Blended is Still Best:  Review of Literature David Skelton Eastern Institute of Technology New Zealand  [email_address]
Why Blended Learning Environments? <ul><li>BLE is the norm in most universities </li></ul><ul><li>Constantly changing due ...
Case Study: Eastern Institute of Technology <ul><li>My wider case study  investigated associations between gender, age, le...
<ul><li>This research was based on the concept of the overall Learning Environment (Walberg,1976). The LE field has develo...
Theoretical underpinnings <ul><li>Disintermediation of the teacher & the institution (Thorburn, 2000) </li></ul><ul><li>Ac...
E-learning influences <ul><li>The online learning environment not used solely for overcoming  </li></ul><ul><li>geographic...
Introduction of Lit Review <ul><li>This review attempts to evaluate & discuss the literature surrounding learning environm...
Blended , Flexible or Mixed-mode Learning Environments <ul><li>E-learning begins to replace (some) classroom time (OECD, 2...
Motivation for Blended, by Universities  <ul><li>Many universities with little history in distance learning programs are p...
Motivation for Blended, by Universities  <ul><li>The web has replaced, at least partly, the face-to-face component of teac...
Implications for the physical Campus  <ul><li>An acknowledgement that the physical campus should adapt and change in conju...
Still a need for Teacher-Student interaction <ul><li>Tasks & Roles of the online teacher: =  </li></ul><ul><li>Pedagogical...
Drivers for online education:  <ul><li>Technological </li></ul><ul><li>Higher Education & increased participation </li></u...
Issues for Practical Training  <ul><li>Practical labs and evidence based systems still easier to deliver ‘on-campus’  </li...
Universities & integration of online courses <ul><li>Most universities are grappling with how the online environment ‘fits...
Constructivism + Online Learning = ??? <ul><li>This convergence of online and campus-based environments is possibly one of...
Comparing Online courses with traditional courses <ul><li>Comparisons between the online education and face-to-face may no...
Dependence on the LMS?  <ul><li>Dangers in over-dependence on the LMS – leading to passive learning, e.g. slides (Grandzol...
Multiple Demands on Teachers <ul><li>Lecturers in Blended mode have  demands  from bricks & mortar students as well as dem...
Blended less controversial than pure online  <ul><li>BLE less likely to be resisted by staff  </li></ul><ul><li>(Young, 20...
Influence of Pedagogy & the Modern Media  <ul><li>BLE for pedagogical reasons – capturing best of online & f2f modalities ...
Historic & Technology issues  <ul><li>Universities went through a previous period (’90s) of integrating computing in class...
Instruments for evaluating the BLE  <ul><li>E.g. the WEBLEI – web-based learning environment instrument (Chang & Fisher, 2...
Flexible Delivery as a separate concept <ul><li>Concept of anywhere, anytime – but a multiplicity of media: - workbooks, D...
Effect of Emerging Technologies on the LE <ul><li>As with any CIOs dilemma with settling IT systems: We just get the LMS b...
Blended E-Commerce – Can we learn from Industry? <ul><li>Cross-industry examination (Jelassi & Enders, 2008) </li></ul><ul...
Summary of Blended Learning Environment Literature Review <ul><li>Drawing from e-learning, learning environments and blend...
 
<ul><li>Available on  </li></ul><ul><li>Amazon.com </li></ul><ul><li>Contact: </li></ul><ul><li>dskelton@eit.ac.nz  </li><...
