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Food Security in Focus: Sub-Saharan Africa

Food Security in Focus: Sub-Saharan Africa



Food security in focus: Sub-Saharan Africa 2014 is...

Food security in focus: Sub-Saharan Africa 2014 is
an Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) report
commissioned by DuPont. The report discusses the
major findings in the 2014 Global Food Security
Index (GFSI) for the 28 countries of Sub-Saharan
Africa included in the index.



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    Food Security in Focus: Sub-Saharan Africa Food Security in Focus: Sub-Saharan Africa Document Transcript

    • A report from The Economist Intelligence Unit Food securityinfocus: Sub-SaharanAfrica 2014 Sponsoredby
    • © The Economist Intelligence Unit Limited 20141 Food security in focus: Sub-Saharan Africa 2014 Food security in focus: Sub-Saharan Africa 2014 is an Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) report commissioned by DuPont. The report discusses the major findings in the 2014 Global Food Security Index (GFSI) for the 28 countries of Sub-Saharan Africa included in the index. About the GFSI The GFSI considers the core issues of affordability, availability, and quality & safety across a set of 109 countries. The index is a dynamic quantitative and qualitative benchmarking model, constructed from 28 unique indicators, that measures the drivers of food security across both developed and developing countries. Food security is defined as the state in which people at all times have physical, social and economic access to sufficient and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs for a healthy and active life, based on the definition established at the 1996 World Food Summit. The overall goal of the study is to assess the vulnerability of food systems to security and insecurity by looking at drivers of the Affordability, Availability, and Quality & Safety of food. The 2014 GFSI is the third annual index in this series. Acknowledgements Lucy Hurst, associate director of custom research for the Americas, was the project director. Joshua Grundleger, analyst, was the project manager. Katherine Stewart, research associate, was the editor of the Food security in focus series. Martin Vieiro, analyst, provided research and analytical support. Leo Abruzzese, global forecasting director and global director of public policy, served as senior adviser. William Shallcross designed and constructed the benchmarking model, and Mike Kenny was responsible for layout and design. Pratibha Thaker, regional director, Middle East & Africa, provided regional expertise. PrefaceContents A regional analysis of food security 2 Regional results and comparisons 3 Food security in Sub-Saharan Africa 6 The countries of Sub-Saharan Africa 9 Appendix 13
    • © The Economist Intelligence Unit Limited 20142 Food security in focus: Sub-Saharan Africa 2014 The Food security in focus regional reports identify both similarities and differences between countries in each region and highlight regional areas of strength and weakness, providing regional analysis and context to the results in the 2014 GFSI. Food security is a complex and nuanced issue, which can be analysed through many viewpoints and from many geographical perspectives— national, regional and global. To facilitate greater insight into the primary elements of global food security, and to develop a common standard against which all countries and regions can be measured, The Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) created the Global Food Security Index (GFSI). The index is a tool to be used by a wide range of organisations and individuals working to address food security and the smooth functioning of food systems at a variety of levels. Some of the major elements of food security and, in particular, the deficiencies that may lead to greater food insecurity, differ across the globe. The regional reports seek to facilitate a deeper analysis of food security through a unique lens. Specifically, these reports seek to: l Examine regional challenges, strengths and issues surrounding food security to gain greater insight into the study’s measures. l Provide a point of comparison between the regions to understand the dynamics of food security and the mechanisms that may be employed to address the unique issues that are experienced within a region. l Explore the role of regional commonalities— countries within a region tend to have similar environments, problems, solutions and, in some cases, may share common institutions. l Create more accurate country comparisons and a more nuanced understanding of food security by narrowing the frame of analysis. l Offer insight into the economic, political and social context of the results of the 2014 GFSI. A regional analysis of food security
    • © The Economist Intelligence Unit Limited 20143 Food security in focus: Sub-Saharan Africa 2014 Overview On a regional level, structural elements, which are generally more similar within regions than across the globe, tend to play an extremely important role in determining food security. Also, in regions that include countries with different economic systems, policy environments, agricultural infrastructures and nutritional standards, the gap in food security between best and worst performers is wider. These structural elements tend to change little year on year; however, when changes do occur, they have a greater impact on food security than other factors explored in the index. l Economic development has the largest impact on food security, as shown by the strong correlation between food affordability and food security. The top performers in the index are rich countries with developed economies; these tend Regional results and comparisons Ranking/score table of all regions Overall Rank Region 2014 GFSI Score 1 North America 80.0 2 Europe 75.4 3 Middle East and North Africa 57.4 4 Central and South America 56.0 5 Asia and Pacific 55.0 6 Sub-Saharan Africa 36.1 to have relatively high levels of GDP per capita and low shares of household expenditure on food. Although emerging economies are experiencing rapid GDP growth, resulting in increased Affordability scores and greater urban absorption capacity, the gap between developed and developing countries is still great. l The most food-secure countries also tend to have developed infrastructures, including advanced agricultural infrastructures and facilities and systems that support agricultural investment and research and development (R&D). Transport infrastructure, including road and port systems, and adequate crop storage facilities drive food availability and are underdeveloped and undersupplied across food-insecure countries owing to underinvestment.
