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e-Gov in-emerging countries


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Global picture of eGov in emerging countries with reflexion on methodology, budgets, impacts and main actors.

Global picture of eGov in emerging countries with reflexion on methodology, budgets, impacts and main actors.

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  • 1. e-Gov in emerging countries 1 e-Gov in emerging countries Particular case: Africa > by Alain Ducass > International expert, > Head of digital economy department at > Adetef Adetef is the French international technical agency of the Ministries for the Economy and Finance, Sustainable Development and Energy, and State Reform This presentation was given on 4th of June 2013, at the University Paris 1 La Sorbonne to William Gilles, head of digital law department, Elise Delbies (PIG retired) & Jean-Jacques Kudela (independent expert) It has been prepared wiith the help of Mrs Mona Kubec & the Adetef IT department.
  • 2. e-Gov in emerging countries 2 Why this presentation? Some questions : • what is e-Gov? • what is the specificity of emerging coutries? • how much does e-Gov cost and who can finance it? • what is the interest of e-Gov for emerging countries? • what are current problematics? Answers are set out to : • help emerging countries • light up backers • contribute to the growth of french GDP • initiate reserch in PPP
  • 3. e-Gov in emerging countries 3 “e-Gov in emerging countries” 1 Actors and issues 11 Current practices 111 Variety of situations 112 Méthodology and issues 12 Backer et suppliers • 121 Official development assistance (ODA) • 122 Privat assitance 2 Problems 21 Visible part 211 Services for citizens 212 Services for companies 22 Hidden part • 221 Preliminary conditions • 222 Basic elements The presentation begins with the monographs of the key players It continues with an analysis of current issues
  • 4. e-Gov in emerging countries 4 Actors and stakes International cooperation involves three actors Title 1 : Good practices in developped and emerging countries Title 2 Donors and suppliers, participants of the ODA and private developpement assistance process Donor Beneficiary Supplier Donor
  • 5. e-Gov in emerging countries 5 Actors and stakes Part 1 Developped countries §1 France §2 Developped countries (South Korea, Canada, United States, Scandinavian countries) Part 2 Emerging countries §1 BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa) §2 Emerging Africa (Côte d’Ivoire, Senegal, Morocco, Tunisia…)
  • 6. e-Gov in emerging countries 6 Actors and stakes: France Succession of actors & programmes: SGMAP, French e-Gov actor Major projects: Copernic (1.5 billion); Chorus (1 billion)… Estimated budget of 3,8 billion/year, 2 billion of wich external financing and 1,8 billion internal financing The new strategy was set up by DISIC (Ex. urbanisation SI) e-Gov programmes: PAGSI > RE/SO 2007 > ADELE > RGPP > Urb
  • 7. e-Gov in emerging countries 7 Extract of Adetef’s presentation to Egyptian minister Darwich, on 2nd of July 2010 Every French Prime minister launches his own eGov & information society plan. One of them is ”Adele”, meaning eGov
  • 8. e-Gov in emerging countries 8 Actors and stakes: developped countries South Korea: world leader, society of ubiquity, public-private complementarity, telecommuting… Canada: Government On-Line program (1999); Open data; community access points… United States: eGovernement plan 2001, Open government initiative, Internal Efficiency & effectiveness… Scandinavia: high debit Internet, e-invoices…
  • 9. e-Gov in emerging countries 9 Actors and stakes: China China : the biggest number of Internet users in the world: over 500 million users. Mobile Internet developpement, despite the lack of computers in rural areas. The first law in ICT domain was passed in 1997: “Ordinance on Protecting Computer Information System Security”.
  • 10. e-Gov in emerging countries 10 Actors and stakes: Brazil In 2000, the gouvernement votes a programme, Governo Eletronico, whose main goal is to create the Brazil national portal. Online publishing of the public procurement contracts thanks to SERPRO system. An innovative approach, Exportfacil, wich facilitates export operations.
  • 11. e-Gov in emerging countries 11 Actors and issues : India •India's ICT industry have created 2.8 million jobs. •The ICT sector represents 7.5% of GDP, 75% for export. •A portal of the Government of India for providing a unique access to all information and all services provided by the Government.
  • 12. e-Gov in emerging countries 12 the Indian Aadhaar project More than 1 000 000 unique e-Id numbers have been given to Indian citizens together with biometric datas in a platform. The biometric data are checked end updated every 5 years Applications are under development in different domains. Most emerging countries are now implementing e-ID on a mandatory mode. In 2015, 85 % of e-ID card issued will be electronic.
