Maslow and herzberg theories of motivation


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Maslow and herzberg theories of motivation

  1. 1. Theories Of Motivation (Maslow And Herzberg) By Durga Devi .R
  2. 2. What Is Motivation? Motivation is derived from Latin words movere which means “to move” Motivation is the result of processes, internal or external to the individual, that arouse enthusiasm and persistence to pursue a certain course of action.
  3. 3. Importance Of Motivation In Industry • High Employee Performance • Low employee turnover and absenteeism • Better Organizational Image • Better Industrial relations • Acceptability to change • Better quality orientation • Better Productivity
  4. 4. Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory
  5. 5. Abraham Maslow  Abraham was born in Brooklyn since 1908 – 1970.  Maslow was a psychologist who studied the lives and activities of individuals that he found considered them to be “successful and productive”.  Maslow’s is a famous theory which encompass everything from basic needs to self-actualization in order to demonstrate what motivates people.
  6. 6. Maslow Theories This theory  There are 5 levels of needs  All these needs are arranged in a hierarchy  Once one level is satisfied, the next level will emerge as the depressed need seeking to be satisfied  The physiological and security needs are finite but the needs of higher order are infinite and are likely to be dominant in persons at higher levels in the organization.  Maslow suggests that various levels are interdependent and overlapping.
  7. 7. Maslow Levels Of Pyramid
  8. 8. Physical Needs Level One • Physiological needs are those required to sustain life, such as: – – – – Air Water Nourishment Sleep • According to Maslow's theory, if such needs are not satisfied, then one's motivation will arise from the quest to satisfy them. Higher needs such as social needs and esteem are not felt until one has met the needs basic to one's bodily functioning.
  9. 9. Safety Needs Level Two • Once physiological needs are met, one's attention turns to safety and security in order to be free from the threat of physical and emotional harm. Such needs might be fulfilled by: – – – – Living in a safe area Medical insurance Job security Financial reserves • According to Maslow's hierarchy, if a person feels that he or she is in harm's way, higher needs will not receive much attention.
  10. 10. Social Needs Level Three • Once a person has met the lower level physiological and safety needs, higher level needs become important, the first of which are social needs. Social needs are those related to interaction with other people and may include: – Need for friends – Need for belonging – Need to give and receive love
  11. 11. Esteem Needs Level Four • Once a person feels a sense of "belonging", the need to feel important arises. Esteem needs may be classified as internal or external. Internal esteem needs are those related to self-esteem such as self respect and achievement. External esteem needs are those such as social status and recognition. Some esteem needs are: – – – – – Self-respect Achievement Attention Recognition Reputation • Maslow later refined his model to include a level between esteem needs and self-actualization: the need for knowledge and aesthetics.
  12. 12. Self - Actualization Level Five • Self-actualization is the summit of Maslow's hierarchy of needs. It is the quest of reaching one's full potential as a person. Unlike lower level needs, this need is never fully satisfied; as one grows psychologically there are always new opportunities to continue to grow. • Self-actualized people tend to have needs such as: – – – – Truth Justice Wisdom Meaning • Self-actualized persons have frequent occurrences of peak experiences, which are energized moments of profound happiness and harmony. According to Maslow, only a small percentage of the population reaches the level of self-actualization.
  13. 13. Implications for Management: If Maslow's theory holds, there are some important implications for management. There are opportunities to motivate employees through management style job design company events and compensation packages, some examples of which follow:
  14. 14. Continuation
  15. 15. Continuation However, not all people are driven by the same needs - at any time different people may be motivated by entirely different factors. It is important to understand the needs being pursued by each employee. To motivate an employee, the manager must be able to recognize the needs level at which the employee is operating, and use those needs as levers of motivation.
  16. 16. Criticism  Researchers have proved that there is lack of hierarchical structure of needs as suggested by Maslow, as Some people may have deprived of lower level needs but strive for self actualization.  There is little evidence to suggest that people are motivated to satisfy only one need level at a time  There is a conflict between needs
  17. 17. Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory
  18. 18. Frederick Herzberg • Frederick Irving Herzberg: April 18th 1923 - January 19th 2000 in Massachusetts. • He was an American psychologist. • One of the most influential names in business management for introducing:  Job enrichment  The Motivator-Hygiene theory.
  19. 19. All About Two Factor Theory Two Factor Theory states that there are certain factors in the workplace that causes in job satisfaction, while a separate set of factors cause dissatisfaction.
  20. 20. The Dual Structure Theory • Herzberg proposed the Motivation-Hygiene Theory, also known as the The Dual Structure Theory or Two factor theory (1959) of job satisfaction. • According to his theory, people are influenced by two sets of factors: Motivatoion Factors Hygiene Factors
  21. 21. Fundamentals • Satisfaction and dissatisfaction are not on a continuum with one increasing as the other diminishes, but are independent phenomena. • This theory suggests that to improve job attitudes and productivity, administrators must recognize and attend to both sets of characteristics and not assume that an increase in satisfaction leads to an decrease in unpleasurable dissatisfaction.
  22. 22. • Satisfaction which is mostly affected by the "motivator factors". Motivation factors help increase the satisfaction but aren't that affective on dissatisfaction. • Dissatisfaction is the results of the "hygiene factors". These factors, if absent or inadequate, cause dissatisfaction, but their presence has little effect on long-term satisfaction.
  23. 23. Factors Affecting Job Attitudes Leading to Dissatisfaction Leading to Satisfaction Company policy Achievement Supervision Recognition Relationship w/Boss Work itself Work conditions Responsibility Salary Advancement Relationship w/Peers Growth
  24. 24. Implications for Management • If the motivation-hygiene theory holds, management not only must provide hygiene factors to avoid employee dissatisfaction, but also must provide factors intrinsic to the work itself in order for employees to be satisfied with their jobs. • Herzberg argued that job enrichment is required for intrinsic motivation, and that it is a continuous management process.
  25. 25. Criticism • Critics of Herzberg's theory argue that the two-factor result is observed because it is natural for people to take credit for satisfaction and to blame dissatisfaction on external factors. • Furthermore, job satisfaction does not necessarily imply a high level of motivation or productivity.