“ I never met a Kentuckian who wasn ’ t going home. ”
Kentucky Gubernatorial Politics: 1899-1979   (Or: How We Came To Be Only Slightly Better than Arkansas & Mississippi)
Major (Print) Sources
“ I never met a Kentuckian who wasn ’ t going home. ”
Albert Benjamin  “ Happy ”  Chandler (1899-1991) <ul><li>Two-term governor (1935,  ’ 55; failed  ’ 63,  ’ 67,  ’ 71 ) </li...
Characteristics of Kentucky  <ul><li>Diverse Geography </li></ul><ul><li>“ Two Kentuckys ” </li></ul>
Diverse Geography <ul><li>Appalachia to the Jackson Purchase </li></ul>
“ Two Kentuckys ” Golden Triangle <ul><li>   Affluent </li></ul><ul><li>   Somewhat Diverse </li></ul><ul><li>   Somewh...
“ Two Kentuckys ” The Rest of the State <ul><li>More Governors </li></ul><ul><li>Eastern Kentucky </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex...
The Glue that Held Kentucky Together in the 20th Century <ul><li>Politics </li></ul><ul><li>The Courier-Journal  (KET) </l...
Characteristics of Kentucky ’ s 20th-Century Political Landscape <ul><li>Suspicious of Institutional Education (Especially...
Characteristics of Political Landscape:  Suspicion of Institutional Education <ul><li>Perceived threat to native cultural ...
Characteristics of Political Landscape: Belief in Kentucky ’ s Myths <ul><li>Daniel Boone Image </li></ul><ul><li>Rugged, ...
Characteristics of Political Landscape: “ 120 Little Kingdoms ” <ul><li>Many founded with graft corruption & bribery </li>...
Characteristics of Political Landscape: Roads, Roads, Roads <ul><li>Power of the Highway Commissioner – Jobs, Jobs, Jobs <...
Characteristics of Political Landscape: Heavy Influence of Religion <ul><li>Preponderance of Christian churches with evang...
Characteristics of Political Landscape: Slavery ’ s Stain <ul><li>More subtle than  “ Mississippi Burning ” </li></ul><ul>...
Characteristics of Political Landscape: Basketball <ul><li>Present in every county, city & town </li></ul><ul><li>Fed stro...
Characteristics of Political Landscape: Poor Entrepreneurial Climate; Limited Creative Class
Characteristics of Political Landscape: Constitution of 1891 <ul><li>Previous: 1792; 1799; 1850 </li></ul><ul><li>Suspicio...
Characteristics of Political Landscape: Governor vs. Immature Legislature <ul><li>Governor: Single ticket, no ticket until...
Major Characteristics of  20th-Century Kentucky (Gubernatorial) Politics <ul><li>STRONG governor; WEAK legislature </li></...
Characteristics of Kentucky Politics:  STRONG governor; WEAK legislature <ul><li>Governor:  full-time job; wrote the budge...
Characteristics of Kentucky Politics:   It ’ s All Local – State, Not U.S. <ul><li>Send your opponent to Congress (Alben B...
Characteristics of Kentucky Politics:   Devoid of Ideas (and Ideology) <ul><li>Few ideas with consequences – e.g., Augustu...
Characteristics of Kentucky Politics:  Courthouse Machines & Bosses <ul><li>All politics was local – Courthouse machines h...
Characteristics of Kentucky Politics:  One Party, Two Factions (1935-79) <ul><li>Chandler Faction vs. Clements Faction </l...
Characteristics of Kentucky Politics:   “ Bolting ” <ul><li>Tom Rhea in E of  ’ 35 for King Swope </li></ul><ul><li>Chandl...
Characteristics of Kentucky Politics:   Major Interest Groups Until 1935 <ul><li>L&N Railroad </li></ul><ul><li>Jockey Clu...
The Election of 1899
The Election of 1899: Backdrop <ul><li>Goebel Law: state Board of Election Commissioners to appoint three-member board </l...