  • 13. e-Gov in emerging countries 13 Actors and stakes: Russia > While trying to resolve connectivity problems, Russia launched e-Gov federal programmes: eRussia (2003-2010), Information Society (2011-2020)…
  • 14. e-Gov in emerging countries 14 Actors and stakes: South Africa > The country's constitution requires administrations to make available government information. > Several projects coexist side by side: • Cape Gateway • SchoolNet South Africa • Khanya > Gito council & DPSA are responsible for e-Gov
  • 15. e-Gov in emerging countries 15 Actors and stakes: Sub-Saharan Africa In 2000, Côte d’Ivoire developed a National Plan of technology infrastructure to modernize its ICT sector: government intranet. In 2003, Senegal launched the “strategy of accelerated growth” wich is one of the five pillars of economic growth e-Ghana, e-Benin… programs include an e- Gov component Many of other countries start or continue e- Gov programs
  • 16. e-Gov in emerging countries 16 Actors and stakes: Maghreb-Mashreq North Africa’s two most advanced countries in ICT are Tunisia and Morocco. The skills of their players are spreading all over Sub- Saharan Africa. Egypt wants to set up an action plan after a year of peer review by the OECD. …/…
  • 17. e-Gov in emerging countries 17 Actors and stakes: Moldova The World Bank currently gives Moldova as an example of good practice in digital governance. The strategy and the action plan have been developed by experts from Singapore.
  • 18. e-Gov in emerging countries 18 Business segmentation Various types of business segmentation: • G2C, G2B, G2G, G2P • Simplified methods of project management (ex.: CAF) • Strategy (objective) • Action plan • Feasibility • Evaluation
  • 19. e-Gov in emerging countries 19 International rankings • United Nations: eGov index • World economic forum: NRI index • European Commission • OECD (monographies) • Regional rankings (ex.: Respa) Above, NRI index; below, European comparison
  • 20. e-Gov in emerging countries 20 National impact Positive national impact • Increase of the productivity of the administration • Contribution to growth • ICT sector developpement • Budget savings • Fight against corruption • Social inclusion • Mobility Conditions for success • Administrative processes reengineering • Existence of an ICT sector • Innovate-transform couple • Good management • Political will • Connectivity
  • 21. e-Gov in emerging countries 21 International impact According to various sources, the ICT sector represents: • 5% in Europa (European Digital Agenda) • 3.2% of French GDP (McKinsey) • 6% of world GDP (World Bank) • 7% of world GDP (Intel). E-gov is roughly equivalent to the share of the ICT in the public sector
  • 22. e-Gov in emerging countries 22 International impact e-Gov budget = GDP x % ICT x % Public spendings (G)
  • 23. e-Gov in emerging countries 23 International impact We will retain the following assumptions: Percentage of public spendings on ICT: 25% ICT share in GDP: 2% Africa GDP: 1,621 G$ ~ 1,272 G€ As a result, an annual ICT budget is around 6 billion euros for e-Gov in Africa
  • 24. e-Gov in emerging countries 24 Official development assistance S.1 Leading multilateral donors § 1 The World Bank § 2 Other donors S.2. Leading bilateral donors § 1 French official development assistance § 2 Official development assistance of other countries In 2010, the Development Assistance Committee (DAC) said to have paid the highest amount of ODA ever reached: 130 billion dollars
  • 25. e-Gov in emerging countries 25 The World Bank > Five Institutions, One Group • The International Bank for Reconstruction and Developpement (IBRD) • The International Development Association (IDA) • The International Finance Corporation (IFC) • The Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA) • The International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID) > The digital strategy of the World Bank has got 3 axes:
  • 26. e-Gov in emerging countries 26 > AfDB was founded in 1964. > Its mission is to stimulate demand for ICT networks and services. It promotes e-Gov. > Its new strategy should focus on technical assistance on infrastructures. > Examples of projects funded: > * Programme for Infrastructure Development in Africa > * e-transform Africa African Development Bank Group
  • 27. e-Gov in emerging countries 27 Leading multilateral donors > European Development Fund (EDF) United Nations: WCO, UNDP, UNIDO European Union: • European Neighbourhood and Partnership Instrument- Europe • European Development Fund – Africa, Carribbean region, Pacific region • Development Co-operation Instrument (DCI) – Latin America, Asia and Central Asia, the Gulf region and South Africa International Monetary Fund
  • 28. e-Gov in emerging countries 28 • On 4th of June 2013, DG Trésor published online information about French official development assistance on • France is the 3rd world fundraiser and the first european one. France spended 9.97 billion euro in 2012. • L’Agence française de développement (AFD) – is involved in the Priority Solidarity Zone • Le Fonds d’aide au Secteur Privé (FASEP) helps French companies abroad Leading multilateral donors
  • 29. e-Gov in emerging countries 29 > Germany: Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) operates in more than 130 countries worldwide > United Kingdom: “Department for International Development” (DFID) seeks to reduce poverty. It hires Crown Agents for its missions. > United States: Official Developpement Assistance is up to 30.7 billion dollars in 2011, USAid > Canada: Canadian International Development Agency, wich manages the support of international development > China: Export-Import Bank of China, China Bank of Development, Industrial and Commercial Bank of China, China Construction Bank Leading multilateral donors
  • 30. e-Gov in emerging countries 30 Private development assistance > Ch. 2 Private development assistance > S.1 Private actors > §.1 Companies > §.2 NGOs > S.2 Suppliers > §.1 Technical assistance operators > §.2 Solution Providers Public and private financial flows are complementary. ODA is essential to make private investment possible and create business opportunities when they are weak or non-existent. The ability of private investment to generate income is a prerequisite for economic development and rising living standards. Commitments to private development assistance have been raised from 4 billion dollars in 1999 to 13.7 billion in 2006.