    • © The Economist Intelligence Unit Limited 20144 Food security in focus: Sub-Saharan Africa 2014 l A stable, efficient and functional policy environment is crucial for food security. More food-insecure regions, as well as countries, frequently have higher political stability risk and corruption levels, alongside weaker institutions that fail to provide appropriate government regulation and oversight. By contrast, the more food-secure regions have robust policy environments that facilitate food accessibility through stable supply chains, and affordability through food safety-net programmes. l Nutrition plays an important role in determining food security. Highly food-secure countries have diversified diets and a high quality of protein. Their diets contain a high level of micronutrients, including iron and vitamin A. More food-insecure countries are often deprived of nutritious diets and lack organisations that regulate nutritional standards. Regional results North America and Europe, which collectively encompass 29 of the 109 countries in the index, recorded the strongest performances in the GFSI, driven by the developed countries’ dominance of those regions. l As two regions comprised primarily of rich countries, Europe and North America have high levels of GDP per capita at an average of US$32,462 measured in terms of purchasing power parity (PPP), compared with an average of US$9,900 at PPP in the other four regions, while an average of 17.7% of household expenditure goes on food—just over half the global average of 34.5%. l Wealth corresponds with high sufficiency of food supply, developed agricultural infrastructure, strong diet diversification, relatively low political stability risk and low corruption levels (Ukraine and Russia are exceptions). These factors contribute to North America’s and Europe’s first and second place rankings respectively in the overall index and in each of the categories. Availability Rank Region Score 1 North America 76.7 2 Europe 69.8 3 Asia and Pacific 55.6 4 Middle East and North Africa 55.0 5 Central and South America 54.1 6 Sub-Saharan Africa 42.1 Affordability Rank Region Score 1 North America 83.6 2 Europe 80.3 3 Middle East and North Africa 59.1 4 Central and South America 56.8 5 Asia and Pacific 53.9 6 Sub-Saharan Africa 29.2
    • © The Economist Intelligence Unit Limited 20145 Food security in focus: Sub-Saharan Africa 2014 The next three highest-ranked regions—the Middle East & North Africa (MENA), Central & South America and Asia & Pacific—together account for 52 countries in the index. They all fall within a range of 2.4 points and share several common factors: l They are comprised of a mixture of developed and developing countries that vary in terms of economic and political structures. l MENA’s strong Affordability score (third overall), which is 2.3 points ahead of Central & South America, and its third-place tie in Quality & Safety with Central & South America account for its overall third-place regional rank in the index. l Asia & Pacific’s comparatively high percentage of the population under the global poverty line and low diet diversification explain its lower scores in the Affordability and Quality & Safety categories. Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has the lowest regional score in the 2014 GFSI, with an overall score that is just two-thirds that of the Asia & Pacific region. l It also scores the lowest in each of the Affordability, Availability and Quality & Safety categories, owing to the large percentage of low-income countries in the region; of the 28 countries included in the region, 18 are low- income, according to World Bank income classifications. l Low agricultural import tariffs and commitment to agricultural research and development, while still weak, are areas of relative strength in comparison with select regions, but underdeveloped agricultural infrastructure, low income levels and poor diet diversification drive the region’s poor results. Quality & Safety Rank Region Score 1 North America 80.3 2 Europe 78.9 =3 Central and South America 59.5 =3 Middle East and North Africa 59.5 5 Asia and Pacific 56.4 6 Sub-Saharan Africa 36.8
    • © The Economist Intelligence Unit Limited 20146 Food security in focus: Sub-Saharan Africa 2014 Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has the lowest regional scores in the GFSI for a number of reasons. Food security, particularly food affordability, in many countries in SSA is undermined by low average incomes, widespread poverty and a heavy reliance on costly food imports. Although SSA has experienced record-high economic growth rates over the past five years, it remains by far the poorest region of the world. According to the World Bank, 18 countries (almost 65% of the SSA countries included in the GFSI) are classified as low-income countries, and an estimated 50% of the population continues to live on less than US$1.25 (weighted at purchasing power parity— PPP—rates) per day. In addition, most farming in SSA is highly fragmented and makes little use of modern farming and productivity-enhancing techniques (mechanisation rates, fertiliser use and irrigation cover are all low), which undermines agricultural output and makes the region a net food importer. Food security is further undermined by the fact that national populations across much of SSA are spread over large geographical areas and are poorly served by weak transport infrastructure, logistics services and distribution channels. Finally, political unrest and armed conflict continue to affect