Road safety lecture 2012

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My annual road safety presentation, updated for 2012.

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  • Corporate Presentation
  • RoSPA STAFF DAY: 11 OCTOBER 2007
  • Visit by Judith Hackitt CBE, Chair of the Health and Safety Commission
  • Road safety lecture 2012

    1. 1. Road SafetyPresented by: Duncan Vernon Road Safety Manager (England)
    2. 2. Presentation OutlineAbout RoSPAA brief history of Road Safety in the UKThe response to traffic injury in the UK: a system to tackle itThe response to traffic injury in the UK: strategyOther approaches to injury: The World Health Organisation wholesystem approachOther approaches to injury: The social justice approachLinking the various approaches RoSPA’s mission is to save lives and reduce injuries
    3. 3. About RoSPA RoSPA is an independent, registeredcharity which was created in 1917 Our mission is to:‘Save Lives and Reduce Injuries’ We promote safety in all areas of life;on the road, in the home, at work,in schools, at leisure and on or nearwater. RoSPA’s mission is to save lives and reduce injuries
    4. 4. Our Road Safety ActivitiesPolicy Development – Evidence BasedLobbyingRaise Public Awareness & KnowledgeInformation ServiceEducation ResourcesDriver and Motorcyclist Training (Advanced, Defensive, Fleet,Instructor, Specialised)Help employers to Manage Occupational Road RiskRoad Safety Engineering Training RoSPA’s mission is to save lives and reduce injuries
    5. 5. What is an appropriate intervention? RoSPA draws the linewith two simple questions:1) Is the interventionproportionate to the risk?2) What would be the effecton others? RoSPA’s mission is to save lives and reduce injuries
    6. 6. Road Casualties 2011 Killed 1,901 Seriously Injured 23,122 Slightly Injured 178,927 All Casualties 203,950*First rise in road deaths since 2003! 5 deaths and over 60 serious injuries every day* Casualties reported to the police only.The ‘real’ total is estimated to be over 700,000 a year,including 80,000 who are seriously injured. RoSPA’s Mission is to Save Lives and Reduce Injuries
    7. 7. Traffic Fatalities 1930-2011 RoSPA’s mission is to save lives and reduce injuries
    8. 8. Traffic Fatalities 1930-20111941: Road fatalities reach UK high of9,161, around half of which arepedestrian deaths. RoSPA’s mission is to save lives and reduce injuries
    9. 9. Traffic Fatalities 1930-20111950-1965: Car and motorcycleownership increases, accidents alsoincrease. RoSPA’s mission is to save lives and reduce injuries
    10. 10. Traffic Fatalities 1930-2011 1966: Road fatality rate reaches post war high of 7,985 1967: Ministry of Transport publishes “Road Safety: A Fresh Approach” RoSPA’s mission is to save lives and reduce injuries
    11. 11. Traffic Fatalities 1930-2011 1967-2000: Large decreases in the yearly number of fatalities RoSPA’s mission is to save lives and reduce injuries
    12. 12. Traffic Fatalities 1930-2011 1987: First Large decreases in the yearly 1967-2000:UK road safety targets set. The aim is to reduce number of fatalities road casualties by one third by 2000 RoSPA’s mission is to save lives and reduce injuries
    13. 13. Traffic Fatalities 1930-2011 2000: “Tomorrows Roads: Safer for Everyone” published with new target of a 40% reduction in KSI by 2010 RoSPA’s mission is to save lives and reduce injuries
    14. 14. Traffic Fatalities 1930-2011 2011: Strategic Framework for Road Safety RoSPA’s mission is to save lives and reduce injuries
    15. 15. Changes to the way we get about in the UKIn 1949: collectively we travelled 14.7 billion miles by bicycle in the UK.In 2011: we travelled 3.1 billion milesIncreasing car ownership over the same period – fewer passengersmore driversIncreasing amount of traffic but the amount of travel – time spenttravelling and number of trips has remained steady1963: The Reshaping of British Railways1963: Traffic In TownsIncreasing centralisation of functions outside of city centres1991: The New Realism in transport planning RoSPA’s mission is to save lives and reduce injuries
    16. 16. Peak Car?Does car use continue inexorably, does it hit a saturated state, or doesit tail off?Car use amongst some groups in the UK may have already peaked. RoSPA’s mission is to save lives and reduce injuries
    17. 17. Response: Getting the right systems in placeCentral government sets the regulatory framework and the country’snational road safety strategy. This includes: Providing funding and resources to local government and others to enable the delivery of road safety Commissioning research Collecting and publishing road casualty data Setting standards for road design, driver and vehicle licensing, diver training and tests Traditionally vehicle design standards – now more at an European level Managing the motorways and trunk road network RoSPA’s mission is to save lives and reduce injuries