  • 31. e-Gov in emerging countries 31 Private actors - companies > At the moment there is a weakening of the role of states in favor of private companies. > Businesses play a key role in democratization in emerging countries
  • 32. e-Gov in emerging countries 32 Private actors - NGOs > Confessional NGOs > The role of religions in development can not be overlooked, both as donors and as culture of the beneficiary countries. > Examples: Islamic Development Bank (IDB), Red Cross, Caritas internationalis, etc. > Non-confessional NGOs An estimated 15% of total international development assistance is now passing through NGOs, about US $ 8 billion. > Examples: ICT4D, CARE, Telecoms without borders, etc.
  • 33. e-Gov in emerging countries 33 Suppliers > Suppliers develop upstream strategies and action plans for digital governance. Facilitators provide tools to respond to tenders. > For example: Ubifrance’s database PROAO (projects and international tenders) provides access to information about policies and financed projects.
  • 34. e-Gov in emerging countries 34 Solution providers Implementation of e-Gov projects requires various skills. > One of the biggest companies of the sector is NIC. > French suppliers are members of professional associations such as the Federation of Electrical, Electronic and Communications industries (FIEEC)
  • 35. e-Gov in emerging countries 35 Main French professional organizations in digital solutions: Construction industries: Sycabel, IGNES, FIRIP Materials: FIEEC, GITEP-TICS, SIMAVELEC, SFIB Telecommunication Services: FFT, UNETel-RST Digital services: Syntec numérique, AFDEL, Apeca Editors: Aproged, Com-Unic, USPII, FICAM, CINOV-IT e-Health: Snitem, Lesiss e-Education: Afinef, Gedem, Geste, SNJV. e-Business: Fevad, ACSEL, FNTC Consulting: Syntec Experts: Eestel, IDEFIE NB: some organizations are involved on several sectors French solution providers
  • 36. e-Gov in emerging countries 36 Part 2 Specifics of e-Gov > Components of e-Gov > T.1 Visible part of e-Gov > T.2 Hidden part of e-Gov
  • 37. e-Gov in emerging countries 37 Visible part of e-Gov > Part.1 Services for citizens > S.1 Portals and online procedures §.1 Portals §.2 Online procedures and personal data S.2 Specific applications §.1 e-Education §.2 e-Health Ch.2 Services for companies S.1 Portals and online procedures §.1 Portals for companies §.2 Public procurement S.2 Applications for companies §.1 Digital exchanges between companies §.2 Economic development and diffusion of technology
  • 38. e-Gov in emerging countries 38 Information portals They aim at disseminating public information to citizens Steps in the creation of portals: • Publish information • Group information together • Create multichannel portals • Provide information in a freely accessible and freely reusable format • Provide a geographic portal • Create a multimedia portal
  • 39. e-Gov in emerging countries 39 Online procedures and personal data 1. Identify the main administrative procedures 2. Know citizen expectations by asking users 3.Simplify the procedure 4. Assess the costs 5. Automate the creating processes of online procedures 6. Make choices and set priorities The implementation of online procedures is performed in six major steps:
  • 40. e-Gov in emerging countries 40 [1] Étude BVA/DGME, « les priorités de simplification vues par les usagers », octobre 2008. Simplification priorities from the user’s point of view October 2008, BVA survey for DGME Online procedures and personal data
  • 41. e-Gov in emerging countries 41 The MAREVA method makes it possible to assess, compare and follow the interest of various e-Gov projects Online procedures and personal data
  • 42. e-Gov in emerging countries 42 Legal aspects of information portals • The copyright for the information portals are protected by the Geneva Convention of 1952 and managed by UNESCO with a term of protection of 25 years operating postmortem rights. • In emerging countries, the risk of unfair competition is very important because laws do not properly protect the digital domain, so the risk of counterfeiting is high. • Another problem is the Internet naming of national sites. The addition of a suffix .gov or .gouv may solve it.