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AMCIS 2009 Blended Learning Presentation

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Presented by David Skelton at the Americas Information Systems Conference, San Francisco, August 2009

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  • K Thank you Introduction who NCC one of key organisations for EIT
  • K Tertiary sector undergoing change Required to differentiate themselves
  • K Over past decade EIT has stived to establish itself as a major credible TE provider This for benefit of HB region – which is largest region without its own university
  • B Typical student profile is
  • B
  • B International students – impact on local economy – 359 people High level of degree study (largest in ITP sector?) High proportion of students who identify themselves as Maori High proportion of mature students which reflects needs in HB
  • K Annual turnover in excess of $30m, 60% comes from Government funding Major cost is staffing Impact on economy form staff and student activity is significant An economic impact study ten years ago suggested a multiplier of 2
  • K Annual turnover in excess of $30m, 60% comes from Government funding Major cost is staffing Impact on economy form staff and student activity is significant An economic impact study ten years ago suggested a multiplier of 2
  • K Annual turnover in excess of $30m, 60% comes from Government funding Major cost is staffing Impact on economy form staff and student activity is significant An economic impact study ten years ago suggested a multiplier of 2
  • K Annual turnover in excess of $30m, 60% comes from Government funding Major cost is staffing Impact on economy form staff and student activity is significant An economic impact study ten years ago suggested a multiplier of 2
  • K Over past decade EIT has stived to establish itself as a major credible TE provider This for benefit of HB region – which is largest region without its own university
  • K Some of the areas we have addressed already
  • K Some of the areas we have addressed already
  • K Some of the areas we have addressed already
  • K Some of the areas we have addressed already
  • K Some of the areas we have addressed already
  • K Some of the areas we have addressed already
  • K Some of the areas we have addressed already
  • K Some of the areas we have addressed already
  • K Some of the areas we have addressed already
  • K Some of the areas we have addressed already
  • K Some of the areas we have addressed already
  • K Some of the areas we have addressed already
  • K Some of the areas we have addressed already
  • K Some of the areas we have addressed already
  • AMCIS 2009 Blended Learning Presentation

    1. 1. Blended is Still Best: Review of Literature David Skelton Eastern Institute of Technology New Zealand [email_address]
    2. 2. Why Blended Learning Environments? <ul><li>BLE is the norm in most universities </li></ul><ul><li>Constantly changing due to technical and social influences. The LMS now, tomorrow VLE & M-Learning….. </li></ul><ul><li>Do e-Learners still like campus-based instruction? </li></ul><ul><li>Looking for an ‘Optimal Blended Learning Environment’ </li></ul><ul><li>Blended strategy more palatable than pure e-learning </li></ul>
    3. 3. Case Study: Eastern Institute of Technology <ul><li>My wider case study investigated associations between gender, age, level of study, IT and student learning preferences. Plus Staff feedback on the BLE. </li></ul><ul><li>This paper focuses on the Lit Review. </li></ul>
    4. 4. <ul><li>This research was based on the concept of the overall Learning Environment (Walberg,1976). The LE field has developed a number of LE instruments. </li></ul><ul><li>The Web-based Learning Environment Instrument (WEBLEI) was chosen for this study as it had been used extensively by LE researchers, particularly across Australia in schools and universities in the science and technology fields – so was a proven and validated instrument. </li></ul><ul><li>(Chang & Fisher, 2003) </li></ul>Literature & Background
    5. 5. Theoretical underpinnings <ul><li>Disintermediation of the teacher & the institution (Thorburn, 2000) </li></ul><ul><li>Acknowledgement of the Learning Environment (Fraser 1998) </li></ul><ul><li>Variety of LE Surveys and Instruments in Science, Maths & IT (Chang & Fisher, 2003) </li></ul><ul><li>Blended LE comprising 3 interfaces: Social, Technical, & Natural (Gardiner, 1989) </li></ul><ul><li>Chang and Fisher (2003) developed the Web-based Learning Environment Instrument (WEBLEI) on the work of Tobin and Fraser (1998) who outlined an evaluation framework for web environments </li></ul>
    6. 6. E-learning influences <ul><li>The online learning environment not used solely for overcoming </li></ul><ul><li>geographical distance (Picciano, 2006) </li></ul><ul><li>The historic development of the LMS (Downes, 2006) </li></ul><ul><li>E-learning technologies (Wikipedia) </li></ul><ul><li>Role of the Teacher - ‘presence’ (Stacey & Rice, 2002) </li></ul><ul><li>Online teacher 1.pedagogical 2 social 3. managerial 4. technical </li></ul><ul><li>(Collins & Berge, 1995) </li></ul><ul><li>Now considered as effective as “face-to-face” (Picciano, 2006) </li></ul>
