Agricultural Innovation & Productivity for the 21st Century

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In 2010, DuPont responded to the global food security challenge by convening a group of experts in global agriculture, development, science, policy and economics to form the Committee. Over the course of a year, the Committee met several times, beginning with a listening tour with farmers in Iowa, and including a week-long meeting in Africa with a di- verse group including farmers, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and government leaders, among others. The Committee explored complex issues around meeting global food demand to provide recommendations on potential solutions, including how DuPont can play a unique and catalytic role in addressing the challenge ahead.

The Committee explored the issues through the lens of both the developed and devel- oping world, with farmers as its focus. Specifically, the Committee examined issues of farmer productivity, including technology and innovation; capacity building; infrastruc- ture needs; education; policy and regulatory challenges relating to markets and trade; intellectual property (IP); and environmental, economic and social sustainability.

The Committee commends the leadership, engagement and support of DuPont and its team during this process and looks forward to the company’s more specific responses to these recommendations. Set forth below in this Report is a summary of the key issues and findings of the Committee, and its recommendations for the agricultural community.

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Agricultural Innovation & Productivity for the 21st Century

  1. 1. Dupont Advisory Committee onAgriculturalInnovation &ProductivityFor The21St CenturyReport and Recommendations
  2. 2. 2011 SUMMMARY
  3. 3. PAGE 1 2011SUMMARYThe world is faced with the vast challenge of meeting ever-increasing food demands placedon the agriculture sector due to a rapidly growing population. In fact, the world populationhas been increasing by an estimated 78 million each year, about the size of the popula-tion of Germany.1 Challenges around food security – ensuring there is enough food to meetdemand – will be exacerbated when the population surpasses 9 billion by 2050 and 10billion by the turn of the century.2 Global food production must be 70 percent greater thantoday’s level to close the deficit between supply and demand, commonly referred to as theproductivity gap.3 And, it must be done without using substantially more land. With currentgrain stocks at historically low levels and food demand increasing at rates higher than pro-duction, the challenge is not decades into the future, but is here today.Populations continue to migrate from rural · Address the challenge in a continuouslyto urban areas at high rates; by 2050, ap- more sustainable and comprehensive way.proximately 70 percent of the world’s popu-lation will live in cities and large towns (up To address these needs, a multi-faceted,from 49 percent today).4 This means that the innovative approach is required. Exist-majority of the population will not live near ing knowledge and practices, as well aswhere food is grown. Consumer preferences new science and technology, must be dis-will also change as per capita incomes in seminated to enable all farmers arounddeveloping countries rise, which will cause the world to be successful. The challengediets to gradually move away from staples requires new types of investments, policytowards increased consumption of meats and regulatory structures, and creative col- 1 United Nations Population Fund, Fact Sheet: Population Growth and Povertyand processed foods.5 These demands be- laborations among a variety of global and (August 2009) available at http://www. unfpa.org/public/home/factsheets/come more complex when coupled with a local partners, and between the public and pid/3856.scarcity of key resources, such as water and private sectors. 2 Gillis, J. and Dugger, C. W., U.N. Forecastsarable land, as well as climate change and 10.1 Billion People by Century’s End, N. Y. The DuPont Advisory Committee on Agri- Times, (May 3, 2011) available at http://other environmental challenges. In addi- www.nytimes.com/2011/05/04world/tion, as populations grow and age, there is cultural Innovation & Productivity for the 04population.html; United Nations 21st Century (the “Committee”) was es- Press Release, World Population to Reacha greater need for more nutritious food to 10 Billion by 2100 if Fertility in Allensure health and wellness. tablished to address these issues and to Countries Converges to Replacement Level, prepare a report including recommenda- (May 3, 2011) available at http://esa. un.org/unpd/wpp/index.htm.This unique set of variables creates one tions for DuPont and global leaders in ag- 3 Organization for Economic Co-Operationof the most challenging issues the world riculture, policymakers and business lead- and Development (OECD) – Food and Agricultural Organization of the Unitedhas ever faced, and one that threatens the ers (the “Report”). DuPont is committed to Nations (FAO), OECD-FAO Agricultural Out- addressing the food productivity gap and look 2010-2019 – Highlights (June 15,political and economic stability of nations 2010) available at http://www.oecd.org/around the world. The urgency of this chal- will evaluate the recommendations and document/10/0,3746,en_36774715_3 6775671_42852746_1_1_1_1,00&&lenge demands concerted efforts from all respond with commitments that align with en-USS_01DBC.html.stakeholders, beginning now. The chal- its key competency in using science to de- 4 FAO, 2050: A Third More Mouths to Feed: Food Production Will Have to Increase bylenge is three-fold: liver innovation and its longstanding belief 70 percent - FAO Convenes High-Level that collaboration is key to addressing the Expert Forum available at http://www.fao. org/news/story/en/item/35571/.· Produce more food and increase the world’s important challenges. nutritional value of food; 5 OECD – FAO, OECD-FAO Agricultural Out- look 2010-2019 – Highlights (June 15, 2010) available at http://www.oecd.org/· Make food accessible and affordable for document/10/0,3746,en_36774715_ 36775671_42852746_1_1_1_1,00&&en- everyone; and USS_01DBC.html.
  4. 4. 2011 BACKGROUND BACKGROUND DuPont Advisory Committee on Agricultural Innovation & Productivity for the 21st Century. In 2010, DuPont responded to the global food security challenge by convening a group of experts in global agriculture, development, science, policy and economics to form the Committee. Over the course of a year, the Committee met several times, beginning with a listening tour with farmers in Iowa, and including a week-long meeting in Africa with a di- verse group including farmers, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and government leaders, among others. The Committee explored complex issues around meeting global food demand to provide recommendations on potential solutions, including how DuPont can play a unique and catalytic role in addressing the challenge ahead. The Committee explored the issues through the lens of both the developed and devel- oping world, with farmers as its focus. Specifically, the Committee examined issues of farmer productivity, including technology and innovation; capacity building; infrastruc- ture needs; education; policy and regulatory challenges relating to markets and trade; intellectual property (IP); and environmental, economic and social sustainability. The Committee commends the leadership, engagement and support of DuPont and its team during this process and looks forward to the company’s more specific responses to these recommendations. Set forth below in this Report is a summary of the key issues and findings of the Committee, and its recommendations for the agricultural community.