  • 43. e-Gov in emerging countries 43 Online education > Online education is a complement to regular education. > Necessary equipment and knowledge: • Computer and projector • Interactive Whiteboard • Teachers’ computers and students’ computers must be connected • Change pedagogical methods – students’ participation is important • Use of a open and distance learning (ODL) platform • The existence of a community of users is important • Use of educational tools for self-learning • Use of portable tools
  • 44. e-Gov in emerging countries 44 e-health and m-health > This approach helps to solve the following problems: > Lack of medical centers > Lack of human ressources > Limited paiement capacity of the patients Several projects have been initiated around the world: > France: Carte Vitale > Kenya, Tanzania : Mobile for reproductive health > Tanzania : eLearning@ttcih > Uganda : Text to change
  • 45. e-Gov in emerging countries 45 Portals dedicated to businesses > Portals dedicated to businesses include some or all information and online services that are dedicated to them Portals help to start new businesses, pay taxes, perform import-export procedures, recruit employees, get social security
  • 46. e-Gov in emerging countries 46 > 21 procedures linked to business creation that can be automated, grouped into three steps: 1. Pre-registration: ensures that the applicant meets the requirements 2. Registration: the formal request by the entrepreneur 3. Validation of this request by the relevant administrative services Portals dedicated to businesses
  • 47. e-Gov in emerging countries 47 Public procurement Triple advantage of dematerialized markets: • Improve transparency in the fight against corruption; • Buy cheaper due to increased competition • Lower operating costs There are platforms for: • Procurement procedure • Contract execution
  • 48. e-Gov in emerging countries 48 Digital exchanges between companies > Four factors drive the market: • Logistics factor - transportation of letters and parcels. • Fiscal factor (customs duties) • Financial factor (money transfer) • Cultural factor (good practices) Exchanges are used to all kinds of relationships : B2C, B2B, C2G.
  • 49. e-Gov in emerging countries 49 SMEs, a major source of creativity, make an important contribution to economic and social cohesion. They are more and more efficient e-Gov actors, subject to their own ability to manage innovative uses of ICT. > For businesses, an effective development tool is the creation of technology parks and of clusters. Technological dissemination
  • 50. e-Gov in emerging countries 50 Economic development
  • 51. e-Gov in emerging countries 51 Titre 2 Hidden part, inside administration > Ch. 1 External prerequisites > S.1 Access to networks and services §. 1 Connectivity §. 2 Capacity building S.2 Prerequisites for administration §. 1 Intranet §. 2 Cross applications Ch.2 Basic elements S.1 Digital identity §. 1 e-Signature §. 2 Data treatment and cybercrime S.2 Sharing of public data §. 1 SI interoperability §. 2 SI urbanization and cloud computing
  • 52. e-Gov in emerging countries 52 Connectivity > Access to submarine cables and international optical networks is a prerequisite to e- administration.
  • 53. e-Gov in emerging countries 53 Regional digital development > Government action to ensure connectivity and related services is called “regional digital development” > Its main goal is the development of PPP in order to avoid overinvestment in some areas
  • 54. e-Gov in emerging countries 54 Connectivity
  • 55. e-Gov in emerging countries 55 Capacity building > Users must have a minimal training on online services, and a minimum of culture to be able to benefit from e-Gov > This sometimes requires capacity building actions
  • 56. e-Gov in emerging countries 56 Intranet Secure data sharing within a closed user group is very important. A solution is building wiring and connections. . A second solution is the creation of Virtual Private Networks. A third is cloud computing. >
  • 57. e-Gov in emerging countries 57 Opendata > The Open Data approach aims to facilitate access to the quality data required for the management and the follow-up of development results. > These programs include tools to establish the decision-making process, public accountability and good governance.
  • 58. e-Gov in emerging countries 58 Cross applications for state management > Dematerialized public finance management avoids input errors, brings together administration and citizen and saves time for tax payers. > HR management cloud reduces operating costs. HR IS enables to manage holidays, salaries and civil service competitions.
