6+6+3+3 =) 31 citations, which is greater than 5 squared. - Not 6 because top cited 6 articles total only (13+6+6+3+3+3 =) 34. Would need to be at least 36 (6 squared) to give a g-index of 6)
  • Smith , J articles /citations : (a:3, b:6, c:6, d:2, e:13, f:3, g:0, h:1, i:3)H-index = 3 - Not 6 (only 3 articles authored have 6 citations (or more). 6 articles have 3 or more citations, so h-index = 3. If article a, which currently has 3 citations was cited once more (so having 4 citations) would then have an h-index of 4 (as articles a, b, c and e have 4 or more citations)G-index = 5 - 5 because top 5 cited articles have received (13+6+6+3+3 =) 31 citations, which is greater than 5 squared. - Not 6 because top cited 6 articles total only (13+6+6+3+3+3 =) 34. Would need to be at least 36 (6 squared) to give a g-index of 6)
  • Smith , J articles /citations : (a:3, b:6, c:6, d:2, e:13, f:3, g:0, h:1, i:3)H-index = 3 - Not 6 (only 3 articles authored have 6 citations (or more). 6 articles have 3 or more citations, so h-index = 3. If article a, which currently has 3 citations was cited once more (so having 4 citations) would then have an h-index of 4 (as articles a, b, c and e have 4 or more citations)G-index = 5 - 5 because top 5 cited articles have received (13+6+6+3+3 =) 31 citations, which is greater than 5 squared. - Not 6 because top cited 6 articles total only (13+6+6+3+3+3 =) 34. Would need to be at least 36 (6 squared) to give a g-index of 6)
  • CHANCE FOR INTERACTION – ASK SOMEONE TO WORK OUT WHAT THE G-INDEX OF THIS AUTHOR IS.Smith , J articles /citations : (a:3, b:6, c:6, d:2, e:13, f:3, g:0, h:1, i:3)H-index = 3 - Not 6 (only 3 articles authored have 6 citations (or more). 6 articles have 3 or more citations, so h-index = 3. If article a, which currently has 3 citations was cited once more (so having 4 citations) would then have an h-index of 4 (as articles a, b, c and e have 4 or more citations)G-index = 5 - 5 because top 5 cited articles have received (13+6+6+3+3 =) 31 citations, which is greater than 5 squared. - Not 6 because top cited 6 articles total only (13+6+6+3+3+3 =) 34. Would need to be at least 36 (6 squared) to give a g-index of 6)
  • James notes: (add in new slide with visual representation if needed)Smith , J articles /citations : (a:3, b:6, c:6, d:2, e:13, f:3, g:0, h:1, i:3)H-index = 3 - Not 6 (only 3 articles authored have 6 citations (or more). 6 articles have 3 or more citations, so h-index = 3. If article a, which currently has 3 citations was cited once more (so having 4 citations) would then have an h-index of 4 (as articles a, b, c and e have 4 or more citations)G-index = 5 - 5 because top 5 cited articles have received (13+6+6+3+3 =) 31 citations, which is greater than 5 squared. - Not 6 because top cited 6 articles total only (13+6+6+3+3+3 =) 34. Would need to be at least 36 (6 squared) to give a g-index of 6)
  • James notes: (add in new slide with visual representation if needed)Smith , J articles /citations : (a:3, b:6, c:6, d:2, e:13, f:3, g:0, h:1, i:3)H-index = 3 - Not 6 (only 3 articles authored have 6 citations (or more). 6 articles have 3 or more citations, so h-index = 3. If article a, which currently has 3 citations was cited once more (so having 4 citations) would then have an h-index of 4 (as articles a, b, c and e have 4 or more citations)G-index = 5 - 5 because top 5 cited articles have received (13+6+6+3+3 =) 31 citations, which is greater than 5 squared. - Not 6 because top cited 6 articles total only (13+6+6+3+3+3 =) 34. Would need to be at least 36 (6 squared) to give a g-index of 6)
  • Mention can generate h-index and g-index from Google Scholar data.Publish or Perish is a software program that retrieves and analyzes academic citations. It uses Google Scholar to obtain the raw citations, then analyzes these and presents the following statistics:Total number of papersTotal number of citationsAverage number of citations per paperAverage number of citations per authorAverage number of papers per authorAverage number of citations per yearHirsch's h-index and related parametersEgghe'sg-indexThe contemporary h-indexThe age-weighted citation rateTwo variations of individual h-indicesAn analysis of the number of authors per paper.