The Election of 1899:  Nominees <ul><li>Democrats : William Goebel &  John Crepps Wyckliffe Beckham </li></ul><ul><li>“ Ho...
The Election of 1899:  Republican Players <ul><li>Governor: William S. Taylor of Butler County </li></ul><ul><li>Lt. Gover...
The Election of 1899:  First Returns <ul><li>William S. Taylor – 193,714 </li></ul><ul><li>William Goebel – 191,331 </li><...
The Election of 1899:  The First Reaction <ul><li>Democrats contested some results, throwing election over to Board of Ele...
The Election of 1899:  December 14 <ul><li>Election Board ruled for Taylor,  but  declared it had  no power  in a governor...
The Election of 1899:   January 15, 1900: Hearings Begin <ul><li>Held in Frankfort ’ s Capital Hotel ballroom </li></ul><u...
The  “ Old State Capitol ”
The Election of 1899:  January 30, 1900 <ul><li>Goebel, Col. Jack Chinn and State Warden Eph Lillard </li></ul><ul><li>Sho...
The Election of 1899: The Scene of the Crime
The Election of 1899:  January 31, 1900 <ul><li>Democratic legislators turned back by troops at State Capitol; turned back...
The Election of 1899:  National Media Coverage
The Election of 1899:  February 3, 1900 <ul><li>Goebel ’ s oysters </li></ul><ul><li>Goebel ’ s final words:  “ Be brave a...
Goebel Immortalized
<ul><li>“ Those oysters were </li></ul><ul><li>no damned good. ” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Doc, that was </li></ul><ul><li>a dam...
The Election of 1899:  Outcome &  Dénouement <ul><li>March 10: Jefferson Circuit Court judge rules in favor of Goebel & Be...
The Election of 1899:  Who Done It? <ul><li>Caleb Powers : convicted three times; pardoned in 1908; served in Congress (19...
The Election of 1899:  Consequences <ul><li>Kentucky ’ s image blackened in U.S. eyes ( “ Hillbilly Image ” ) </li></ul><u...
Into The 20th Century
Into The 20th Century <ul><li>1907-1931:  Four Democrats ,  Three Republicans  Elected Governor </li></ul><ul><li>E of 191...
Into The 20th Century <ul><li>December 8, 1931: Ruby Laffoon </li></ul><ul><li>is sworn in as Kentucky ’ s 43rd governor. ...
Into The 20th  “ Happy ”  Century <ul><li>December 8, 1931: Lieutenant Governor Albert Benjamin &quot;Happy&quot; Chandler...
A.B.  “ Happy ”  Chandler The Debut (Woodford County – 1935-39) <ul><li>1931: Elected lieutenant governor (Backed by Boss ...
Earle C. Clements The Man from Morgantown (Union County – 1947-50) <ul><li>Split with Chandler over Rhea in 1935 –  “ Clem...
“ Happy ”  Chandler The Encore  (1955-59) <ul><li>1955: Defeated Judge Bert T. Combs with charisma and by running against ...
Bert T. Combs The Little Judge (Floyd County – 1959-63) <ul><li>1959: defeated Harry Lee Waterfield in primary </li></ul><...
John Young Brown Jr. (Fayette County – 1979-83) <ul><li>End of a political era </li></ul><ul><li>March 27, 1979: Beginning...
Read More About It <ul><li>Campbell, Tracy.  Short of the Glory: The Fall and Redemption of Edward F. Prichard .  (1998) <...
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Kentucky Gubernatorial Politics -- Spring 2011

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Lindsey Wilson College "Kentucky Studies" class, February 2011.