  5. 5. PAGE 3 2011
  6. 6. 2011 COMMITTEE ASSESSMENT
  7. 7. PAGE 5 2011COMMITTEE ASSESSMENTFARMERS ARE CENTRAL ers will benefit from having access to, andFirst and foremost, farmers should be at making use of, tools and technologies thatthe center of creating sustainable food are best suited to their unique needs. Allsolutions. Large commercial farmers and different types of farmers will be a vitalsmallholder farmers alike will be critical part of the solution, and organizations,in providing global food security, although governments and companies should con-their contributions are likely to differ. sider and enable creative business models that address the needs of all.There are approximately 500 million small-holder farmers worldwide who are respon- A COMPREHENSIVE AND COLLABORA-sible for the livelihoods of more than 2 bil- TIVE APPROACH IS NECESSARYlion people and who produce an estimated The global food challenge will require80 percent of the food consumed in Asia and systemic improvement in science and in-Sub-Saharan Africa.6 There is nearly a ten- novation, education and collaboration,fold difference in cereal production between capacity and infrastructure, and policyNorth America and Europe compared to and regulation. A comprehensive and col-Africa.7 Consequently, even small improve- laborative approach to food security thatments in productivity (from 1 to 3 tons/ha) improves seed and boosts yields, uses fer-can turn poor and struggling farmers into tilizer wisely, addresses postharvest loss,entrepreneurs, allowing them to better sup- increases nutrition, reduces waste, pro-port their families, while also contributing to vides financing and credit, ensures accessan increased food supply. At the same time, to markets, and improves infrastructuremedium to large scale, mechanized farms will be an absolute necessity. While thiswill play an ever more important role in clos- Committee is focused on crop productivitying the food gap and ensuring that food and and innovation, it is also important to viewagricultural products can move from places food security more broadly to examinewhere they can be optimally produced to agriculture’s other dimensions, includingplaces where consumption needs cannot be livestock, aquaculture, tree crops, and re-met through local production. newable energy. Anything less than a com- prehensive approach simply will not meetWhile there is no single solution to meet- the challenge.ing global food challenges, farmers every-where share a basic value that underpins A problem of this magnitude also requireseconomic and social growth – a desire to an unprecedented level of cooperationbe productive and profitable in a sustain- between and leadership from private com-able way that accommodates the welfare panies, governments, research entities,of future generations. To that end, encour- educational institutions, NGOs both insideaging greater smallholder productivity re- and outside of the agriculture industry, andquires a conducive environment, ranging farmers around the world. Stakeholdersfrom improved access to finance, markets, can no longer work in what have become 6 International Fund for Agriculturaland agricultural inputs, to more secure overly fragmented “silos.” Keeping in mind Development (IFAD), Viewpoint: Smallholders Can Feed the World.land rights, modernized infrastructure, there is no single solution, the Committee 7 FAO, Crop Prospects and Food Situation,and stronger farmers’ organizations. Farm- advises that stakeholders remain focused No. 2 (May 2010).
  8. 8. 2011 COMMITTEE ASSESSMENT Figure 1. Average Annual Agricultural TFP Growth Rates by Country, 1970-2007 China: 2.5% Vietnam: 2.0% Malaysia: 3.1% Chile: 2.3% Brazil: 2.4%AVERAGE ANNUAL South Africa: 2.2%TFP GROWTH > 2% 1-2% <1% on the question of how to adequately tivity growth will not be enough to meet raise productivity to meet the world’s food the needs of a growing population in the needs, rather than get distracted by historic coming decades, as gains in productivity disputes, such as biotechnology versus growth have decreased in the last decade. traditional crop breeding, organic farming To close the productivity gap and achieve versus conventional farming, or food versus food security, the current productivity rate fuel production. In fact, the creation of non- will need to grow 25 percent faster than traditional partnerships in the industry may current trends over the next 40 years and yield the most innovative solutions. Simi- even faster over the next two decades.10 larly, efforts to support productivity abroad While technological advances of the past should not be perceived as weakening U.S. triggered impressive yield increases, which competitiveness. will be critical to meeting the productivity challenge, industry must proactively en- A THREE-PRONGED CHALLENGE sure that we achieve benefits from agricul- Unleash Innovation to Produce More and ture practices without unintended impacts Nutritionally Better Food – The increased on our environment and natural resources. demands placed on the agriculture sector make agricultural productivity growth a An exclusive focus on productivity is nev- key priority. This requires closing the yield ertheless not sufficient because increasing gap that currently exists among different rates of malnutrition require not only more8 The Global Harvest Initiative (GHI) is a regions, as well as moving the actual yield calories, but more nutritious food. The World partnership established in 2008 between the Archer Daniels Midland Company curve through innovative practices and Bank reports that roughly 3.5 million children (ADM), DuPont, John Deere, and Monsanto technologies. According to the Global Har- under 5 years old die each year from causes whose mission is to eliminate the global productivity gap by doubling agricultural vest Initiative (GHI),8 global agricultural related to undernutrition in developing coun- output in a sustainable manner. productivity has grown at an average total tries.11 And two-thirds of the undernourished9 GHI, The Global Harvest Initiative’s 2010 factor productivity (TFP) of 1.4 percent per live in seven countries – Bangladesh, China, GAP Report: Measuring Global Agricultural year between 2000 and 2007, with con- the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethio- Productivity (2010) available at http:// www.globalharvestinitiative.org/GAP.htm. siderable variation in rates of productivity pia, India, Indonesia and Pakistan – with around the world (Figure 1).9 over 40 percent in China and India alone.1210 Id. Meanwhile, approximately 30 percent of Af-11 The World Bank, Food Security Fears Rise Along with Prices (April 1, 2001) available Global food demand will require that farm- rica’s almost 840 million people are under- at http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/ ers everywhere have access to existing nourished.13 As a result, finding solutions to EXTERNAL/NEWS/0,,contentMDK:2287659 2~pagePK:64257043~piPK:437376~the tools, knowledge and technology to be improve the nutritional value of food will be SitePK:4607,00.html. productive, but further innovations will as important as increasing productivity.12 Id. also be crucial. Current rates of produc-