  • Just mention briefly…
  • Benefits – small time frame so stops bias towards older journalsBiases those which publish a lot of review articles as they are more likely to widely citedBias towards Eur and North American – remember only journals in this databases and there are few LOTE (languages other than English) in here
  • Explain that denominator and numerator are not based on the same criteria. Citations in 2011 to all articles published by Journal X in 2009 & 2010 (Numerator) is everything cited in a journalNumber of articles that were published in Journal X in 2009 & 2010(Denominator) is all “research” articles (excluding letters, opinion papers, etc)DEMO 2 - JCRGo back to WoS – show from both article and tab how to access Journal Citation reports Show how you find out which subject category a journal is in (at foot of article record). Explain that Theor Cult & Soc not great example because it is categorised as Social Sciences, Interdisciplinary. Would really need to speak to peers to find out its place in relation to your field. For purposes of demo, choose a more clearly subject based journal – eg INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF URBAN AND REGIONAL RESEARCH - Amin’s most highly cited article from this journal. In 3 categories – Show 1) Urban Studies and 2) Planning and Development – 5th in Urban Studies but 10th in Planning and Dvpmt
  • Where the Journal Impact Factor provides a measure of the number of citations a journal might generate over a period of time, the Eigenfactor also looks to add a measure of thequality of those citations.Demonstrates connections between sci and social sci disciplines Data from last 5 years – so bigger windowEliminates self-citations (to journal NOT author)Uses WoS dataValue appears to be in the visualsDEMO Search for INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF URBAN [AND REGIONAL RESEARCH] say can get additional ranking (numbers don’t compare to JIF but different ranking)Then do advanced search and search for blank in all fields except Urban Studies (JCR subject category)INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF URBAN AND REGIONAL RESEARCH is 9th in this rankingThen Select Mapping – Geography – Zoom show top ten list and flow of ciations between disciplines
  • similar to Eigenfactor, but from data provided by Elsevier (Thomson Reuters provide data for WoK/WoS), in that it gives different citations a different weighting depending on which journal they originate from.More journals as uses SCOPUS’s dataDifferent date rangeWeights citations from highly cited journals more favourably so may have fewer citations but score more highly because they are from prestigious journals (thoJIFs have a quality control as only certain journals selected for inclusion in the database). Search for INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF URBAN AND REGIONAL RESEARCH and show how although citations per year are increasing the SJR is decreasing. For an alternative graph see Journal of Economic Geography
  • Additional way of defining impact as defined in the REF – demonstrable benefits to society, economy and public policy.Show JULIET ordered by country2009 study of 26 million articles found 8% increase on citations to OA articles – rose to 25% from countries with less wealthy universities e.g. turkey and brazil.Recent research published last months shows close to 50% of articles in UK open access through one of two routes, primarily the ‘green route’Mention recent funder announcements and REF requirements post 2014
  • Issue of deposit of non-final version and citations therefore not necessarily linked to final version (tho advice is to correctly cite)Also Hybrid journalDEMO DRO browse comp sciComputer game engines for developing first-person virtual environmentsSearch Google ScholarSearch free OAIster for title and then KW for: first-person virtual environments
  • Issue of deposit of non-final version and citations therefore not necessarily linked to final version (tho advice is to correctly cite)DEMO DRO browse comp sciComputer game engines for developing first-person virtual environmentsSearch Google ScholarSearch free OAIster for title and then KW for: first-person virtual environments
  • Wiley – cover variety of subject areas e.g. business, chemistry, humanities, law, maths, psychology and physics. See guidelines.Simple keyword searches can miss a great deal – optimizing your title and abstract for search engines helps potential citers find your article.Public Library of Science (PLoS) supplies authors with download statistics.
