Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Tools 1 Zarkovic
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Tools 1 Zarkovic


Published on



Published in: Education, Technology

  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total Views
On Slideshare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

No notes for slide


  • 1. Mr ZarkovicTools for Information Processes Part 1
  • 2. Since this is such a big topic, I havedecided to break this lecture up into anumber of smaller powerpointsThis is part 1 on Collecting Data Organizing Data Analysing Data
  • 3. OverviewThis unit forms the bulk of the Year 11 IPTcourseThe CSTA, in its teaching program,allocates the whole of term 2 for this unitHowever, this is a little ambitiousTwelve to 14 weeks is a more achievabletime frame, given the numerousinterruptions to year 11
  • 4. OverviewDuring this unit, students study in detail theseven information processesNote: Although these processes are presentedto students as distinct entities, in reality, thismay not always be the caseOften these processes will overlap each otherThey may not necessarily occur in the order thatthey are presented in the syllabus as wellStudents must be aware of computer-based(automatic) and non-computer-based (manual)methods for each process
  • 5. Collecting DataThis involves:  Defining the data  Identifying the data source  Gathering the data
  • 6. Defining dataThis refers to the need to clarify the problemTo begin with, this involves interviews andobservations to identify issues and goalsOpen ended questions are used so that anoverview of a situation is obtainedThe responses are reviewed by the project teamand managementResult: An area of focus is identifiedFrom this starting point, surveys are developed(using closed questions) to gather data ofgreater relevance to the focus area
  • 7. Identifying the data sourcePrimary data - is data that is collected firsthand from surveys, questionnaires,observations, etc It is the most accurate but most costly and time consumingSecondary data – is data collected bysomeone else (like the ABS, Gallop,A.C.Nielson, etc) This is cheaper and quicker but not always exactly what you want
  • 8. Gathering the dataManually – data is collected by peoplecompleting forms and the data beingentered by a keyboardAutomatically – via an electronic device,e.g. scanner, microphone or even anautomated traffic counterData can also be collected via a web page
  • 9. Hardware used for data collectionThis is a fairly broad area and includes deviceslike: different types of keyboards, mice, trackpads, trackballs, light pens, graphics tablets,touch screens, microphones, scanners, digitalcameras, digital video cameras, etc.This can be covered by setting an assignmentwhere students have to research the operationof two devices how it works what it is typically used for any software used by the device to aid in the collection of data
  • 10. Hardware used for data collectionThere needs to be sufficient detail presentede.g. for devices like scanners and digitalcameras it is important that students mention therole of the Charged Couple Device (CCD) andthe analogue to digital converter (ADC) chip The CCD is a grid of light sensitive sensors that generate electrical signals when light falls on them These signals are then converted by the ADC chip into digital signals
  • 11. CCD ScannerSensor Analogue Data Digital Data LightSource ADC Chip Scanner Head Light Reflected Light Document
  • 12. Digital Camera Analogue DataLight ADC Chip Digital Data Camera Lens CCD – A grid of light sensors
  • 13. Software used for data collectionThe operating system is the mostimportant piece of software as itessentially runs the entire computerIt also plays a major role in accepting datafrom input devicesIt is important for students to be able todistinguish between Graphical UserInterfaces (GUI) and Command LineInterfaces
  • 14. Software used for data collectionIt is also worth-while talking about the bootprocess, but only in very general termse.g. booting a Windows PC When a computer is first powered-up, certain programs stored permanently in ROM are activated One of the programs does a diagnostic check on the computer. This information is displayed on the screen before Windows loads
  • 15. Software used for data collection After the diagnostic check is complete, another program stored in ROM called “NT loader” is activated This program goes out to the hard drive and looks for the Windows operating system software. If it finds it, Windows is loaded into RAM and activated Keep it simple
  • 16. Non-computer proceduresOne weakness with the current syllabus that theimportance of good survey design is not givenenough emphasisThe link between survey design and theidentified focus area of data collection is criticalStudents need experience at brainstormingissues and devising a series of questions thatwill provide meaningful dataIn order to obtain useful data, there should be amajority of closed questions
  • 17. Non-computer proceduresThere are whole books devoted to survey design,however I emphasize three types of responses: Numerical (the respondent gives a number) Lickert Scales e.g. Always, Mostly, Sometimes, Rarely, Never. (there are many variations) Categorical: e.g. The state of your birth is: NSW, Qld, Vic, etcThe questions that students develop should make use ofthese survey design techniquesDon’t forget that open questions are still fine to use, butlimit themI save old survey forms and analyse their structure withstudents e.g. Australian Lifestyle SurveyEncourage students to use checkboxes in their surveys