  9. 9. PAGE 7 2011 Figure 2. DISTRIBUTION OF ARABLE LAND COMPARED TO DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION PERCENT OF ARABLE LAND PERCENT DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION Africa 11% Africa 11% OECD OECD Countries 26% East Asia & Countries 14% The Pacific 14% East Asia & The Pacific South Asia 31% 22% South Asia 15% Europe & Middle East & Central Asia Middle East & North Africa 5% 20% Europe & Central Asia North Africa 4% Latin America & Latin America & 8% Caribbean 10% Caribbean 9%Ensuring Access to Food – In addition to able. As such, they must address uniqueconcerted efforts to increase productivity local needs, such as property rights, edu-and improve nutrition, we must ensure that cation, extension services, and leadershipfood reaches all markets and all people. The training. Given that women play an impor-U.N. predicts the population in Africa alone tant role as farmers in certain regions of thecould more than triple in this century – from 1 world, socially sustainable solutions willbillion to 3.6 billion.14 Poverty is a key cause also require gender equality. Economicallyof insufficient access to food and must be sustainable solutions must stand the test ofaddressed through economic development time and spur private sector entrepreneur-efforts and improved social safety nets. The ship. The private sector, working closelyworld’s population is also distributed very with government and civil society, has andifferently than its arable land, which re- important role in providing solutions.quires that food and agriculture products beable to move from places of surplus to places RISING TO THE CHALLENGEof deficit (Figure 2).15 This requires efficient Farmers around the world, in partnershipsupply chains and a sound, rules-based in- with all key stakeholders, can innovate toternational trading system. Farmers need meet the world’s food needs. We must takeimproved access to local, regional and inter- an all-inclusive and collaborative approachnational markets. The supply chain of food that recognizes the benefits of existing tech-and agricultural products requires improved nologies and practices, and supports newinfrastructure, storage, processing and and innovative practices and technologies.distribution systems. Innovation will come not just from science and technology, but from creative syner-All Efforts Should Improve Sustainability – gies of technology and best practices, fromThe challenge is not only to produce more nontraditional partnerships to develop newand better food and to ensure that food business models in emerging markets, and 13 Id.reaches those who need it, but to also do so from solutions catalyzed by effectively bal- 14 Gillis, J. and Dugger, C. W., U.N.in a sustainable way. Finite resources and ancing collaboration and competition. Forecasts 10.1 Billion People by Century’s End, N. Y. Times, (May 3, 2011) availableenvironmental concerns will mandate that at http://www.nytimes.com/2011/05/04/investments be made in solutions that ad- world/04population.html; United Nations Press Release, World Population to Reachdress ecosystem needs to arrest land deg- 10 Billion by 2100 if Fertility in Allradation, reduce water consumption and Countries Converges to Replacement Level, (May 3, 2011) available at http://esa.eliminate deforestation. Any solutions that un.org/unpd/wpp/index.htm.are proposed to address food security must Data compiled from World Bank, World 15 also be socially and economically sustain- Development Indicators (2010).
  10. 10. 2011 COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS · enable farmers everywhere to be · increase public research and more productive. development funding. · improve productivity through · promote public and private investment in extension, collaboration on indigenous education and best practices. crop investment and nutritional enhancement. · the agriculture sector should partner globally with goverments, other private sector companies in the value chain, and ngos to offer financing mechanisms so farmers can afford the tools to produce more.
  11. 11. PAGE 9 2011· ensure that intellectual property · increases in productivity must be · ensure science-based regulatory rights, competition and farmer coupled with access to markets, frameworks and remove benefits from innovation particularly for smallholder regulatory barriers to achieving go hand-in-hand. farmers. stakeholders should food security. facilitate and invest in models that· governments should strengthen better link smallholders to the · environmental – investment must social safety net programs to global value chain. be made in technology and best ensure the most vulnerable have practices for continuous im- access to food. · the private sector must work with provement of agriculture sustain- governments to foster a more ability and resource efficiency.· global infrastructure inves- open and equitable trading system ments are needed to ensure move- for food and agricultural products. · social - both the public and private ment of food from areas of sur- sector should invest in education plus to areas of deficit. invest- · governments and policymakers and youth development efforts. ments must also be made in pro- should reconsider policies on cessing and storage facilities to subsidies and examine alternative · economic – governments should prevent postharvest loss. safety net policies. take steps to reduce risk and create incentives for private sector investments. companies should consider increasing long-term investments in emerging markets.
  12. 12. 2011 COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS
  13. 13. PAGE 11 2011 Figure 3. the global agricultural productivity gap 200 190 1.75% 180 170 “GAP” 160COMMITTEE 150 1.4% 140 130RECOMMENDATIONS 120 110 100 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 2045 2050UNLEASH INNOVATION TO PRODUCE The “new” tools of biotechnology – such Annual Productivity;MORE AND NUTRITIONALLY BETTER FOOD as genome definition and marker-assisted growth needed toFeeding the world by 2050 will require in- selection (genetic code variations or mark- double outputcreasing agricultural output by 70 percent.16 ers that help tell how genes will perform) Annual currentTo achieve this, agricultural productivity will – enable breeders to more efficiently and productivity;need to grow at an annual average rate of at effectively identify, track and evaluate theleast 1.75 percent from a relatively fixed bun- impact that specific genes (and combina-dle of agricultural resources given growing re- tions of genes) have on plant performance.gional scarcities of water and arable land (Fig- This combination of conventional breed-ure 3).17 As noted earlier, over the past seven ing (gaining intimate knowledge of traitsyears, that rate has averaged 1.4 percent.18 by physically growing them and observing the results) with the new tools of molecularEnable farmers everywhere to be more breeding permits faster and better ways toproductive. improve crop performance. Additionally, crops with transgenic traits can provide sig-Farmers will require a range of solutions nificant positive impacts to farmers, such asthat allow them to close the yield gap, in- pest resistance and drought tolerance. Fur-cluding existing technologies and practices thermore, new solutions that protect cropsthat will improve their productivity. and seeds in the developing world from abi- otic stresses and disease will also be vital.Smallholders in emerging economies mayrequire a substantially different set of However, while biotechnology and geneti-tools, compared to large-scale farmers, to cally modified seeds will play an importantenhance their productivity. Industry, gov- role in addressing productivity, environ-ernments and other organizations should mental and nutrition challenges, they arepartner to create solutions specifically tar- only one segment of a broad set of toolsgeted at helping smallholders play a critical that must be available to farmers. Organicrole in feeding the world. Hybrid seeds and farming will also play a role in feeding someimproved varieties can help subsistence segments of the population. All forms offarmers make a dramatic improvement in technology, including traditional farmingproductivity, as does increased fertilizer practices and organic farming, need to beuse. Cost constraints that keep smallhold- available to farmers. The transfer of knowl-ers from accessing much needed inputs edge and the benefits of the latest technol-must be addressed expeditiously. DuPont ogy and science to local farmers is critical.and others in the industry should further ex- All solutions should build on local and re- 16 OECD – FAO, OECD-FAO Agricultural Out -look 2010-2019 – Highlights (June 15,plore creative partnerships, new business gional successes and the needs of the farm- 2010) available at http://www.oecd.org/ document/10/0,3746,en_36774715_models, and varied pricing arrangements to ers being served, with the goal of advancing 36775671_42852746_1_1_1_1,00&& en-USS_01DBC.html.address this problem. smallholder regions from deficit regions to surplus regions, and further improving the 17 GHI, The Global Harvest Initiative’s 2010 GAP Report: Measuring GlobalLeading-edge technology (e.g., molecular productivity of larger farming operations. Agricultural Productivity (2010) availablemarkers) can also be used to accelerate at http://www.globalharvestinitiative.org/ GAP.htm.traditional breeding methods to improvethe seeds available to smallholder farmers. 18 Id.