  • But remember still writing for researchers not robots ;-)
  • Find our way through the maze….?Beware quantity vs quality issueNeed care to measure like against likeTendency to beat the system!Ton van Raan, Leiden University, Netherlands“You should never use the journal impact factor to evaluate research performance for an article or for an individual – that is a mortal sin.” Nature vol 465 (17 June 2010) pp864-866Citation mapping can give an idea of connected areas of research that you may not be familiar with – moves beyond simple keyword for searching.Peer review is still important - reading the work is still the best evaluation method!
  • Slides are online

Increasing impact of journal articles (web version) Increasing impact of journal articles (web version) Presentation Transcript

  • Increasing the impact of journal articles James Bisset Academic Liaison Librarian (Research Support)
  • Session outline• Importance of getting your research read• Individual citations• Where to publish – High ranking: journal citation reports – Improving your citation count: Open Access and repositories• Optimising “citability”
  • Quick survey…• WoK/WoS • JIF• JCR • Eigenfactor• SciVerse Scopus • SCImagoJR• PoP software • SNIP• JULIET • h – index
  • Importance of getting your research read
  • Getting your research read• Making research visible• Why? – Establishing research profile – Research Evaluation Framework• How? – Reputable publishing routes – New routes – Networks
  • (2008) Taylor and Francis LibSite Newsletter, issue 9. p. 2
  • (2008) Taylor and Francis LibSite Newsletter, issue 9. p. 3
  • Things to consider• Impact does not always = excellence• Citation cultures vary across disciplines• Publication cultures vary too• Research careers have different stages
  • Individual citations
  • Citations to individual papers• Links between papers that have something in common• Tool to make connections• Building on or challenging research• Help make a judgement about impact an article has made• Sum of citations useful indication of impact of an author
  • Web of Science• 1955 Eugene Garfield - the idea of creating a citation index for science to… “eliminate the uncritical citation of fraudulent, incomplete or obsolete data by making it possible for the conscientious scholar to be aware of criticisms of earlier papers.” Garfield, E (1955) ‘Citation Indexes for Science’ Science, New Series, Vol. 122, No. 3159, pp. 108-111
  • Web of Science• 1955 Eugene Garfield - the idea of measuring the “impact” of journal articles using citations• 1960s Science Citation Index developed to highlight “formal, explicit linkages between papers that have particular points in common” – (now part of Thomson Reuters WoS)• 1975 Journal Citation Reports – uses WoS data to rank journals within subject categories
  • Science subjectsSocial-science subjects (2008) Taylor and Francis LibSite Newsletter, issue 9. p. 5
  • SciVerse Scopus• Launched in 2004 by Elsevier• Serious competition to Web of Science• Main emphasis on science initially but broader now• Currently indexes 18,700 ‘active’ journals plus conference proceedings• No access via Durham as we have WoK
  • Google Scholar• Data for broader range of documents e.g. books, reports• Contributes to higher number of citations• More useful for recent documents• Useful for subjects not covered by WoS• Trace developments/versions of same paper
  • Publishers• List of references• Can pull citation data from other providers• Some link to references and cited works• Alerts depend on citation in another journal published by same publisher
  • Things you can do• Count citations• Link to other related articles• Set up citation alerts• Search for cited references• See citation reports for journals and authors• Citation mapping • Web of Science DEMO
  • Activity• Use Web of Science to try a citation search for an article and look at the citation report• Look for the same article in Google Scholar. How do the number of citations vary using Google Scholar?