    18. 18. Response: Getting the right systems in placeLocal government has the legal duty to “take steps both to reduce andprevent accidents” set out in the Road Traffic Act 1998.Local authorities also have a duty to manage and maintain their roadnetworks under section 16 of the Traffic Management Act 2004.Most Local authorities will have: A road safety team who run; educational programmes, skills training e.g. cyclist and young driver training, and publicity campaigns. A Local Transport Plan (LTP) setting out their strategy, targets and implementation plan for improving transport in their community.Where a local authority is the local planning authority, it is responsiblefor regulating and controlling new developments within its boundaries. RoSPA’s mission is to save lives and reduce injuries
    19. 19. Response: Getting the right systems in placeMuch of this is set up to deliver “The Three Es” Education Engineering Enforcement RoSPA’s mission is to save lives and reduce injuries
    20. 20. Education Delivered to all road users as a spiral curriculum with the aim of helping road users becoming more safety conscious. The Ten Principles for Effective Safety Education:1. Encourage the adoption of, or 6. Use realistic and relevant settings andreinforce, a whole school approach, resourceswithin the wider community 7. Work in partnership2. Use active approaches to learning 8. Address known risk and protective3. Involve young people in real decisions factorsto help them stay safe 9. Address psychosocial aspects of4. Assess children and young people’s safety e.g. confidence, resilience, selflearning needs esteem, self efficacy5. Teach safety as part of a 10. Adopt positive approaches whichcomprehensive personal social and model and reward safe behaviour, withinhealth curriculum a safe, supportive environment RoSPA’s mission is to save lives and reduce injuries
    21. 21. EducationDealing with the road environment is a practical activity, andcompliments the theory taught through education. RoSPA’s mission is to save lives and reduce injuries
    22. 22. EducationFamous, widely cited, letter in the New England Journal of Medicine in1981 entitled When Health Policy Becomes Victim Blaming“There is a potentially dark side to a policy that might emphasise only individual responsibility in health. It is a side that could preach elite moralism about health while failing to recognise (or ignoring) the political, economic and environmental forces that shape or re-enforce unhealthy behaviour”Still true – education needs to focus much broader than individuals andbe coupled with empowerment and wellbeing issues RoSPA’s mission is to save lives and reduce injuries
    23. 23. Engineering (Roads)The physical construction and alteration of roads to reduce thechances of accidents or reduce the risk of injury when accidents occur.Based on data about where there is real risk, not perceived risk.Generally focuses on sites where accidents occur regularly.Most cost effective schemes prioritised higher.Moving towards area treatment and route treatment RoSPA’s mission is to save lives and reduce injuries
    24. 24. Engineering (Vehicles) The design of vehicles to prevent Normal Drivingaccidents and injuries. 1.      Warning Phase 2.      Assistant Phase Historically focussed on crash safety 3.      Pre Crash Phase Accidentwhich is now a relatively mature field 4.      Petty Collision– still areas for improvement 5.      Minor Accident 6.      Severe Accident Moved on to addressing the After the AccidentImmediate factors which cause a 7.      Post Crash/Rescue Phasecrash and preventing them RoSPA’s mission is to save lives and reduce injuries
    25. 25. Engineering (Vehicles) RoSPA’s mission is to save lives and reduce injuries
    26. 26. Engineering (Vehicles) RoSPA’s mission is to save lives and reduce injuries
    27. 27. EnforcementRoad Traffic Law sets down a series of standards for road users tofollow.Most accidents occur when a road user has deliberately or accidentallyviolated the rules of the road.The likelihood of being caught reduces the level of criminal road usePrimarily the role of the Police, but other Agencies – such as VOSA –enforce other aspects. RoSPA’s mission is to save lives and reduce injuries
    28. 28. Response: Government-led road safety strategies e.g. Tomorrow’s Roads –Safer for Everyone Safer for Children Safer Drivers Safer Infrastructure Safer Speeds Safer Vehicles Safer Motorcycling Safety for Pedestrians, Cyclists, and Horses Better Enforcement Promoting Safer Road Use RoSPA’s mission is to save lives and reduce injuries