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Kentucky Gubernatorial Politics -- Spring 2011

  1. 1. “ I never met a Kentuckian who wasn ’ t going home. ”
  2. 2. Kentucky Gubernatorial Politics: 1899-1979 (Or: How We Came To Be Only Slightly Better than Arkansas & Mississippi)
  3. 3. Major (Print) Sources
  4. 4. “ I never met a Kentuckian who wasn ’ t going home. ”
  5. 5. Albert Benjamin “ Happy ” Chandler (1899-1991) <ul><li>Two-term governor (1935, ’ 55; failed ’ 63, ’ 67, ’ 71 ) </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. senator (1939-45) </li></ul><ul><li>Major League Baseball Commissioner (1945-50) </li></ul><ul><li>Flirt with Dixiecrats in E of 1948 </li></ul><ul><li>Democrat “ Favorite Son ” in </li></ul><ul><li>E of 1956 </li></ul><ul><li>UK trustee and board chair </li></ul>
  6. 6. Characteristics of Kentucky <ul><li>Diverse Geography </li></ul><ul><li>“ Two Kentuckys ” </li></ul>
  7. 7. Diverse Geography <ul><li>Appalachia to the Jackson Purchase </li></ul>
  8. 8. “ Two Kentuckys ” Golden Triangle <ul><li> Affluent </li></ul><ul><li> Somewhat Diverse </li></ul><ul><li> Somewhat Educated </li></ul><ul><li> Power in Economics, Not Politics </li></ul><ul><li> Produced Few Governors </li></ul><ul><li>(Augustus E. Wilson; Lawrence Wetherby; John Y. Brown Jr.; Ernie Fletcher) </li></ul><ul><li> New Louisville-Lexington Axis? </li></ul>
  9. 9. “ Two Kentuckys ” The Rest of the State <ul><li>More Governors </li></ul><ul><li>Eastern Kentucky </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exploited; exported wealth – coal, timber & people </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Southern Kentucky </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Where ’ s that? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Few Political Leaders (Rep. Dr. Tim Lee Carter; Louie Nunn “ The Courageous ” & The Nunn Nickel) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Western Kentucky </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Southern Temperament </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agrarian </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. The Glue that Held Kentucky Together in the 20th Century <ul><li>Politics </li></ul><ul><li>The Courier-Journal (KET) </li></ul><ul><li>Big Blue (and sometimes UK; governor as BOT chair; $50K trustees) </li></ul>
  11. 11. Characteristics of Kentucky ’ s 20th-Century Political Landscape <ul><li>Suspicious of Institutional Education (Especially Rural) </li></ul><ul><li>Belief in Their Own Myths </li></ul><ul><li>“ Little Kingdoms ” </li></ul><ul><li>Roads, Roads, Roads </li></ul><ul><li>Heavy Influence of Religion </li></ul><ul><li>Slavery ’ s Stain (Absence of strong ethnic politics; Kentucky Irish American ; Louisville Defender ) </li></ul><ul><li>Basketball </li></ul><ul><li>Antiquated and Burdensome Constitution; strong executive, “immature” General Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Poor Entrepreneurial Climate; Limited Creative Class </li></ul><ul><li>Gubernatorial Election of 1899 </li></ul>