    7. 7. Introduction of Lit Review <ul><li>This review attempts to evaluate & discuss the literature surrounding learning environments particularly how it addresses the challenges and opportunities of the online learning environment alongside the traditional classroom environment – and how the mixed-mode environment can be discussed and measured . </li></ul>
    8. 8. Blended , Flexible or Mixed-mode Learning Environments <ul><li>E-learning begins to replace (some) classroom time (OECD, 2003). </li></ul><ul><li>Student mode: Online only, Campus only, part-time campus + part-time online, Block mode + online, Flexible workbooks/CDs/Drop-in campus etc (Ellis & Phelps, 2000). “..objective of optimising learning outcomes & cost of delivery” (Singh & Reed, 2001). Tertiary providers forced to make decisions on all programmes on how to mix & match multiple teaching modes (Picciano, 2006). </li></ul><ul><li>The ‘Blended Campus’? </li></ul>
    9. 9. Motivation for Blended, by Universities <ul><li>Many universities with little history in distance learning programs are providing online opportunities for local residents, many of whom combine wok, family, and education activities into their lives. For many modern students, the problem or barrier is not geography but time. (Picciano, 2006). </li></ul>
    10. 10. Motivation for Blended, by Universities <ul><li>The web has replaced, at least partly, the face-to-face component of teaching and learning. In some cases, the online LE has entirely replaced the face-to-face delivery system and some institutions are purpose-built for online/distance mode (Udas & Brown, 2005) </li></ul>
    11. 11. Implications for the physical Campus <ul><li>An acknowledgement that the physical campus should adapt and change in conjunction with the online learning environments (Stacey & Gerbic, 2008). </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. larger teaching spaces with learning pods or break-out rooms which synergise better with the off-campus learning hours. </li></ul><ul><li>More radically, the Seely-Brown scenario of students working alongside staff as colleagues. </li></ul><ul><li>PC Classrooms – needed? </li></ul>
    12. 12. Still a need for Teacher-Student interaction <ul><li>Tasks & Roles of the online teacher: = </li></ul><ul><li>Pedagogical </li></ul><ul><li>Social </li></ul><ul><li>Managerial </li></ul><ul><li>4) Technical </li></ul><ul><li>(Collins & Berge, 1995) </li></ul>
    13. 13. Drivers for online education: <ul><li>Technological </li></ul><ul><li>Higher Education & increased participation </li></ul><ul><li>Globalisation - + Internet access saturation </li></ul><ul><li>Potential for better learning – multi-pronged </li></ul><ul><li>Flexible provision for student life-styles (Blended) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Pure” provision – Open Polytechnic, purely online courses </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t get Left Behind </li></ul><ul><li>(Skelton, 2008) </li></ul>
    14. 14. Issues for Practical Training <ul><li>Practical labs and evidence based systems still easier to deliver ‘on-campus’ </li></ul><ul><li>Employer perception of the ‘pure online degree’? In terms of work-readiness, practical skills. </li></ul><ul><li>Scope for augmentation (video) and or using student IT systems </li></ul>
    15. 15. Universities & integration of online courses <ul><li>Most universities are grappling with how the online environment ‘fits’ within their existing framework – financial, marketing, ed quality, competition, .. </li></ul><ul><li>Authenticity of a course: New Zealand Govt had concerns over the educational quality, authenticity of participation, financial nature of some free online courses recently. (English,2006) </li></ul><ul><li>General acceptance: Public perception and political viewpoints may still have an expectation of physical attendance </li></ul>
    16. 16. Constructivism + Online Learning = ??? <ul><li>This convergence of online and campus-based environments is possibly one of the main trends in tertiary education today, and runs in parallel with the convergence of the constructivist methodology and the traditional teacher-led pedagogy. </li></ul><ul><li>Need for coaching, mentoring & scaffolding to support (Khine, 2003) </li></ul>
    17. 17. Comparing Online courses with traditional courses <ul><li>Comparisons between the online education and face-to-face may not be valid – If we achieved online as good as f2f = full success ? </li></ul><ul><li>There were already deficiencies in traditional environments, e.g. low-quality materials, large class isolation, bureaucratic distance experienced by students – well before the online environment appeared. (McDonald, 2002) </li></ul><ul><li>As a result: E-learning sometimes used as leverage for instructional design improvements </li></ul>
    18. 18. Dependence on the LMS? <ul><li>Dangers in over-dependence on the LMS – leading to passive learning, e.g. slides (Grandzol & Grandzol, 2006). </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher activities (course design, materials, lecturing, tutoring, marking) being unbundled. </li></ul><ul><li>Physical campus in question? (DEST, 2002) </li></ul>