    29. 29. Safer for ChildrenChild (0-14) pedestrian fatalityrate per 100,000 : 1997Italy - 0.49Sweden - 0.54Germany - 0.64Netherlands 0.66Austria - 0.79Norway - 0.81Denmark - 0.85France - 0.91Belgium - 0.94Finland - 0.94Spain - 0.94Great Britain 1.21Ireland - 1.31 RoSPA’s mission is to save lives and reduce injuries
    30. 30. Safer for ChildrenActions! Improve the safety of school travel Create 20mph zones around schools and residential areas Provide parents with the tools to teach basic road safety Develop ISOFIX system for child seats Practical Pedestrian Training such as Kerbcraft Road Safety as an aspect of PSHE – KS 3 and 4 Make cycle training more widely available, increase helmet use, promote the benefits of reflective clothing RoSPA’s mission is to save lives and reduce injuries
    31. 31. Safer DriversActions! Instil the right attitudes from the start A more structured approach to learning to drive Development of the theory test to promote the responsible driving agenda Introduce the Hazard Perception test in 2002 Enhance the status of advanced driving Encourage refresher driver training for older drivers Better driving standards for lorries and buses Work Related Road Safety RoSPA’s mission is to save lives and reduce injuries
    32. 32. Safer SpeedsActions! Publicise widely the risks of speed and the reasons for limits Better guidance to local authorities on setting speed limits More information on the road to help drivers choose appropriate speeds Address the high limits on many Rural roads Evaluate the new speed and traffic signal enforcement cameras Evaluate rehabilitation courses RoSPA’s mission is to save lives and reduce injuries
    33. 33. Safer EnforcementActions! Promote public understanding of the law Penalties which fit the offences More emphasis on rehabilitation – courses to retrain offenders Use of new technology Greater levels of enforcement RoSPA’s mission is to save lives and reduce injuries
    34. 34. Second three year reviewStrategy is reviewed every 3 years What progress has been made towards the targets? A Review of the Policies Key Themes RoSPA’s mission is to save lives and reduce injuries
    35. 35. Second three year reviewEmerging themes Largest concern is the slow progress on reducing deaths on the road Rebuild of the way that drivers are tested – addressing attitudes and behaviours as well as control skills Increased cultural change for drivers at work Road Safety Act 2006 New national Road Safety Delivery Board Greater involvement between Road Safety and other Government objectives. e.g. climate change, social exclusion, obesity, urban renewal can all share objectives to reduce casualties. RoSPA’s mission is to save lives and reduce injuries
    36. 36. There are other ways of looking at injuryBased on the epidemiological triangle – host (who), agent (what) andenvironment (where). Agent Agent Environment Environment Host HostSome communicable diseases have an agent (for instance poliomyelitisor mycobacterium tuberculosis) - but does injury? RoSPA’s mission is to save lives and reduce injuries
    37. 37. There are other ways of looking at injury Injuries have a sufficient and necessary cause William Haddon’s work is particularly influential: “The second and more important group of injuriescomprises all those in which the damage is caused by the delivery to the body ofamounts of energy in excessof the corresponding local or whole body injury thresholds.” RoSPA’s mission is to save lives and reduce injuries
    38. 38. The World Health Organisation systems approach Best seen in the Swedish “Vision Zero” The idea is to design a systemwhere energy cannot be deliveredin quantities that are likely tocause a fatal injury. RoSPA’s mission is to save lives and reduce injuries
    39. 39. Tolerance of pedestrians to fatal injury RoSPA’s mission is to save lives and reduce injuries
    40. 40. Tolerance of drivers to fatal injury RoSPA’s mission is to save lives and reduce injuries
    41. 41. Tolerance of drivers to fatal injury RoSPA’s mission is to save lives and reduce injuries
    42. 42. Social Inequality = Injury Inequality Transport is not an isolatedsystem within society Social systems outside thetransport system impact ontraffic injury Injuries are the result of theway that society is structured RoSPA’s mission is to save lives and reduce injuries
    43. 43. Action on the social determinants of ill health A growing international consensus for action on the social causes of ill health WHO world conference on 19-21 October, 2011 Rio Political Declaration on Social Determinants of Health:“We, Heads of Government, Ministers and government representatives, solemnly reaffirm our resolve to take action on social determinants of health to create vibrant, inclusive, equitable, economically productive and healthy societies, and to overcome national, regional and global challenges to sustainable development” RoSPA’s mission is to save lives and reduce injuries