food security in countries such as the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Mali, Somalia and Nigeria, which has restricted access to agricultural land and food distribution, internally displaced local populations and led to an influx of refugees in neighbouring countries. Regional highlights SSA has seen a strengthening of its food security position over the past year, with 20 (71%) of the countries in the region recording an overall improvement in score, compared with eight countries recording a decline. This largely reflects the continued rapid pace of economic growth across the region—SSA has accounted for eight of the world’s 20 fastest-growing economies over the past five years (2009-13). SSA also has an abundance of agricultural resources (land and water), and an increasing policy focus on the agricultural sector provides some support to food affordability and availability. Market reforms in SSA and higher prices have renewed the interest of private-sector investors in agriculture, and this, together with strong public investment and continued donor support for infrastructure development and improved farming practices, is providing some support to rural incomes and encouraging agricultural production and productivity gains. Increased use of technology has helped to overcome traditional infrastructure constraints by providing more efficient and effective information flows and encouraging greater agricultural market integration, although the use of agricultural innovations remains limited. Food security in Sub-Saharan Africa
    • © The Economist Intelligence Unit Limited 20147 Food security in focus: Sub-Saharan Africa 2014 Regional strengths: Fast forward The region’s score is highest for the Availability category, followed by Quality & Safety and then Affordability, although all category scores remain well below those of all other geographical regions. Affordability has seen the largest year-on-year improvement, and SSA has seen the highest increase in food affordability of any region bar Europe. The increase in affordability is largely linked to rapid economic growth and rising household incomes, as a result of which most countries in the region have seen reductions in the proportion of the population under the national poverty line and the percentage of household income spent on food. Continued donor support for rural development, poverty reduction measures and reasonably high farm-gate prices have contributed to an improvement in rural incomes and food affordability. In addition, international donor support and expansionary fiscal policies in SSA have contributed to an increase in food safety nets throughout the region, while all countries have seen a reduction in agricultural import tariffs. The region’s highest score in the Affordability category was for agricultural import tariffs, although it still scores below all other geographical regions with the exception of the Middle East & North Africa owing to limited progress on liberalising agricultural trade and lowering food import tariffs over the past two decades. Collectively, these changes have resulted in increases in affordability in all countries except Niger, Madagascar, South Africa and Burkina Faso. SSA has seen the biggest increase of all regions in the Availability and Quality & Safety categories. The improvement in the availability of food has been driven by lower volatility of agricultural production, reflecting investment in infrastructure and farming practices and an improvement in political stability risk for many countries. Additionally, the region scores well on urban absorption capacity, a result of rapid real GDP growth across most of SSA that has outpaced the urbanisation rate. The improvement in food quality and safety is attributable to continued donor support and a strengthening of public institutions, which has facilitated a greater focus on raising nutritional standards (including improved monitoring and surveillance) and on food safety. Agencies have become more effective in ensuring the safety of food, and focus has been placed on developing and regulating the formal grocery sector. Regional weaknesses: The great gap Given its status as the poorest region of the world with one of the fastest-growing populations, SSA receives the lowest regional score for GDP per capita. In addition to food affordability issues, the underdeveloped nature of the farming sector and agricultural markets in most of SSA means that diets remain largely imbalanced and heavily dependent on cereals, roots and tubers. Consequently, SSA scores very poorly for dietary 0 20 40 60 80 100 Population under the global poverty line, under $2/day (PPP), Sub-Saharan Africa % Congo (Dem. Rep.) Burundi Madagascar Tanzania Zambia Nigeria Chad Rwanda Malawi Mozambique Sierra Leone Mali Benin Niger Burkina Faso Guinea Angola Kenya Ethiopia Uganda Senegal Togo Ghana Côte d’Ivoire Sudan South Africa Cameroon Botswana Source: Economist Intelligence Unit
    • © The Economist Intelligence Unit Limited 20148 Food security in focus: Sub-Saharan Africa 2014 availability of animal iron and protein quality. Corruption is a common feature of the business environment throughout SSA and can seriously affect food availability by raising food costs and interrupting production and distribution channels. Similarly, SSA has a poor track record of public (and private) expenditure on agricultural research and development (R&D), which tends to be highly volatile and closely linked to the availability of donor and development bank funding.