  14. 14. 2011 COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS Improve productivity through investment in quires not just a focus on increasing pro-African Biofortified Sor- extension, education and best practices. ductivity and output in staple crops, butghum Project (the “ABS Proj- also on the nutritional content and qual-ect”) – Working to Improve An Indigenous Crop in Africa Technology alone is not enough to suf- ity of all crops. Malnutrition, in the form of ficiently increase productivity. It must be both undernutrition and overnutrition, af-The ABS Consortium, of which Africaninstitutions are the majority, has partnered paired with extension services and educa- fects billions of people today. For develop-with the private sector to develop improved tion that inform best practices for continu- ing countries, in particular, increasing thevarieties of sorghum, which is an affordable ous improvement. Agricultural extension nutritional content of crops is just as vitalAfrican staple for more than 300 million is generally recognized as a mechanism to as increasing crop yields and calories. Thepeople in Africa, many of whom reside in help farmers identify and analyze their pro- three most common forms of micronutrientdrier and more vulnerable areas. The ABS duction problems, and become aware of malnutrition - iron, vitamin A, and iodineProject seeks to improve nutrition and the opportunities for improvement and how deficiencies - affect at least one-third of theoverall health across the African continentby using science and technology to enhance to best take advantage of those opportuni- world’s population, although primarily insorghum’s nutritional content, particularly ties. Private sector investment in extension developing countries.20 These deficienciesin terms of protein digestibility, iron and services is critical to empower farmers to must be addressed in order to effectivelyzinc bioavailability and Provitamin A. In become successful entrepreneurs. There are accomplish food security worldwide. Nutri-addition, the ABS Project is developing innovative examples of new models of exten- tional improvements can be accomplishedmutually beneficial science partnerships and sion services that leverage mobile technolo- through crop diversification, biofortifica-local research capacity in key sub-regions gy, linking farmers with real time information tion of crops, and supplementation.of Africa. on prices, weather, and other best practices,Pioneer Hi-Bred (“Pioneer”)23 donated including traditional agro-ecologically sound Indigenous crops (so called “neglected”$4.5 million for the initial technology and practices, improved local practices, as well crops), such as yams and cassava, whichhas provided capacity building opportunities as modern farming approaches that should provide a great deal of sustenance in manyfor institutions and scientists involved in the be emulated more broadly. developing countries, but are infrequentlyresearch, and has hosted 13 African sci- traded on a global scale, have not had sub-entists at Pioneer’s Johnston research labs. Increase public research and development stantial public and private research effortsPhase I was funded by the Bill and Me- funding.linda Gates Foundation under the Grand devoted to their improvement when com-Challenges in Global Health initiative at pared to the more widely-traded commodi-a value of over $21 million. Recently, the Over the last several years, the growth rate ties. Finding innovative solutions for theseDonald Danforth Plant Science Center of agricultural output has outpaced the neglected crops to yield more, withstandand DuPont announced a $4 million grant growth rate for public agricultural research harsh conditions, and have greater digest-from the Howard G. Buffett Foundation, funding. In fact, in the U.S., expenditures for ibility and nutritional value could be a sig-which will help fund the completion of the public agricultural research grew during two nificant step toward addressing countries’development of biofortified sorghum. The decades leading up to 1980 by an average local food needs. Stakeholders will, there-introduction of biofortified sorghum is ex- of 3.2% per year (adjusted for inflation), but fore, need to collaborate on research andpected to have a major impact on the healthand life of targeted communities in Africa no net growth occurred during 1980–1990, development efforts, because unlike someand will be distributed to underserved and net growth averaged only 0.6% per year commodities that offer a business modelcommunities in multiple African countries, during 1990–2009.19 Stakeholders must that incentivizes private sector investmentroyalty free. come together to renew their investments and competition, many indigenous crops in in agriculture research. Public agricultural developing markets do not offer the same research is critical to spurring research business incentives. and technology development, and is key to CAST Commentary, Investing in a Better19 meeting our food challenge. Finally, the world needs to think in terms of Future through Public Agricultural Research (March 2011). total nutrition per hectare rather than sim- Promote public and private collaboration ply in terms of bushels per hectare. Gov-20 World Health Organization, Guidelines on on indigenous crop investment and nutri- ernments, private sector, and civil society Food Fortification with Micronutrients (2006) available at http://www.who. tional enhancement. should collaborate on a more coordinated int/nutrition/publications/ micronutrients/9241594012/en/ approach to research and development to index.html. Meeting the challenge of food security re- improve indigenous crops. There are cur-
  15. 15. PAGE 13 2011 Promote public and private collaboration on indigenous crop investment and nutritional enhancement.rent examples of successful collaborations ing on banks.24 These solutions must occurresulting in work on important indigenous today without delay if the world is to becrops, such as the African Biofortified Sor- prepared to meet increasing food demand.ghum Project (the “ABS Project”). Effortslike these should be scaled and new collab- Ensure that intellectual property rights,orative public-private partnerships pursued. competition and farmer benefits from Now that such tools are available, DuPont innovation go hand-in-hand.and other private sector leaders should col-laborate with public international and na- Intellectual property (IP) rights representtional research institutions to increase pro- the societal compact that seeks to incentiv-tein content and digestibility, iron and zinc ize investment and innovation by inventors,bioavailability, and Provitamin A content of while ensuring those very innovations en-other indigenous and largely neglected food ter the public domain after an establishedcrops.21 The industry should also consider period of time. This will continue to be ofnitrogen fixing trees and shrubs for faster the utmost importance as the world seeksgrowth.22 The industry could form a “Biofor- to increase agricultural productivity andtification Consortium” composed of CGIAR promote global food security. For example,Centers, national research institutes, private the private sector is often reluctant to in-entities and the nutrition community. vest resources in countries where there is no mechanism in place to protect IP rights.The agriculture sector should partner glob- The protection of IP around the world, inally with governments, other private sector all its various forms, will encourage morecompanies in the value chain, and NGOs to research and development, lead to bet-offer financing mechanisms so farmers can ter products, and facilitate much neededafford the tools to produce more. trade. Innovations flourish in countries that offer strong IP rights. A lack of enforceableOne of the most significant impediments IP regimes in developing nations will alsoto the use of science and technology in the prevent their farmers from obtaining thedeveloping world is access and financing. best, new products, such