  12. 12. Characteristics of Political Landscape: Suspicion of Institutional Education <ul><li>Perceived threat to native cultural values. </li></ul><ul><li>No effort -- political or philanthropic -- to found great state (or private) universities. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Characteristics of Political Landscape: Belief in Kentucky ’ s Myths <ul><li>Daniel Boone Image </li></ul><ul><li>Rugged, proud, self-dependent </li></ul><ul><li>Tug Fork Feud </li></ul><ul><li>Resist cooperation and collective action (regional healthcare, consolidated schools) </li></ul><ul><li>About a generation behind the rest of the U.S. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Characteristics of Political Landscape: “ 120 Little Kingdoms ” <ul><li>Many founded with graft corruption & bribery </li></ul><ul><li>County machines (Marie Turner of Breathitt County; Emerson “ Doc ” Beauchamp of Logan County) </li></ul><ul><li>Provincialism & xenophobia </li></ul><ul><li>Impeded conditions for progress government </li></ul><ul><li>Beckham & Henrietta counties </li></ul>
  15. 15. Characteristics of Political Landscape: Roads, Roads, Roads <ul><li>Power of the Highway Commissioner – Jobs, Jobs, Jobs </li></ul><ul><li>Often obscured important issues in campaigns (Kentucky Turnpike & E of ’ 55) </li></ul><ul><li>Isolated Eastern Kentucky </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Before 1960: 17,000 miles of single- or two-lane road in region – 9,000 of which were either gravel or mud </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Characteristics of Political Landscape: Heavy Influence of Religion <ul><li>Preponderance of Christian churches with evangelical and fundamentalist leanings </li></ul><ul><li>Mainline Christian churches and other faiths had little influence outside of the “ Golden Triangle ” </li></ul>
  17. 17. Characteristics of Political Landscape: Slavery ’ s Stain <ul><li>More subtle than “ Mississippi Burning ” </li></ul><ul><li>Permeated education, politics & society </li></ul><ul><li>Kentucky Irish American (1898-1968) </li></ul><ul><li>Louisville Defender </li></ul><ul><li>Gov. Edwin Morrow </li></ul><ul><li>Kentucky Commission on Human Rights </li></ul>
  18. 18. Characteristics of Political Landscape: Basketball <ul><li>Present in every county, city & town </li></ul><ul><li>Fed strong sense of parochialism </li></ul><ul><li>Camouflaged state ’ s problems </li></ul>
  19. 19. Characteristics of Political Landscape: Poor Entrepreneurial Climate; Limited Creative Class
  20. 20. Characteristics of Political Landscape: Constitution of 1891 <ul><li>Previous: 1792; 1799; 1850 </li></ul><ul><li>Suspicious of Power </li></ul><ul><li>Counties: 400 square miles </li></ul><ul><li>Governor: Could not succeed himself (until 1992) </li></ul><ul><li>Split Governor and Lieutenant Governor (until 1992) </li></ul><ul><li>Governor lost authority when out of state (until 1992) </li></ul><ul><li>Constitutional Offices (governor, lieutenant governor, attorney general, state auditor, agriculture commission, state treasurer, secretary of state, superintendent of public instruction) </li></ul><ul><li>$5000 Salary Limit – 1949 Amendment to Keep Coach Rupp </li></ul><ul><li>Judicial Help – salaries and 1989 education decision (KERA) </li></ul><ul><li>Oath of Office </li></ul>
  21. 21. Characteristics of Political Landscape: Governor vs. Immature Legislature <ul><li>Governor: Single ticket, no ticket until 1992 </li></ul><ul><li>Governor: Appointed or blessed legislative leadership until 1980 Session (Gov. John Y. Brown Jr.) </li></ul><ul><li>General Assembly: No staff until 1948; Annex opened in 1950 </li></ul><ul><li>General Assembly: Dominated by Democrats until late-1990s </li></ul><ul><li>General Assembly: Met 60 days every two years until 1990s </li></ul><ul><li>General Assembly: 60 days in even years (budget sessions); 30 days in odd years </li></ul><ul><li>Kentucky Long-Term Policy Research Center: 1992-2010 (www.klrprc.info) </li></ul>