    19. 19. Multiple Demands on Teachers <ul><li>Lecturers in Blended mode have demands from bricks & mortar students as well as demands from online, off-campus students as well. </li></ul><ul><li>Responding to emails, discussion forums etc, must be conducted with greater frequency then weekly classes. (Downes, 2006) </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher: Development of ‘online presence ’ </li></ul><ul><li>(Ellis & Phelps, 2000) </li></ul><ul><li>Students may be full-time on-campus, part-time on-campus, full-time online, part-time online only, block mode or a mixture – all may be ‘present’ in one class! (Picciano, 2006). Timetable not reflective of duties (Calgary-University, 2007) </li></ul>
    20. 20. Blended less controversial than pure online <ul><li>BLE less likely to be resisted by staff </li></ul><ul><li>(Young, 2002) </li></ul><ul><li>Staff view: Physical class still easiest to communicate & build relationship with students (Fungaroli-Sargent, 2000) </li></ul><ul><li>The right ‘mix’ most satisfying for students </li></ul><ul><li>(She & Fisher) </li></ul><ul><li>Entertainment & motivation (Bersin, 2004) </li></ul>
    21. 21. Influence of Pedagogy & the Modern Media <ul><li>BLE for pedagogical reasons – capturing best of online & f2f modalities (Picciano, 2006) </li></ul><ul><li>Student lifestyle already immersed in the wider online environment – social networking, TV, ipod, mobile devices, … (Joyce, 2006) </li></ul><ul><li>The right ‘mix’ most satisfying for students </li></ul><ul><li>(She & Fisher) </li></ul><ul><li>Entertainment & motivation (Bersin, 2004) </li></ul>
    22. 22. Historic & Technology issues <ul><li>Universities went through a previous period (’90s) of integrating computing in classrooms (Anandam, 1998) </li></ul><ul><li>The “Future compatible campus” (Oblinger & Rush, 1998) </li></ul><ul><li>Concept of technology expanding the instructor in time and space (Bersin, 2004) </li></ul><ul><li>Did Computing Classrooms and Labs really transform the LE as predicted? </li></ul>
    23. 23. Instruments for evaluating the BLE <ul><li>E.g. the WEBLEI – web-based learning environment instrument (Chang & Fisher, 2003) </li></ul><ul><li>Attempts to evaluate the social and psychological aspects of the BLE. </li></ul><ul><li>Instruments need to evaluate: </li></ul><ul><li>LMS, Web 2.0 technologies – the technologies in use </li></ul><ul><li>The Physical environment/s </li></ul><ul><li>The effective Learning Environment </li></ul>
    24. 24. Flexible Delivery as a separate concept <ul><li>Concept of anywhere, anytime – but a multiplicity of media: - workbooks, DVD, LMS, online, Drop-in Labs, Podcasting (Quinton, 2006) </li></ul><ul><li>Economic motivations strong here: - free courses, in-work students, university efficiencies (Pascoe, 2007) </li></ul><ul><li>Academic managers belief in scale of economies, cheaper resource utilisation (not always realised) (Wheeler, 2006) </li></ul><ul><li>Academic workload issues </li></ul><ul><li>Unbundling “teaching” to lower-paid Drop-in centre Assistants </li></ul>
    25. 25. Effect of Emerging Technologies on the LE <ul><li>As with any CIOs dilemma with settling IT systems: We just get the LMS bedded down - now it’s time for a new VMS – or a new mobile-LMS – or a new ??? </li></ul><ul><li>The pipeline constraints of the Virtual environment, Social Networking academic usage (filtering), mobile/PDA usage - Wireless constraints, Internet bandwidth constraints, Security control of Web 2.0 and the Cloud ….(Chard, 2006) </li></ul><ul><li>Students often have better, faster systems than we can provide (Rickards, 2003) </li></ul><ul><li>Do we still need to “go to the computer lab”? (Huang & Tan, 2006) A fluid campus arrangement with the student supplying the “workstation” </li></ul>
    26. 26. Blended E-Commerce – Can we learn from Industry? <ul><li>Cross-industry examination (Jelassi & Enders, 2008) </li></ul><ul><li>News media – how are they coping / adapting? Maintaining traditional newspapers, free online access, new advertising streams, …. </li></ul><ul><li>Barnes and Noble – maintains physical book stores + strong online presence… </li></ul><ul><li>Consumer to Consumer: Success of eBay, TradeMe (NZ), - but classified advertising still continues in limited form. </li></ul><ul><li>Most examples from Industry = Blended E-Commerce. </li></ul><ul><li>Only a few big players can go purely online, e.g. Amazon, eBay, and in academia …Open University, Open Polytechnic) </li></ul><ul><li>(Jelassi & Enders, 2008) </li></ul>
    27. 27. Summary of Blended Learning Environment Literature Review <ul><li>Drawing from e-learning, learning environments and blended LEs. </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis on striking the Balance </li></ul><ul><li>Effectively most tertiary environments are Blended – so it is useful to consider a wide range of literature in the wider Learning Environment, rather than just a narrow focus on emerging technologies </li></ul><ul><li>The wider study led to the Table / Matrix of Optimal Blended Environments </li></ul>David Skelton - EIT - Optimising Blended Learning Environments
    28. 29. <ul><li>Available on </li></ul><ul><li>Amazon.com </li></ul><ul><li>Contact: </li></ul><ul><li>dskelton@eit.ac.nz </li></ul>
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