    • © The Economist Intelligence Unit Limited 20149 Food security in focus: Sub-Saharan Africa 2014 The countries of Sub-Saharan Africa Sub-Saharan Africa is a broad and varied region, but it can be roughly divided into four distinct geographical areas for the purpose of analysing intra-regional food security: Southern Africa, Eastern Africa, Western Africa and Central Africa. l Southern Africa, led by South Africa, has the highest overall food security score, reflecting higher income levels and relatively more developed farming sectors than in other areas of SSA. l Eastern Africa is a fast-growing but extremely poor area of Africa, where food security is undermined by low incomes, poor infrastructure, underdeveloped farming sectors and erratic weather conditions. Eastern Africa has the largest number of people suffering from stressed to emergency levels of food insecurity, according to the Global Hunger Index (2013) of the International Food Policy Research Institute, which ranks countries such as Burundi, Mozambique, Zambia, Tanzania and Ethiopia as having the highest proportion of undernourished people in SSA. Political unrest and armed conflict affect Eastern Africa and compound the issues surrounding food security. l Western Africa demonstrates mixed fortunes with regard to food security. Affordability is poor across most countries, although Benin, Côte d’Ivoire, Senegal, Sierra Leone and Nigeria have recorded the most improvement in affordability over the past year. Hunger levels, as measured by the proportion of undernourished people, tend to be lower than in Eastern Africa, which reflects relatively high levels of food supply compared with other areas of Africa. However, factors such as poor infrastructure, political instability, weak institutions and corruption undermine Availability and Quality & Safety. l Central Africa performs poorly on all aspects of food security with the exception of Cameroon. The sufficiency of food supply is low, agricultural infrastructure is very poor, particularly in Chad and the DRC, and the prevalence of malnutrition is high. Sub-regional highlights Food affordability has a nearly perfect correlation with food security in the GFSI. Low average incomes, widespread poverty and a heavy reliance on food imports make the region, which already suffers from low availability, vulnerable to fluctuating food prices. Prices of internationally traded food commodities have declined since reaching a historical high in August 2012. The price fall, particularly in the second half of 2013 and opening quarter of 2014, reflects record harvests of wheat, maize and rice, increasing availability of supplies, and stronger global stocks that have continued to drive down global prices. However,
    • © The Economist Intelligence Unit Limited 201410 Food security in focus: Sub-Saharan Africa 2014 global food prices remain high by historical standards and are not far off their 2012 peak. Food prices typically vary considerably among the Sub-Saharan sub-regions and across countries, reflecting localised variations in agricultural output. For instance, cereal prices in Western Africa have remained stable or dropped as increased supplies from coastal countries have offset limited production in the Sahel. In Eastern and Central Africa, maize prices have remained at high levels but have decreased slightly in line with favourable harvests and strong supplies. On the other hand, maize prices in Southern Africa have remained high or increased owing to tight supplies, strong demand, currency depreciations and concerns about future harvests. Dry weather and rising demand have worsened food shortages in parts of SSA, particularly Southern Africa. In parts of Southern Africa, drought has damaged crops and cut food supplies for countries lacking the resources to import cheaper grain from overseas. For instance, Malawi saw a sharp seasonal rise in food price inflation in early 2013, as supplies were stretched, and then a steep fall once local cereal harvests were collected in May. Sharp currency depreciation following the shift to a floating exchange-rate regime in May 2012 contributed significantly to the rise in food prices in Malawi, affecting the price of food imports as well as the cost of key inputs such as fuel and fertilisers. Food security successes South Africa and Botswana have by far the highest overall food security score in SSA, although both have experienced a fall in the past year. South Africa is the most developed and second-largest economy (behind Nigeria) in SSA and is one of the region’s wealthiest, while both South Africa and Botswana have well-developed agricultural infrastructures by regional standards, which includes adequate food storage that helps reduce food loss. South Africa has a well-developed agricultural economy, with a large commercial farming sector and more subsistence-based production in remote rural areas, which collectively make South Africa self-sufficient