  22. 22. Major Characteristics of 20th-Century Kentucky (Gubernatorial) Politics <ul><li>STRONG governor; WEAK legislature </li></ul><ul><li>It ’ s all local – state, not federal, matters </li></ul><ul><li>Devoid of Ideas Because of Resistance to Progress on the State Level </li></ul><ul><li>Courthouse Machines & Bosses </li></ul><ul><li>One Party, Two Factions </li></ul><ul><li>“ Bolting ” </li></ul><ul><li>Major Interest Groups Until 1935 </li></ul>
  23. 23. Characteristics of Kentucky Politics: STRONG governor; WEAK legislature <ul><li>Governor: full-time job; wrote the budget; until recently (1992) could not run for re-election </li></ul><ul><li>Legislature: part-time ( “ immature ” ); two-year budget; until recently, no staff (LRC, 1948); met every other year </li></ul>
  24. 24. Characteristics of Kentucky Politics: It ’ s All Local – State, Not U.S. <ul><li>Send your opponent to Congress (Alben Barkley, Carl D. Perkins, John Sherman Cooper, Thruston Morton) </li></ul><ul><li>The most local elections attracted the most votes (and the most money) </li></ul>
  25. 25. Characteristics of Kentucky Politics: Devoid of Ideas (and Ideology) <ul><li>Few ideas with consequences – e.g., Augustus Owsley Stanley, dog tags and the E of ’ 15 </li></ul><ul><li>Personality-driven elections ( “ Happy ” Chandler as modern-day Daniel Boone; Wallace Wilkinson the “ self-made man ” – we like millionaires) </li></ul><ul><li>We hate government – unless we like it. (Examples: local vs. federal governments; building of “justice centers.”) </li></ul>
  26. 26. Characteristics of Kentucky Politics: Courthouse Machines & Bosses <ul><li>All politics was local – Courthouse machines held the key (and the money and booze) to most elections </li></ul><ul><li>Ballot-box stuffing </li></ul><ul><li>Schools: “ greed, inefficiency, nepotism ” </li></ul>
  27. 27. Characteristics of Kentucky Politics: One Party, Two Factions (1935-79) <ul><li>Chandler Faction vs. Clements Faction </li></ul><ul><li>Chandler Faction vs. Combs Faction </li></ul><ul><li>1979: John Young Brown Jr. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Characteristics of Kentucky Politics: “ Bolting ” <ul><li>Tom Rhea in E of ’ 35 for King Swope </li></ul><ul><li>Chandler in E of ’ 67 for Louie Nunn </li></ul>
  29. 29. Characteristics of Kentucky Politics: Major Interest Groups Until 1935 <ul><li>L&N Railroad </li></ul><ul><li>Jockey Club </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Racing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Textbooks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Whiskey </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. The Election of 1899
  31. 31. The Election of 1899: Backdrop <ul><li>Goebel Law: state Board of Election Commissioners to appoint three-member board </li></ul><ul><li>Populism in Kentucky </li></ul><ul><li>L&N Railroad </li></ul><ul><li>Two vibrant parties, but fractionalized Democrats </li></ul><ul><li>Republican governor (William O. Bradley) </li></ul>
  32. 32. The Election of 1899: Nominees <ul><li>Democrats : William Goebel & John Crepps Wyckliffe Beckham </li></ul><ul><li>“ Honest Election ” Democrats : John Young Brown (1891-95) </li></ul><ul><li>Populists : John G. Blair </li></ul><ul><li>Republicans : William S. Taylor (Attorney General) </li></ul>
  33. 33. The Election of 1899: Republican Players <ul><li>Governor: William S. Taylor of Butler County </li></ul><ul><li>Lt. Governor: John Marshall of Louisville </li></ul><ul><li>Secretary of State: Caleb Powers of Knox County </li></ul>
  34. 34. The Election of 1899: First Returns <ul><li>William S. Taylor – 193,714 </li></ul><ul><li>William Goebel – 191,331 </li></ul><ul><li>John Young Brown – 12,140 </li></ul><ul><li>John G. Blair – 2,936 </li></ul>