as biotechnologyIn emerging economies, a lack of financ- traits that improve the nutritional qualitying is often one of the most significant of plants or advances in traditional breed-constraints to improving productivity and ing that can help create drought-resistantthe success of farmers. The innovative so- plants. Consequently, global leaders in IP 21 These crops could include cereals likelutions in which the private sector invests and biotechnology, as well as policymakers pearl millet, finger millet, and teff; soyshould be accessible to smallholder farm- and NGOs, should foster consensus on the beans for direct food consumption, as well as beans, peanuts, pigeon pea and checkers. Global partners should find ways to most appropriate balance between strong pea grain legumes; cassava, potato, sweetcreate access to financing for smallhold- IP rights that encourage and facilitate in- potato, indigenous and other yams, taro and arrowroot; indigenous African leafyers, and the private sector should explore vestment and innovation while spreading vegetable species; and fruits extensivelycreative business models that focus on the benefits of new technologies to farmers consumed such as matoke bananas, mangos, avocados and passion fruit.longer-term market development in emerg- around the globe.ing markets. It is imperative to explore Particularly Faidherbia albida, and to 22 enhance nitrogen fixation in some speciesnovel ways to address this constraint, in- There are also a number of issues that in- of the genera Sesbania, Tephrosia,cluding partnering to spread risk to provid- dustry and regulators must address as the Gliricidia, Crotalaria, and Mucuna.ing loans and financing for improved seed, first biotechnology trait is due to come off 23 Pioneer Hi-Bred is a DuPont business.fertilizer and crop protection solutions. patent in 2014, with others to follow. There 24 Under this scheme, farmers can signAnother way may be to have governments is a pressing need to more clearly define agreements with input providers entitlingrecognize grain certificates as a formalized the transition to generic biotechnology the provider to a certain amount of bushels of their product to pay for theloan mechanism to purchase inputs, there- products and associated issues pertaining input. Governments can ensure penaltiesby providing access to capital without rely- to registration, stewardship and the ap- for defaulting.
  16. 16. 2011 COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS propriate use of and access to data created the most vulnerable. Food assistance pro-ADM Partners with the to satisfy regulatory requirements. There grams should be targeted to ensure thatUniversity of Illinois is currently no mechanism in the U.S. leg- food aid reaches those who need it theEarlier this year, the Archer Daniels islative or regulatory system that ensures most – those who are suffering acute hun-Midland Company (ADM) founded the the ability to build new innovations from ger due to war or natural disasters and can-ADM Institute for the Prevention of inventions in this area that are moving off not grow their own food – and assistancePostharvest Loss (the “Institute”) with a patent. Questions pertaining to how best delivery should be commensurate withgrant of $10 million to the University of to foster ongoing innovation by creating a the urgency of those needs. Still, there areIllinois at Urbana-Champaign.29 The In- pathway to competition that uses generic about 20 percent of households in Africanstitute will work with smallholder farmers inputs must be addressed. Solutions that villages that are too poor to grow their ownin developing countries to curb postharvestloss due to pests, disease, mishandling and allow for the use of regulatory data for the food, because of a lack of land, illnessother factors. According to ADM, their production and dissemination of post-pat- (particularly HIV/AIDS), and advanced age.educational, research, and outreach func- ent generic seeds, as well as for research The safety net is sometimes provided bytions will include, among other things: devel- purposes in the development of new bio- their communities, but also by food aid.oping courses to provide training on best technology traits, are required. Both thepractices and technologies for minimizing U.S. regulatory treatment of IP issues for In the U.S., food aid has typically consist-postharvest losses; and promoting technology pharmaceutical and crop protection prod- ed of in-kind donations whereby domes-advancements and improved supply-chainand information systems. ucts provides useful guidance on these tically produced commodities have been issues. We encourage DuPont and other physically delivered to areas of need, but biotechnology companies to work with pol- this approach may cost more than helping icymakers and other stakeholders to out- farmers help themselves.25 Still, this type line a framework to address these issues. of emergency assistance will remain im- portant, but a greater focus should also be ENSURING ACCESS TO FOOD given to the ability to engage in local and regional purchases, which may improve Governments should strengthen social responsiveness and have additional de- safety net programs to ensure the most velopment benefits by providing a market vulnerable have access to food. for smallholder farmers. We applaud the efforts of the World Food Program, the Bill Poverty remains a key cause of hunger and & Melinda Gates Foundation, and the How- malnutrition. Long-term investment in eco- ard G. Buffett Foundation in finding ways to nomic development in rural and urban ar- purchase maize and staples locally. eas to ensure private sector growth and job creation is necessary to achieve food se- Global infrastructure investments are need- curity and ensure that food is accessible. ed to ensure movement of food from areas Investment in agriculture is by far the best of surplus to areas of deficit. Investments way to substantially reduce poverty in rural must also be made in processing and stor- areas, where the world’s poorest reside. age facilities to prevent postharvest loss. In addition, with the expected population growth in many developing countries, even A lack of the most basic infrastructure in substantial increases in agricultural pro- some developing markets, including roads ductivity locally will not be enough to meet and bridges, severely impedes agriculture the growing food needs. Economic devel- productivity and causes substantial waste. opment, led by agricultural development According to the Food and Agriculture Or-25 Sanchez, P. A., A Smarter Way to Combat ganization of the United Nations (FAO), Hunger, Nature 458:148 (2009) (It costs in those countries, will be critical to enable about six times more to deliver a them to afford to import food. the postharvest waste in Africa largely ex- ton of maize as U.S. food aid to a distribution point in Africa, than it does to plains why many smallholders are net pur- provide farmers with enough fertilizer and hybrid maize seed (at unsubsidized Strong safety net programs will also be im- chasers of food despite growing enough prices) needed to produce an extra ton of maize on smallholder farms). portant to ensure that food is accessible to for their families to eat.26 Waste also oc-