in virtually all major agricultural products and a net food exporter. Botswana is nearly self-sufficient in most agricultural products. Uganda has the most improved overall score in the region, driven by improvements across eight indicators. A reduction in agricultural volatility and a decrease in the share of household income spent Correlation between overall score and affordability score Overall score v Affordability, Sub-Saharan Africa Source: Economist Intelligence Unit 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 Affordability Overall score Overall score: Rating 0–100 Affordability: Rating 0-100 Correlation (x,y) 0.99 CONGO (DEM. REP.) CHAD MADAGASCAR TANZANIA BOTSWANAUGANDA CÔTE D’IVOIRE CAMEROON TOGO BURUNDI NIGER MOZAMBIQUE BURKINA FASO MALAWI ETHIOIA GUINEA SUDAN SIERRA LEONE BENIN GHANAKENYA SENEGAL NIGERIA RWANDA ZAMBIA MALI SOUTH AFRICA
    • © The Economist Intelligence Unit Limited 201411 Food security in focus: Sub-Saharan Africa 2014 on food are the main drivers of Uganda’s improvement, while the country has also benefited from greater political stability. A central tenet of government policy has been the modernisation of Uganda’s agricultural sector, which has resulted in improvements across all categories. Uganda and Côte d’Ivoire both score relatively highly in terms of affordability compared with their SSA peers, despite their low levels of GDP per head (PPP), reflecting the relatively low share of household income spent on food items and the comparatively small proportion of the population below the global poverty line in both countries. Food availability is fairly high in Côte d’Ivoire, facilitated by a combination of domestic food supply and food aid, while volatility of agricultural production in both countries is very low. Other countries across the region have experienced score improvements. Most notably, reductions in the volatility of agricultural production and improved infrastructure and political stability have resulted in Togo’s score increase, while improved nutritional standards, diet diversification, enhanced affordability and greater political stability have driven change in Malawi. In Burundi, improvements have been propelled by a reduction in the share of household income spent on food and the increased presence of food safety nets. Food security challenges Very low incomes and high poverty rates, together with a lack of adequate safety nets, mean that the DRC, Chad and Madagascar are the worst- performing countries in the GFSI. Agricultural infrastructure is very weak following years of underinvestment, while high levels of political instability and security concerns further undermine food security; diets, particularly in the DRC and Madagascar, are imbalanced and lack essential nutrients. The situation is compounded by inefficient and weak institutions, with little government focus on food safety and nutrition. Madagascar recorded the greatest deterioration in overall food security in the region owing to political instability and insecurity over the past year, although conditions improved in early 2014 following the presidential election in late 2013. Despite this, the risk of civil conflict remains significant. Weakened government effectiveness and public institutions have seen a deterioration in nutritional standards, while underinvestment in agricultural infrastructure and low household income growth have contributed to the deterioration in the country’s overall food security score. Other countries in SSA showing the greatest deterioration include Niger, where food security has been undermined by political instability, 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 Jan 2000 Jan 2001 Jan 2002 Jan 2003 Jan 2004 Jan 2005 Jan 2006 Jan 2007 Jan 2008 Jan 2009 Jan 2010 Jan 2011 Jan 2012 Jan 2013 Malawi Food price inflation Jan 2005=100 Source: Economist Intelligence Unit; FAO.
    • © The Economist Intelligence Unit Limited 201412 Food security in focus: Sub-Saharan Africa 2014 security concerns and mediocre economic growth by regional standards, and Mozambique, where food security has suffered from limited and ineffective government intervention in the agricultural sector, which has seen productivity stagnate and nutritional standards fall. Additionally, flooding has undermined harvests and contributed to an increase in the volatility of agricultural output over the past year. Real GDP growth in South Africa lags behind that of many other countries in the region, and the country has suffered from a period of currency weakness amid concerns about slow growth, a large trade deficit, weaker commodity prices, strikes and global monetary uncertainty. Sluggish economic growth, persistently high levels of unemployment and currency weakness have curtailed income growth and undermined the purchasing power of South African households, which has affected the country’s food security. Nonetheless, South Africa remains the regional leader in food security.