    44. 44. Injury Inequality in the UKA strong association between deprivation and injury.Found strong consistency between studies over time and betweendifferent areas in the UKSome evidence that inequality is widening!!Different measures of deprivation gave similar patterns – whether areabased measures (e.g. The Index of Multiple Deprivation) or individualmeasures (e.g. social class or occupational group)The strength of the association was different between road user groups– there was very strong evidence for child pedestrian and cyclists,much weaker evidence for drivers RoSPA’s mission is to save lives and reduce injuries
    45. 45. Why is there a Difference in Injury Rates?Exposure to risk Children in the quarter of families with the lowest income crossed 50% more roads than those in the highest Families were much less likely to own cars Children more likely to walk to school and less likely to be accompanied RoSPA’s mission is to save lives and reduce injuries
    46. 46. Why is there a Difference in Injury Rates?The Road Environment, Habitation and The Local Area High population density Long straight roads with terraced housing, which can encourage higher vehicle speeds Studies of on-street parking have come to different conclusionsLeisure Facilities Children end up playing on the street because there is nowhere else to play – there is little garden space and local parks are seen as dangerous. Parents report that at least they can keep an eye on their children outside the house Limited number, awareness and take up of formal leisure activities Worries about changing land use and parks being turned into car parks RoSPA’s mission is to save lives and reduce injuries
    47. 47. Why is there a difference in injury rates?Social Environment and DeprivationFamily size Single parent families – social isolation or a lack of social support, and being caught in a poverty trap due to lack of affordable child care Large families – overcrowded accommodation with more than one child per bedroom, and supervision is more difficultDo ETP initiatives connect? Un-equitable distribution of road safety efforts – how do we assess need? How do we take account of the barriers to people adopting the safer behaviours that we want them to – are they intrinsic or extrinsic? RoSPA’s mission is to save lives and reduce injuries
    48. 48. Tackling social inequalitiesMarmot Review Policy Objective A: Give every child the best start in lifeSupport families to achieve progressive improvements in early childdevelopment, including routine support to families through parentingprogrammes, children’s centres and key workers, delivered to meetsocial need via outreach to families.Provide good quality early years education and childcareproportionately across the gradient. This provision should becombined with outreach to increase the take-up by children fromdisadvantaged families. RoSPA’s mission is to save lives and reduce injuries
    49. 49. Tackling social inequalitiesMarmot Review Policy Objective B: Enable all children, young peopleand adults to maximise their capabilities and have control over theirlivesIncrease access and use of quality lifelong learning opportunitiesacross the social gradient, by: Providing easily accessible support and advice for 16–25 year olds on life skills, training and employment opportunities Providing work-based learning, including apprenticeships, for young people and those changing jobs/careers RoSPA’s mission is to save lives and reduce injuries
    50. 50. Leads us ultimately to the question...Who are we designing a safe transport system for?In health care there is the concept of the inverse care law:“The availability of good medical care tends to vary inversely with the need for it in the population served”Do we see the same thing in transport? RoSPA’s mission is to save lives and reduce injuries
    51. 51. Some international examples of good practicePrioritising the needs of vulnerable road users in urban planning.Bogota, Columbia: built specific cycling and pedestrian only routes,one was car free. Developed a high capacity bus system. Fatalities fellfrom 1387 in 1995 to 697 in 2002.Delhi, India: current scheme to build corridors which segregatedifferent road users. Space was given to street vendors to preventdisrupting the flow of bikes and pedestrians. RoSPA’s mission is to save lives and reduce injuries
    52. 52. Thank you www.rospa.com Duncan Vernon dvernon@rospa.com 0121 248 2078

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