  • Measuring & monitoring citations• Counting citations – WoS, Scopus, JStor, SD, publishers and GS• Linked references – WoS, Scopus, JStor, publishers• Citation alerts –WoS, Scopus, publishers & GS• Cited Reference Search – WoS, Scopus• Citation Report – WoS, Scopus• Map citations to find related material – WoS
  • Individual citations – author metrics
  • Citation metrics• h-index (Hirsch, 2005) – An author’s number of articles (h) that have received at least h citations – a researcher with an h-index of 10 has published 10 articles that have each been cited at least 10 times• g-index (Egghe, 2006) – The highest number (g) of papers that together received g2 or more citations – a researcher with a g-index of, say, 10 has published 10 papers that together have been cited at least 100 times
  • Author: Smith, JHas written and published 9 articles (a-i), whichhave been cited as follows: a:3, b:6, c:6, d:2, e:13, f:3, g:0, h:1, i:3H-index:“no. of articles (n) that have received at least ncitations”
  • Author: Smith, JHas written and published 9 articles (a-i), whichhave been cited as follows: a:3, b:6, c:6, d:2, e:13, f:3, g:0, h:1, i:3H-index: 3 (at least 3 References with 3 or more citations)“no. of articles (n) that have received at least ncitations”
  • Author: Smith, JHas written and published 9 articles (a-i), whichhave been cited as follows: a:3, b:6, c:6, d:2, e:13, f:3, g:0, h:1, i:3H-index: not 4 ( only 3 References with 4 or more citations)“no. of articles (n) that have received at least ncitations”
  • Author: Smith, JHas written and published 9 articles (a-i), whichhave been cited as follows: a:3, b:6, c:6, d:2, e:13, f:3, g:0, h:1, i:3G-index:“The highest number (g) of papers that togetherreceived g2 or more citations”
  • Author: Smith, JHas written and published 9 articles (a-i), whichhave been cited as follows: a:3, b:6, c:6, d:2, e:13, f:3, g:0, h:1, i:3G-index: 5 (5x5 =25… top 5 cited articles= 31)“The highest number (g) of papers that togetherreceived g2 or more citations”
  • Author: Smith, JHas written and published 9 articles (a-i), whichhave been cited as follows: a:3, b:6, c:6, d:2, e:13, f:3, g:0, h:1, i:3G-index: not 6 (6x6 =36… top 6 cited articles= 34)“The highest number (g) of papers that togetherreceived g2 or more citations”
  • Publish or Perish software• Anne-Wil Harzing (2006) current version: 3.8.1 (Oct 2012)• Aimed at individual researchers• Analyze their own performance using a range of metrics• Free to download• PoP Book: your guide to effective and responsible citation analysis. 2010• http://www.harzing.com/pop.htm
  • Google Scholar Citations• Aimed at individual researchers• To keep track of citations to their papers• Free to register your account and set up your profile• http://scholar.google.com/intl/en/scholar/cita tions.html
  • Where to publish - Journal metrics
  • Journal impact – JCR• Uses citations to measure impact of a journal, mainly for science and social science subjects• Impact factor = average number of citations in a year given to those papers in a journal that were published during the two preceding years• A journal that is cited once, on average, for each article published has an JIF of 1.