  17. 17. PAGE 15 2011curs in developed countries. In fact, both not connected to commerce. In order toin rich and poor countries, an astounding move from subsistence to surplus, farm-30-50% of all food produced rots or goes ers must have the ability to sell in an openuneaten. In developing countries, approxi- marketplace and be a part of the globalmately two-thirds of the waste occurs from value chain to fully succeed in moving fromproduction to retail sites and in developed net importers to net exporters. Smallhold-countries approximately two-thirds of the ers will be benefit from greater integrationwaste occurs at retail, foodservice, and into local and regional markets and gov-consumer sites.27 Consequently, merely ernments, and agriculture sector partnersaddressing our food waste and posthar- should also make efforts to link smallhold-vest loss will make substantial headway in ers to global value chains.meeting food demand. Governments andthe private sector should invest in storage There are varying public and private sec-and infrastructure; educate farmers about tor mechanisms that can enhance marketavailable technology options that can be access for farmers, such as farmer orga-incorporated into grain handling and stor- nizations and cooperatives. Agribusinessage practices; and enable transportation should collaborate with partners acrossand distribution more efficiently. Main- the value chain to incorporate smallhold-taining and improving infrastructure in ers to improve stability and predictability,developed markets, such as roads, ports, and increase the likelihood of smallhold-barges, elevators and rail, is also critical to ers’ willingness to invest in enhanced tech-move huge amounts of grain. nology to improve output.Every effort must be made in the devel- The private sector must work with govern-oped and developing world to reduce ments to foster a more open and equitablewaste through the whole supply chain, trading system for food and agriculturalby investing in research, technology, and products.infrastructure to reduce waste resultingfrom insects, weeds, and postharvest loss. It is vitally important for countries to in-Currently, only 5 percent of agriculture re- crease food and agricultural productivity,search funding is dedicated to the study particularly since today some 85 percent ofof postharvest loss prevention, yet an es- food never crosses international borders.30timated $14 billion in food went to waste Yet food security should not be equatedworldwide in 2007.28 Recent partnerships, with self-sufficiency. Considering that the 26 The Economist, A Special Report onsuch as the establishment of a new re- world’s population and arable land are not Feeding the World: Waste Not, Want Not - Far Too Much Food Never Reaches thesearch institute dedicated to reducing evenly distributed, and that some 70 per- Plate (Feb. 24, 2011) available at http:// www.economist.com/node/18200694/waste and postharvest loss, are promising cent of the global population will reside in print.and should be replicated. cities by 2050, the unrestricted movement of food and agricultural products already GHI Symposium, Capturing Full Value of 27 the Supply Chain: Reducing PostharvestIncreases in productivity must be coupled is and will become increasingly important. Waste (Sept. 22, 2009).with access to markets, particularly for Moreover, an open and non-distorting 28 See ADM, ADM Gives U.S.$10 Million tosmallholder farmers. Stakeholders should trade system facilitates development, Found Institute to Reduce Global Postharvest Loss of Grains and Oilseedsfacilitate and invest in models that better creates economies of scale that attracts (Jan. 19, 2011) available at http://www.link smallholders to the global value chain. investment, spurs innovation and efficien- adm.com/en-US/news/_layouts/Press ReleaseDetail.aspx?ID=286. cies, and provides more affordable and 29 Id.Ensuring food security in the coming de- reliable access to agricultural inputs and 30 DuPont, News Release, Agriculture is acades will require that all farmers increase food at more stable prices. Key Driver to Meet UN Millenium Development Goals, (Sept. 27, 2010)their productivity. However, productivity available at http://www2.dupont.com/ Production_Agriculture/en_US/news_increases are meaningless if farmers are events/cp_releases/2010-09-27.html.
  18. 18. 2011 COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS A multilateral framework, which provides production or price-linked subsidies that for global rules, mechanisms for monitor- have served to distort the international ing and an effective dispute settlement food and agricultural system. We note that process, has long been considered optimal in the present environment of high prices, for agricultural trade liberalization efforts. price-linked subsidy outlays have been Efforts to strengthen it must be sustained substantially lower, and that in a sustained and brought to fruition. Whereas the Or- higher price environment, it should be ganization for Economic Cooperation and more feasible to reduce these, particularly Development (OECD) countries must con- if such reductions lead to increased access tinue on a reform path to level the playing to other markets. field in international food and agricultural trade, developing countries should also Phasing out trade-distorting subsidies more proactively address trade barriers does not mean that governments stop and promote greater trade facilitation be- providing “safety net” policies for their tween themselves, especially in light of the farmers – there are non-trade distorting increasing amount of trade among them. tools such as crop insurance and revenue Countries also are well-advised to pursue insurance programs that help farmers cope trade reform on their own, as benefits with unforeseen crop failures or market reaped from such reforms can be greater disruptions. Furthermore, since subsidies than those that accrue from trade reform are notoriously hard to remove once imple- by other countries. Bilateral and regional mented and can become a serious drain on trade agreements are likely to continue to public coffers, policymakers should ensure be negotiated, and care must be taken to that when introduced, they are clearly de- ensure that they encompass the agricultur- lineated in nature and scope, established al sector in the broadest sense. The private for clearly defined timeframes, and accom- sector needs to engage in the development panied by an “exit strategy” that paves the of trade agreements that will ensure food transition to market-based approaches. can move freely across borders. For poor countries in Africa where crop Governments and policymakers should re- yields can be as low as one-tenth of those consider policies on subsidies and examine produced in the U.S., targeted, smart sub- alternative safety net policies. sidies for fertilizer and hybrid maize seed are one tool that has been used to increase A non-distorted trade system must also productivity. Smallholder farmers often effectively deal with the question of sub- cannot afford to pay for fertilizer and im- sidies. Agricultural subsidies have been in proved seed and it is almost impossible to place for several decades, and some have access credit because they lack collateral. had very useful impacts on productivity, In some cases, smart, well-targeted subsi- the environment, rural development, and dies kick start productivity to help farmers research and development efforts. Subsi- out of poverty. For example, facing a 45 dies that are tied to production and prices, percent deficit in maize production, the however, have contributed to surplus pro- President of Malawi instituted a somewhat duction, which has served to lower global controversial voucher program for farmers prices to the detriment of developing coun- to buy two bags of fertilizer and 3-5 kg of try producers, and has also contributed to improved hybrid seeds at a 75 percent dis- the low level of investment in the agricul- count, enough to plant one acre of land. tural sectors of poorer countries. Coun- The country rapidly doubled maize yields tries are not likely to eliminate subsidies and became a maize exporter to neighbor- entirely, but should consider phasing out ing Zimbabwe, as well as a food aid do-