    • © The Economist Intelligence Unit Limited 201413 Food security in focus: Sub-Saharan Africa 2014 Appendix Asia & Pacific Central & South America Europe Middle East & North Africa North America Sub-Saharan Africa Australia Argentina Austria Algeria Canada Angola Azerbaijan Bolivia Belarus Egypt Mexico Benin Bangladesh Brazil Belgium Israel United States Botswana Cambodia Chile Bulgaria Jordan Burkina Faso China Colombia Czech Republic Kuwait Burundi India Costa Rica Denmark Morocco Cameroon Indonesia Dominican Republic Finland Saudi Arabia Chad Japan Ecuador France Syria Congo (Dem. Rep.) Kazakhstan El Salvador Germany Tunisia Côte d’Ivoire Malaysia Guatemala Greece Turkey Ethiopia Myanmar Haiti Hungary United Arab Emirates Ghana Nepal Honduras Ireland Yemen Guinea New Zealand Nicaragua Italy Kenya Pakistan Panama Netherlands Madagascar Philippines Paraguay Norway Malawi Singapore Peru Poland Mali South Korea Uruguay Portugal Mozambique Sri Lanka Venezuela Romania Niger Tajikistan Russia Nigeria Thailand Serbia Rwanda Uzbekistan Slovakia Senegal Vietnam Spain Sierra Leone Sweden South Africa Switzerland Sudan Ukraine Tanzania United Kingdom Togo Uganda Zambia Country selection table
    • © The Economist Intelligence Unit Limited 201414 Food security in focus: Sub-Saharan Africa 2014 Appendix These tables list the rankings and scores for Sub-Saharan Africa in the overall index and across the three categories (Affordability, Availability and Quality & Safety). Overall Ranking Affordability Overall Rank Country Score Rank Country Score 1 South Africa 61.1 1 South Africa 57.9 2 Botswana 60.7 2 Botswana 55.0 3 Uganda 45.6 3 Uganda 45.4 4 Côte d’Ivoire 44.7 4 Côte d’Ivoire 44.8 5 Ghana 43.1 =5 Benin 36.2 6 Kenya 40.1 =5 Cameroon 36.2 =7 Benin 38.4 7 Kenya 35.1 =7 Senegal 38.4 8 Ghana 34.7 9 Cameroon 38.1 9 Senegal 32.9 10 Nigeria 36.5 10 Angola 32.0 =11 Ethiopia 35.8 11 Ethiopia 30.5 =11 Sierra Leone 35.8 12 Sierra Leone 28.1 13 Angola 34.4 13 Guinea 27.8 14 Rwanda 34.2 14 Sudan 27.1 15 Malawi 33.9 15 Malawi 27.0 16 Mali 33.4 16 Burkina Faso 24.7 17 Sudan 32.7 17 Mozambique 23.4 18 Zambia 32.6 18 Burundi 23.0 19 Guinea 32.5 19 Togo 22.8 20 Burkina Faso 31.6 20 Zambia 22.2 21 Mozambique 31.0 21 Nigeria 21.7 22 Niger 30.5 22 Niger 21.5 23 Tanzania 29.9 23 Rwanda 20.1 24 Burundi 28.8 24 Mali 19.9 25 Togo 28.4 25 Tanzania 18.6 26 Madagascar 27.7 26 Chad 17.4 25 Chad 25.5 25 Congo (Dem. Rep.) 16.0 26 Congo (Dem. Rep.) 24.8 26 Madagascar 15.1 Availability Quality & Safety Rank Country Score Rank Country Score 1 Botswana 67.8 1 South Africa 57.5 2 South Africa 65.3 2 Botswana 55.2 3 Côte d’Ivoire 52.7 3 Ghana 49.8 4 Ghana 48.3 4 Uganda 47.7 5 Nigeria 47.7 5 Rwanda 46.3 6 Mali 45.7 6 Cameroon 45.7 7 Uganda 45.0 7 Niger 45.6 8 Kenya 44.0 8 Nigeria 42.4 9 Senegal 43.4 9 Kenya 41.8 10 Zambia 43.3 10 Sudan 41.5 11 Ethiopia 42.8 11 Burundi 39.1 =12 Mozambique 42.6 12 Senegal 38.5 =12 