  35. 35. The Election of 1899: The First Reaction <ul><li>Democrats contested some results, throwing election over to Board of Election Commissioners </li></ul><ul><li>GOP sent armed Eastern Kentuckians into Frankfort </li></ul>
  36. 36. The Election of 1899: December 14 <ul><li>Election Board ruled for Taylor, but declared it had no power in a governor ’ s race </li></ul><ul><li>Democrats met in Frankfort to ask Goebel & Beckham to contest election </li></ul><ul><li>11-member committee chosen (governor: 10 Democrats, one Republican; lieutenant governor: nine Democrats, two Republicans) </li></ul>
  37. 37. The Election of 1899: January 15, 1900: Hearings Begin <ul><li>Held in Frankfort ’ s Capital Hotel ballroom </li></ul><ul><li>GOP met in Louisville ’ s Galt House and charged fraud </li></ul><ul><li>L&N brought 1,000 armed mountain men into Frankfort; 300 remained </li></ul><ul><li>January 29: hearings conclude </li></ul>
  38. 38. The “ Old State Capitol ”
  39. 39. The Election of 1899: January 30, 1900 <ul><li>Goebel, Col. Jack Chinn and State Warden Eph Lillard </li></ul><ul><li>Shots rang out from first-floor office of Caleb Powers </li></ul><ul><li>Legislators met in Frankfort City Hall and declared Goebel & Beckham the winners </li></ul><ul><li>Taylor ordered General Assembly to meet in London; Democrats refused </li></ul>
  40. 40. The Election of 1899: The Scene of the Crime
  41. 41. The Election of 1899: January 31, 1900 <ul><li>Democratic legislators turned back by troops at State Capitol; turned back again at Opera House, City Hall and Courthouse </li></ul><ul><li>Secret meeting of 19 senators and 57 representatives in Capitol Hotel; declared Goebel & Beckham winners </li></ul><ul><li>Goebel & Beckham sworn in twice </li></ul><ul><li>Taylor remained in governor ’ s chair </li></ul><ul><li>National media coverage </li></ul>
  42. 42. The Election of 1899: National Media Coverage
  43. 43. The Election of 1899: February 3, 1900 <ul><li>Goebel ’ s oysters </li></ul><ul><li>Goebel ’ s final words: “ Be brave and true and loyal to the great common people . ” </li></ul><ul><li>Goebel Dies </li></ul>
  44. 44. Goebel Immortalized
  45. 45. <ul><li>“ Those oysters were </li></ul><ul><li>no damned good. ” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Doc, that was </li></ul><ul><li>a damn poor oyster. ” </li></ul>The Election of 1899: February 3, 1900 Overheard
  46. 46. The Election of 1899: Outcome & Dénouement <ul><li>March 10: Jefferson Circuit Court judge rules in favor of Goebel & Beckham </li></ul><ul><li>April 6: Court of Appeals declares offices of governor and lieutenant governor vacant </li></ul><ul><li>May 21: Supreme Court refuses to overturn decision </li></ul><ul><li>Taylor abdicates to Indiana </li></ul><ul><li>Beckham sworn in, re-elected </li></ul>
  47. 47. The Election of 1899: Who Done It? <ul><li>Caleb Powers : convicted three times; pardoned in 1908; served in Congress (1911-19); GOP folk hero (E.P. “ Tom ” Sawyer) </li></ul><ul><li>Henry Youtsey : jailed; pardoned </li></ul><ul><li>“ Big Jim ” Howard : jailed; pardoned </li></ul>
  48. 48. The Election of 1899: Consequences <ul><li>Kentucky ’ s image blackened in U.S. eyes ( “ Hillbilly Image ” ) </li></ul><ul><li>Crippled state GOP – especially GOP mountain counties </li></ul><ul><li>Seeds of lingering bitterness planted </li></ul><ul><li>GOP: “ You stole the election ” </li></ul><ul><li>Democrats: “ You killed our governor. ” </li></ul>