  19. 19. PAGE 17 2011nor to Lesotho and Swaziland. However, altogether in some countries, serve to slowgreater crop diversification is necessary in down the adoption of new technologies, at Global Joint Revieworder to improve high malnutrition rates. a time when innovative solutions are more Under the Organization for EconomicMoreover, as this country’s population necessary than ever. Such divergences Cooperation and Development (OECD)is expected to grow from approximately also negatively impact international trade. Workshare or Global Joint Review13 million (in 2008) to over 40 million by Farmers and consumers around the world (GJR), participating regulatory authorities2040,31 these subsidies will likely not be will benefit from efforts by governments to distribute the work amongst participat-sustainable over the long-term, and should streamline national regulations by more ing countries and each country reviews abe gradually phased out as yields reach effectively sharing data and encouraging portion of the data dossier (e.g., the U.S. would review toxicology, while the Unitedhigher levels. Efforts must be undertaken collaboration in scientific risk assessment. Kingdom reviews ecotoxicology). Afterto move towards an effective market-based Such efforts will be important to avoid over- reviewing their assigned sections, the regula-strategy to replace this subsidy scheme. ly divergent approval processes and time- tory authorities conduct a collaborative lines that not only lead to delays, but also peer review of the evaluations and agreeEnsure science-based regulatory frame- trigger additional obstacles and costs in the on the end points used in the risk assess-works and remove regulatory barriers to supply chain and in international trade. ment process. At this point, each countryachieving food security. individually assesses the evaluations and recommended risk assessment end points Countries should move to science-basedSound regulatory standards to protect hu- to decide whether their country will grant international harmonization for plant bio- registration of the product.man, animal and plant health and to en- technology. Science-based local needs andsure food safety are critically important. conditions (e.g., differences in insect spe- This process results in major resource savingsYet, when standards are not based on cies populations and their resistance) can for each participating country; as well asscience, are insufficiently consistent and be successfully built into international har- additional benefits for regulators, growersnot transparent, they not only cause seri- monization regulations. Harmonized data and crop protection product manufacturers.ous disruptions to markets, but also stifle packages and synchronized reviews would The GJR provided expedited approvals formuch needed innovation. The urgent need DuPont Rynaxypyr® 32 around the world, significantly speed the transition of much allowing growers accelerated access to thisto increase productivity to meet global needed innovation into improved global technology and increasing confidence in thefood demand makes it imperative to get crop yields and nutrition without compro- quality of the regulatory approval process.the best technology and practices into the mising science-based safety assessments.hands of farmers rapidly, while maintain- Agriculture industry partners, including theing strong safety and environmental stan- private sector, NGOs and nonprofits shoulddards. Regulatory frameworks must be ef- establish a framework and lead these ef-ficient: scientifically unjustified delays and forts to improve regulatory processes. Fur-barriers that slow down approval process- thermore, innovators have a role to play ines and delay the adoption of tools for en- sharing information and educating consum-hancing productivity of farmers need to be ers to build confidence in the safety and ef-addressed so that innovative products can ficacy of products. Countries with strongenter the market more expeditiously and regulatory frameworks can enhance confi-at lower cost. Currently, it takes almost ten dence in consuming countries by sharingyears and over $250 million to bring crop findings and information to ensure safety,protection products to market. For seeds, particularly when developing countries lackit can take as many as fifteen years and an the sophisticated platforms and resourcesestimated $150 million from discovery to necessary to confirm safety and efficacy.commercialization of a biotechnology trait. ALL EFFORTS SHOULD Governments rightly insist on establish- IMPROVE SUSTAINABILITYing and implementing their own regulatory Sustainability rests on the principle that The Malawi Ministry of Development 31 Planning and Cooperation, RAPID:frameworks given local needs and condi- we must meet the needs of the present Population and Development (2010).tions, but widely divergent regulatory sys- without compromising the ability of fu- Rynaxypyr® is the first insecticide in its 32 tems, and the lack of functioning systems ture generations to meet their own needs. class (anthranilic diamides).
  20. 20. 2011 COMMITTEE RECOMMENDATIONS Therefore, stewardship of natural and hu- who can utilize the practices that workInvesting in Youth man resources is critical. The three main most effectively with their growing condi-Development components of sustainability are environ- tions, soils and crops. Implementing prac- mental, social and economic. tices that address ecosystem issues, suchResearchers in the U.S. and around the as reducing water use and controlling fieldworld have demonstrated that 4-H posi- Environmental – Investment must be runoff, will be important. Product steward-tive youth development programs promote made in technology and best practices for ship with farmers is critical.science literacy and increase incomes forrural youth. In Tanzania, 4-H clubs continuous improvement of agricultureuse positive youth development strategies sustainability and resource efficiency. Continuously improving the sustainabilityto reach 34,000 boys and girls with of agriculture will require increased invest-agricultural science and entrepreneurship By 2030, the world will consume renew- ment and collaboration from all stakehold-training. In 2010, young Tanzanian 4-H able resources equivalent to two planet ers in the industry. Governments shouldagri-business people reported more than earths to sustain human needs.33 To meet create policy environments conducive to$82,000 USD in profit. Long-term in- future demand, arable land in developingvestments in basic education and strategies, private sector investment, as well as devote countries would have to expand by about resources to sustainability research. Thesuch as 4-H, will be essential to mobilizeyoung people to lead technology transfer 120 million hectares.34 However, due to industry should take increasingly proac-and adoption of innovation. increasing land degradation caused by cli- tive steps on stewardship to ensure that we mate change, certain developing countries achieve the benefits of agriculture technol- are expected to see 9-20 percent of arable ogy and practices without unintended con- land becoming much less suitable for agri- sequences. Finally, new partnerships be- culture.35 Furthermore, FAO estimates that tween industry and environmental groups water scarcity may reduce crop yields by up must be forged, and ongoing dialogue is to 12 percent.36 Consequently, productivity and will be critical to solving this challenge. and efficiency will be critical, as will contin- ued investment in crops that have greater Social - Both the public and private sector yield per acre (in quantity and nutritional should invest in education and youth value) while addressing ecosystem issues development efforts. such as using less water and fuel, and us- ing the right amount of fertilizers to protect The ability of the agricultural sector to meet the quality of water and biodiversity. global food demands will depend on solu- tions that are socially sustainable. Facilitat- The private sector should continue to in- ing human capacity development through vest in technology that improves agricul- training and education of the next genera- ture sustainability and resource efficiency. tion of farmers and consumers is critical. Addressing food shortages with efficient The farmer who will feed the world in 2025 sources of protein, such as soy, can boost is 13 years old today. Indeed, children and nutrition while using fewer natural re- adolescents represent 65 percent of total sources. Continuing to identify technolo- agricultural employment in Sub-Saharan