Rwanda 42.6 13 Sierra Leone 38.3 14 Sierra Leone 42.0 14 Malawi 37.7 15 Tanzania 41.5 15 Benin 36.6 16 Benin 41.1 16 Burkina Faso 34.9 17 Madagascar 40.9 17 Guinea 34.2 18 Malawi 38.7 18 Chad 33.7 19 Cameroon 37.1 19 Angola 33.5 20 Angola 36.9 20 Mali 33.4 =21 Burkina Faso 36.6 21 Ethiopia 29.6 =21 Togo 36.6 22 Zambia 29.4 23 Guinea 36.0 23 Congo (Dem. Rep.) 28.5 24 Sudan 34.6 24 Tanzania 26.5 25 Niger 33.2 25 Madagascar 23.1 26 Congo (Dem. Rep.) 31.4 26 Côte d’Ivoire 22.2 25 Burundi 30.4 25 Togo 19.8 26 Chad 30.0 26 Mozambique 18.0
    • © The Economist Intelligence Unit Limited 201415 Food security in focus: Sub-Saharan Africa 2014 Appendix These tables list the year-on-year score changes, 2014 v 2013, for Sub-Saharan Africa in the overall index and across the three categories (Affordability, Availability and Quality & Safety). Overall Ranking Affordability Country Y-o-Y change Country Y-o-Y change Uganda 5.8 Benin 11.2 Togo 5.2 Malawi 10.5 Malawi 4.9 Senegal 7.6 Benin 4.8 Sudan 6.9 Mali 4.7 Nigeria 6.6 Sierra Leone 4.7 Uganda 6.5 Sudan 4.7 Sierra Leone 6.2 Côte d’Ivoire 4.3 Côte d’Ivoire 5.9 Rwanda 3.5 Ethiopia 4.3 Nigeria 3.4 Mali 4.3 Ethiopia 2.7 Chad 4.2 Congo (Dem. Rep.) 2.6 Zambia 3.5 Angola 2.4 Angola 3.3 Senegal 2.3 Congo (Dem. Rep.) 3.1 Chad 1.7 Burundi 3.0 Zambia 1.7 Cameroon 2.3 Kenya 1.4 Guinea 1.6 Cameroon 1.2 Botswana 1.0 Ghana 0.8 Rwanda 0.9 Guinea 0.4 Tanzania 0.7 Botswana -0.1 Togo 0.6 Burundi -0.2 Mozambique 0.6 Burkina Faso -0.4 Kenya 0.5 Tanzania -0.9 Ghana 0.5 South Africa -1.0 Burkina Faso -2.0 Mozambique -1.0 South Africa -2.9 Niger -1.6 Madagascar -4.3 Madagascar -3.1 Niger -4.8 Availability Quality & Safety Country Y-o-Y change Country Y-o-Y change Togo 11.8 Rwanda 11.9 Uganda 7.2 Congo (Dem. Rep.) 10.7 Côte d’Ivoire 5.0 Mali 9.7 Sierra Leone 3.8 Sudan 8.3 Mali 3.3 Malawi 7.4 Rwanda 2.6 Ethiopia 7.0 Angola 2.6 Burundi 6.1 Sudan 1.3 Nigeria 5.7 Benin 1.0 Ghana 5.2 Kenya 0.9 Kenya 5.2 Burkina Faso 0.9 Sierra Leone 3.5 South Africa 0.5 Cameroon 3.0 Niger 0.3 Zambia 2.2 Chad 0.2 Niger 1.4 Zambia 0.0 Uganda 0.5 Guinea -0.2 Chad 0.2 Nigeria -0.3 Botswana 0.0 Ethiopia -0.5 Burkina Faso -0.2 Cameroon -0.5 Angola -0.2 Ghana -0.6 South Africa -0.4 Tanzania -0.8 Benin -0.4 Congo (Dem. Rep.) -0.9 Senegal -0.8 Madagascar -1.1 Guinea -1.5 Botswana -1.1 Côte d’Ivoire -1.6 Malawi -1.2 Togo -1.8 Mozambique -1.3 Mozambique -4.3 Senegal -1.3 Tanzania -5.1 Burundi -5.3 Madagascar -5.7
    • © The Economist Intelligence Unit Limited 201416 Food security in focus: Sub-Saharan Africa 2014 Whilst every effort has been taken to verify the accuracy of this information, neither The Economist Intelligence Unit Ltd. nor the sponsor of this report can accept any responsibility or liability for reliance by any person on this white paper or any of the information, opinions or conclusions set out in the white paper. Cover:Getty
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