  • Impact factor Citations in 2011 (in journals indexed in Web of Knowledge) to all articlesJournal published by Journal X in 2009 & 2010X’s 2011 impact = factor Number of articles (deemed to be citable by Web of Knowledge) that were published in Journal X in 2009 & 2010 Web of Knowledge
  • Activity• Look up a journal or subject area on Journal Citation Reports via Web of Knowledge
  • Journal impact – Eigenfactor• Uses WoS data• Get scores based on broader algorithms• Uses variety of document types• Visualisations – interactive browser useful for publishing in another disciplines Eigenfactor
  • Journal impact – SCImagoJR• Uses data from SCOPUS• Average number of weighted citations received in given SJR year by documents published in preceding three years.• Ranking weights article cited in high ranking journal rather than treating all citations the same• SNIP – source normalized impact per paper ScimagoJR
  • Activity• Use Eigenfactor or SCImago to look at different types of ranking available for a journal and compare with its impact factor in Web of Knowledge
  • Where to publish - Open Access
  • Open Access Publishing• Open Access movement – making publicly funded (and other) research freely available – brief overview of OA and recent changes http://www.slideshare.net/bissetjm/oa-work-in- progress-pdf – Research Councils and other funders’ mandates, see JULIET
  • Open Access Publishing• Journals – Open Access Journal = free at point of access but usually charge author a fee (Article Processing Charge) – DOAJ, Journal Info• Repositories – General listing: OpenDOAR – Subject: arXiv – Institutional: Durham Research Online (DRO) – See RoMEO, find out if a publisher allows deposit
  • Open Access Publishing• Harvesters – OAIster (http://library.dur.ac.uk/search) – DRIVER (http://search.driver.research- infrastructures.eu/ ) – ROAR (http://roar.eprints.org/content.html ) – Google Scholar – not just OA material
  • Activity• Use JULIET to find your funder or one in your subject area• Look at subject or institutional repository or harvester for relevant research articles
  • Optimising ‘Citability’ –thinking about your title and abstract
  • Optimizing your “citability”• Construct a clear, descriptive title• Reiterate key phrases in the abstract• Improve ranking in databases and search engines• Human decision-making• Easier to find = more likely to be read = more likely to be cited• Downloads beginning to count as impact (eg PLoS) Wiley Blackwell guidelines http://authorservices.wiley.com/bauthor/seo.asp
  • Australias Forgotten VictimsEver since the British colonists in Australia became aware of thedisappearance of the indigenous peoples in the 1830s, they havecontrived to excuse themselves by pointing to the effects of disease anddisplacement. Many colonists called for the extermination of Aborigineswhen they impeded settlement by offering resistance, yet there was nowidespread public acknowledgement of this as a policy until the later1960s, when a critical school of historians began serious investigations offrontier violence. Their efforts received official endorsement in the 1990s,but profound cultural barriers prevent the development of a generalawareness of this. Conservative and right-wing figures continue to playdown the gravity of what transpired. These two aspects of Australianpublic memory are central to the political humanisation of the country.
  • Genocide and Holocaust Consciousness in AustraliaEver since the British colonists in Australia became aware of thedisappearance of the indigenous peoples in the 1830s, they have contrivedto excuse themselves by pointing to the effects of disease anddisplacement. Yet although genocide was not a term used in the nineteenthcentury, extermination was, and many colonists called for the exterminationof Aborigines when they impeded settlement by offeringresistance. Consciousness of genocide was suppressed during the twentiethcentury until the later 1960s, when a critical school of historians beganserious investigations of frontier violence. Their efforts received officialendorsement in the 1990s, but profound cultural barriers prevent thedevelopment of a general genocide consciousness. One of theseis Holocaust consciousness, which is used by conservative and right-wingfigures to play down the gravity of what transpired in Australia. These twoaspects of Australian public memory are central to the politicalhumanisation of the country.
  • Conclusions• Different resources give different results for author and publication impact• Need to understand what is being measured• Citations can be an indicator of article or author impact• Journal rankings give an idea of which journals are cited most frequently• Open Access increases reach of research• Need to consider what will attract readers
  • ReferencesHirsch, J.E. (2005) An index to quantify an individual’s scientific research output. PNAS. 102(46): 16569-16572 (original h-index paper)Smeyers, P & Burbules, N.C. (2011) How to improve your impact factor: questioning the quantification of academic quality. Journal of Philosophy of Education. 45(1): 1-17Van Noorden, R. (2010) A profusion of measures. Nature. 465: 864-866 (has a handy “field guide to metrics”) . Part of a Nature special issue at www.nature.com/metricswww.journalmetrics.com (2010) The evolution of journal assessment. (compares SCIMagoJR, AI, SNIP and JIF metrics in table at the end)
  • Evaluation Please fill in the evaluation form – your comments are greatly appreciated!For more information contact James Bisset – James.bisset@durham.ac.uk