  • 59. e-Gov in emerging countries 59 Cross applications for state management > A “middle office” is necessary to allow communication between the IS of the ministries. > A semantic and syntaxic work is also necessary to harmonize concepts and data between the different departments >
  • 60. e-Gov in emerging countries 60 Cross applications for state management
  • 61. e-Gov in emerging countries 61 Cross applications for state management > A French financial IS – Chorus. > It took ten years to produce a consistent and integrated information system which meets the new requirements of the law, and an investment of > 1 billion euros.
  • 62. e-Gov in emerging countries 62 Digital identity
  • 63. e-Gov in emerging countries 63 E-Signature > The electronic signature allows to prove its identity online and to guarantee the author, the date and the content of a document. > It is mandatory for cross-border applications such as TRACFIN. > Several African states implement a legal, regulatory and normative framework allowing e-signature (ex.: Burkina, Jordan…).
  • 64. e-Gov in emerging countries 64 Fight against cybercrime According to Interpol, cybercrime is now comparable to drug trafficking. It reached 750 G€/year in Europe in 2011 and is constantly increasing. > In Africa, cyberattacks are said to have increased of 42%. > The most attacked countries: Morocco, Tunisia, Algeria, Mauritius, South Africa, Nigeria Cybercrimes: • piracy of computer data and information systems • Identity theft • dissemination of child sexual abuse images • Internet auction scams • unauthorized access to online financial services • propagation of viruses, • botnets deployment • email scam • phishing…
  • 65. e-Gov in emerging countries 65 Personal data protection Legally, states have a political choice to make regarding the protection of personal data. France: Act of 6 January 1978: information should be at the service of everyone. It should not undermine the human identity, neither human rights, neither personal privacy, neither public or personal liberties (amended by the Act of 6 August 2004). Europe: Directive 95/46/EC of 24 October 1995. Personal data can be transferred to a country outside the European Union only if “the state provides an adequate level of protection of privacy and fundamental rights and personal liberties” (art 25). Enlarged Europe: Convention of 23 November 2001 on the fight against cybercrime. Europe-USA: specific agreement called "Safe Harbor“. Europe: European regulation draft project.
  • 66. e-Gov in emerging countries 66 IS interoperability > Le RGI (Référentiel général d’interopérabilité) establishes technical rules to ensure data interoperability, based on standards provided by administrative authorities. States are no longer acting in an isolated world. People and goods move from one state to another, with interoperability problems => work internationally.
  • 67. e-Gov in emerging countries 67 Urbanisation of IS 128 computer rooms on nearly 20,000 m² 20 production units 50,000 physical and virtual servers 12 ministries About 1 million gigabytes of relevant data >500 m² >200 m² <200 m² MIOMCT MAEE MBCPFRE/MEFI MINDEF MTESMAAPRAT MJL MEDDTL MEN SPM * In France, the ministries manage 128 computer rooms, 8 of them are larger than 500 m², 34 are between 200 m² and 500 m², and 86 are smaller than 200 m². Key figures Location of state computer rooms in France
  • 68. e-Gov in emerging countries 68 Cloud computing > Cloud computing is a form of computer management in which the user accesses the data, but doesn’t know the location and the working in the cloud. > There are four main service models: • SaaS - Software as a Service • DaaS - Data as a Service • PaaS - Platform as a Service • IaaS - Infrastructure as a Service
  • 69. e-Gov in emerging countries 69 e-Gov in emerging countries Summary > The methodology identified for Africa is close to the ICT4D in Latin America > The size of the African market for e-Gov has been estimated at 6 billion euros.
  • 70. e-Gov in emerging countries 70 > A new step of the digital era emerges > 1) IT => 2) Internet => 3) Data What strategy for emerging countries? Neither immobilism but determination Nor precipitation and consultation e-Gov in emerging countries Conclusions
  • 71. e-Gov in emerging countries 71 Quickness Elite Population Longanimity Consultation Economic development Far from the people Immobilism Corruption Debt Quick wins e-Gov in emerging countries Impact of political choices
  • 72. e-Gov in emerging countries 72 Elite Personal data protection Population Creative and open society Surrender of sovereignty Society under control (Big Brother) Economic development e-Gov in emerging countries Impact of political choices
  • 73. e-Gov in emerging countries 73 At your disposal alain.ducass(((@))) NB Adetef often answers to tenders in a consortium in order to provide to the client a public-private complementary