Af-33 World Wildlife Fund (WWF), Futures for Our Planet available at http://wwf.panda. gies that can reduce tillage and field work, rica. These young people can lead the next org/about_our_earth/all_publications/ living_planet_report/me_and_my_ and therefore reduce soil loss, will also “Green Revolution,” but only if science-pow- planet/footprint_scenarios/. enhance sustainability. Efforts to reclaim ered innovations in agriculture are integrat-34 FAO, World Agriculture: Towards 2015/2030: An FAO Perspective - Crop degraded land should also be redoubled. ed with social science research in fields such Production and Natural Resource Use available at http://www.fao.org/do as positive youth development, learning, crep/005/y4252e/y4252e06.htm#P4_3. However, more efficient and sustainable community development and technology FAO, Africa’s Changing Landscape:35 technology must be coupled with educa- transfer. In particular, education focused on Securing Land Access for the Rural Poor (April 2010). tion and extension services focused on women and girls will be vital. School feeding36 FAO, Food Security and Agricultural sustainable best practices. Stakeholders programs are also effective tools, as food is Mitigation in Developing Countries: Options for Capturing Synergies must continue to identify best practices often provided by villagers, and attracts the available at http://www.fao.org/ docrep/012/i1318e/i1318e00.pdf. and put them into the hands of farmers, poorest youth to go to school, particularly
  21. 21. PAGE 19 2011 Social - Both the public and private sector should invest in education and youth development efforts.girls that would otherwise stay at home. efforts to address trade barriers withReinforcing the importance of agricultural neighboring countries in order to create Government Incentives for contributions and its value to society, and larger economies of scale, also crucial for Private Sector Investmentpromoting the merits of a career in agri- attracting private sector investment. Donor Brazil and Thailand became leadingculture are also essential to recruiting to- governments also have an important role global suppliers of soybeans and cassavamorrow’s farmers and innovators. DuPont of emphasizing the importance of a policy among other agricultural exports. Thisand other private sector companies with environment required for attracting greater was largely due to policies that enabledan interest in developing markets should private sector assessment and use devel- private sector investment, includingalso create comprehensive strategies for opment assistance in order to more effec- permissive land policies, improved public infrastructure and business developmentcommunity investment and philanthropy. tively leverage private sector investments. services, a supportive policy environment,Finally, solutions will be most sustainable Public-private partnerships between pri- and liberalized markets.when stakeholders partner with local or- vate sector companies, governments andganizations that know best the cultural other organizations can be very effectivenorms and needs. and efforts should be made to improve and increase these types of collaborations,Economic – Governments should take steps and we encourage a sustained dialogue toto reduce risk and create incentives for pri- accomplish this.vate sector investments. Companies shouldconsider increasing long-term investmentsin emerging markets.Governments and the private sector mustcollaborate to enable farmers to be suc-cessful. Addressing the productivity gaprequires a significant investment that canonly be accomplished effectively throughinvestments from private donors. Accord-ing to the GHI, the overall developingcountry investment gap approaches $90billion annually – a very conservative es-timate that nevertheless is almost twicethe $48 billion in agricultural support thatwas available from international sourcesin 2008.37 To close this investment gap,governments must enable private sectorinvestment by dedicating a substantialpercentage of their budget over the long-term to investments in agriculture and in-frastructure development and by creatinglong-term plans coupled with dedicatedleadership and funding streams.Governments should also facilitate great-er private sector investment by ensuringstrong governance and stability throughrule of law, anti-corruption, IP rights, reg-ulatory systems, land rights, and open 37 GHI, Enhanced Private Sector Involvement in Agriculture and Ruraldialogue with private sector partners. Ad- Infrastructure Development (Paper prepared by William C. Motes)ditionally, governments should increase (March 16, 2011).
  22. 22. 2011 CONCLUSION
  23. 23. PAGE 21 2011CONCLUSIONThe confluence of changing demographics and consumer food preferences, substantial in-creases in population, scarcity of resources, and climate change presents the human racewith one of its most substantial challenges to date – how to feed a world with more than9 billion people. Global food demand will require that farmers everywhere have accessto the tools, education and technology to be productive. Increasing rates of malnutritionwill not just require more calories, but more nutritious food. A problem of this enormity re-quires an unprecedented level of cooperation and leadership among private companies,governments, universities and research institutions, NGOs and farmers around the world.Those within and outside of the agricultural community will need to come together to de-velop innovative solutions to ensure a food secure world by 2050. DuPont is committedto providing a leadership role in addressing the global challenge of providing more andbetter food for a growing population.
  24. 24. 2011 ABOUT THE COMMITTEEAbout the Committee Senator Thomas Charlotte A. Daschle Hebebrand is Chairman of the has served as Chief Committee and a Executive of the In- Senior Policy Advi- ternational Food & sor at the law firm Agricultural Trade of DLA Piper where Policy Council (IPC) he provides clients since February 2006. with strategic advice The IPC is committedon issues such as climate change, energy, to promoting a more open and equitablehealth care, trade, financial services, ag- global food system and is composed of ariculture and food, foreign affairs, and diverse mix of distinguished internationaltelecommunications. Senator Daschle is agricultural trade experts from around theone of the longest serving Senate Demo- world. Charlotte came to IPC from the Eu-cratic Leaders in history and the only oneto serve twice as both Majority and Minor-ity Leader. In 1986, he was elected to the “An ongoing focus on improvingU.S. Senate and eight years later became agricultural productivity mustits Democratic Leader. During his tenure, be accompanied by efforts toSenator Daschle navigated the Senate improve access to food. A morethrough some of its most historic eco- open and equitable trading system for food and agricultural products will not only ensure“Addressing the food productivity that food gets to people who gap may be the defining issue need it, but can also contribute for mankind for the next to income growth in rural areas, century. We need to consider not where the majority of the world’s only producing more food, but poorest people reside.” also ensuring we can meet the nutritional needs of the growing population.” ropean Commission’s (EC’s) Washington Delegation, where she served as Special Advisor, respectively, on internationalnomic and national security challenges. development, trade, agriculture and foodHe also served in the U.S. House of Rep- safety issues. Prior to her time with the EC,resentatives for eight years beginning in Charlotte worked at the Brookings Institu-1978. He is the author of several books, a tion’s Foreign Policy Division.co-founder of the Bipartisan Policy Center,a board member at the Center for Ameri-can Progress, a Vice Chair at the NationalDemocratic Institute, and is a member ofthe Council of Foreign Relations as well asmany other boards and councils.

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