  • 18. Non-computer proceduresSurveys are important because the data isoften incorporated in databasesBe aware though that not all datacollection involves a survey e.g. making astudent newsletter will involve interviewsand observations but not necessarily asurvey
  • 19. OrganizingThis involves Arranging Representing Formattingdata for use by other information processesOften, data is organised as part of thecollection process
  • 20. OrganizingRemember, there are five different typesof data: Text Numbers Image Audio VideoThese can be organized in a number ofways:
  • 21. TextIncludes punctuation signs, symbols,spaces, etcMost text is converted into binary usingASCII encodingEBCDIC encoding is used less todayWith Word Art, the text is actuallyorganized as a graphicText can also be ‘hypertext’ i.e. linked text
  • 22. NumbersNumbers can be organized as text, but wecannot do any calculations with themNumbers are most useful when organizedusing non-text formats and placed in atable-like structure (such as aspreadsheet)
  • 23. ImagesThese are organised as: Bit maps (aka raster graphics), or VectorsThe difference between the two lies in howdata about the image is stored in memory
  • 24. Images - BitmapsData is stored about the colour and intensity of every pixel (pictureelement) on the screen in a ‘frame buffer’ which could be part ofmain RAM (on-board video) or on a video cardFor each pixel there is a corresponding memory location. Theamount of data we store for each pixel determines the ‘colour depth’of the image and the number of colours available E.g. 1 bit => 21 = 2 colours for each pixel i.e. on or off, monochrome e.g. black and white images ‘8 bit colour’ => 28 = 256 colours for each pixel ‘16 bit colour’ => 216 = 65536 coloursRequires large amount of RAM and very fast processingSuitable for photographic imagesDifficult to move part of an image without effecting the rest of theimageResizing can result in pixelation, ‘stair-casing’, etcCreated by a ‘paint’ programs, e.g. Microsoft Paint, Photoshop
  • 25. Images - VectorThe graphic is composed of objects- such as rectangles,circles, lines, etcFor each object, all that is stored in memory is thestarting and ending coordinates, object type, linethickness, fill colour/pattern, etcUses a lot less memory and data is processed fasterIndividual objects may be selected and manipulatedwithout effecting the rest of the imageObjects can be resized without loss of detail butindividual pixels cannot be edited, only whole objectsCreated by ‘draw’ programs e.g. Microsoft Word DrawTools, AppleWorks Draw
  • 26. AudioMIDI – Musical Instrument Digital InterfaceData is in the form of ‘note information’ forthe attached instrument e.g. the pressureand duration of every note strikeSmall file sizesCannot produce speechEditing requires knowledge of musicSuits synthesizers
  • 27. AudioWaveform files (MP3, WAV, etc)Samples are taken of the sound and saved as a fileBy playing back the measurements the original soundwave is recreatedSample rate – the number of samples of the sound waveper secondSample size – the number of data bits used to store dataabout the soundThe greater the sample rate and size the better thequality of the play back soundMany sound files are compressed to save storage spacee.g. mp3
  • 28. VideoStoring visual and auditory data by taking anumber of samplesEach sample is called a fameEach frame contains data describing the lightintensity and colour of all of the pixels that makeup the CCD (and also the screen) of the cameraHuge demand on storage, hence manycompression formats e.g. mpeg, QuickTime(overlaps with ‘storing and retrieving’ and‘transmitting and receiving’ processes)
  • 29. Organizing – In general…How data is organised really depends onthe subsequent information processes thatare going to be applied to the datae.g. A story may be organised as text (.doc), however it may also be organized as a graphic file (.pdf) or an audio file (.wav)
  • 30. File FormatsA good clue as to how a document isorganized is given by the file extension e.g. A file named “pc102.jpg” is an image file because it has a .jpg extension.Just by knowing this we can infer that the graphic : Uses 24 bit (16.7 million) colour, Is probably a photograph, Uses a high, lossy compression, Is probably being used for the internet
  • 31. File FormatsAs an in-class exercise I get my studentsto research various file formats and whatthey are used for (there is a huge number)Ware and Grover’s book “InformationProcesses and Technology – PreliminaryCourse” has some good information onthis aspect of the course
  • 32. Software for Organising DataAs you’d expect, most of the common applicationssoftware can be used to organise data into a desiredformate.g. Text – Word processor and DTP softwareThere are other important software tools used to convertdata from one format to another, e.g. “GraphicConverter” on the MacsData tables can be created in a number of ways: In a word processor Using web authoring software Using a database Using a spreadsheet
  • 33. Organising – social & ethical issues If data is not organised properly then the old acronym ‘G.I.G.O.’ (garbage in, garbage out) will apply. The importance of data organisation can be stressed to students by describing the Y2K phenomenon Although Y2K is ancient history, its ‘worst case scenarios’ serve the purpose of illustrating how badly organised data can have deleterious effects on humans
  • 34. End of Tools - Part 1Please Open:Lecture_5_Tools_Part_2_.ppt