  49. 49. Into The 20th Century
  50. 50. Into The 20th Century <ul><li>1907-1931: Four Democrats , Three Republicans Elected Governor </li></ul><ul><li>E of 1915: “ Free Old Ring! ” – Edwin Morrow vs. Augustus Owsley Stanley </li></ul>
  51. 51. Into The 20th Century <ul><li>December 8, 1931: Ruby Laffoon </li></ul><ul><li>is sworn in as Kentucky ’ s 43rd governor. </li></ul>
  52. 52. Into The 20th “ Happy ” Century <ul><li>December 8, 1931: Lieutenant Governor Albert Benjamin &quot;Happy&quot; Chandler Sr. watches. </li></ul>
  53. 53. A.B. “ Happy ” Chandler The Debut (Woodford County – 1935-39) <ul><li>1931: Elected lieutenant governor (Backed by Boss Ben Johnson) </li></ul><ul><li>Split with Laffoon over sales tax. </li></ul><ul><li>1935: “ Special Session ” – primary over conventions </li></ul><ul><li>1935: Elected governor over Thomas Rhea (“Ruby, Rhea & Ruin”); origins of feud with Clements </li></ul><ul><li>1939: Bolted to U.S. Senate </li></ul><ul><li>Accomplishments: free textbooks; teachers ’ retirement system; old-age assistance program; New Deal help </li></ul>
  54. 54. Earle C. Clements The Man from Morgantown (Union County – 1947-50) <ul><li>Split with Chandler over Rhea in 1935 – “ Clementine & Wetherbine ” </li></ul><ul><li>1950: Won U.S. Senate seat (succeeded by Lawrence Wetherby) </li></ul><ul><li>Accomplishments: modernized Kentucky; state parks; roads (second to Texas); Kentucky Fair & Exposition Center; LRC established; state police created; raised state employees ’ salaries (UK impact) </li></ul><ul><li>Lost Senate seat in ’ 56 to Thruston Morton </li></ul>
  55. 55. “ Happy ” Chandler The Encore (1955-59) <ul><li>1955: Defeated Judge Bert T. Combs with charisma and by running against “ taxers ” and the Kentucky Turnpike </li></ul><ul><li>$100 million bond for roads </li></ul><ul><li>UK Medical Center </li></ul><ul><li>Enforced desegregated state schools </li></ul><ul><li>Three more run: ’ 63, ’ 67, ’ 71 </li></ul>
  56. 56. Bert T. Combs The Little Judge (Floyd County – 1959-63) <ul><li>1959: defeated Harry Lee Waterfield in primary </li></ul><ul><li>“ Kentucky ’ s Camelot ” </li></ul><ul><li>Accomplishments: 3% sales tax for veterans ’ bonus, roads, education, parks, social services; state merit system; community college system; desegregated public places </li></ul>
  57. 57. John Young Brown Jr. (Fayette County – 1979-83) <ul><li>End of a political era </li></ul><ul><li>March 27, 1979: Beginning of first modern media campaign in Kentucky politics </li></ul><ul><li>Defeated the establishment (George Atkins, Carroll Hubbard Jr., Terry McBrayer, Harvey Sloane, Thelma Stovall) with 29%; hit the ball out of the infield </li></ul>
  58. 58. Read More About It <ul><li>Campbell, Tracy. Short of the Glory: The Fall and Redemption of Edward F. Prichard . (1998) </li></ul><ul><li>Chandler, Albert B. Heroes, Plain Folks and Skunks: The Life and Times of Happy Chandler . (1989) </li></ul><ul><li>Clark, Thomas D. A History of Kentucky . (1992 edition) </li></ul><ul><li>Harrison, Lowell and Klotter, James. A New History of Kentucky . (1997) </li></ul><ul><li>Kentucky Long-Term Policy Research Center (1992-2008): www.kltprc.info </li></ul><ul><li>Kleber, John (editor). The Kentucky Encyclopedia . (1992) </li></ul><ul><li>Pearce, John Ed. Divide and Dissent: Kentucky Politics , 1930-1963. (1991) </li></ul><ul><li>Schenkkan, Robert. The Kentucky Cycle . (1991) </li></ul><ul><li>Tifft, Susan and Jones, Alex. The Patriarch: The Rise and Fall of the Bingham Dynasty . (1991) </li></ul>

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