Muhammad was born in Mecca to a prominent and powerful family. He was orphaned early and was raised and protected by his grandfather. He had a family; a wife, two sons, and four daughters.Respect is also given to other prophets that came before Muhammad. This is recognized by adding the phrase “peace be upon him” when their names are mentioned.He received visions (known as Ayah or Signs of God) from Allah or from the angel Gabriel. The being proclaimed that there is one and only one God. Other visions and revelations followed. The transcribed version of these revelations is the Koran. In this view, Muhammad is also known as the “recipient of the Koran.” The Koran is the primary source for Muslim faith and lifestyle.Read more: Difference Between Muhammad and Allah | Difference Between | Muhammad vs Allahhttp://www.differencebetween.net/miscellaneous/religion-miscellaneous/islam-religion-miscellaneous/difference-between-muhammad-and-allah/#ixzz202LOH1AM
During Ramadan Muslims have meal twice a day. before the sunrise(suhoor) -after the sunset(Iftar). Muslims fast during the daytime. Muslims spend most of their time in remembering Allah by reciting Ramadan Dua and visiting mosque. recite Tarawih(Congregation) prayerLailatulQadr, also called as the night of power, when Muslims spend their entire night praying to Allah.the practices of Ramadan are meant to purify oneself from thoughts and deeds which are counter to Islam. By removing material desires, one is able to focus fully on devotion and service to God. Many Muslims go beyond the physical ritual of fasting and attempt to purge themselves of impure thoughts and motivations -- anger, cursing, greed, etc. As part of this, service to the community and to those in need is a major emphasis of activity throughout the month.
If a Muslim has not given zakat al-fitr during Ramadan, he or she can give this on Eid-al-Fitr. Zakat al-fitr is a form of charity consisting of a quantity of food, such as barley, dates, raisins or wheat flour, or its monetary equivalent given to the poor. Many Muslims may also prepare festive meals to share, wear new clothes, visit relatives and give presents or candy to children. Cards can also be sent, often featuring the words “EidMubbarak”The devotees gather in the mosques to pray, friends and relatives meet and exchange greetings. Prayers, family get-togethers and feasts are the major highlights of the festival.Unlike most festivals, Ramadan doesn’t fall on any particular day. Ramadan is the ninth month of the Islamic year. It is usually a time for increased religious devotion and self-examination.
A duty of each Muslim, as described in the Five Pillars of Islam, is to go on Hajj at least once once during their lifetime, unless they are prevented by finances or ill health. "The Hajj consists of several ceremonies, meant to symbolize the essential concepts of the Islamic faith, and to commemorate the trials of prophet Abraham and his family...The pilgrimage also enables Muslims from all around the world, of different colors, languages, races, and ethnicities, to come together in a spirit of universal brotherhood and sisterhood to worship the One God together."
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Festivals and society
Origin Many stories attached The day when Parvati prayed for Shiva’s well being The day when Shiva drank the poison that came out of Samudra Manthan The day when Shiva and Shakti married Includes Shiva Worship - offering Bael leaves, washing the Shiv Ling and a 24 hour strict fast
Mahashivratri Worship According to the Shiva Purana, the Mahashivaratri worship must incorporate six items: Bathing the Shiv Linga with water, milk and honey - representing purification of the soul; The vermilion paste applied on the Shiv Linga after bathing it, representing virtue; Offering of fruits, which is conducive to longevity and gratification of desires; Burning incense, yielding wealth; The lighting of the lamp which is conducive to the attainment of knowledge; And betel leaves marking satisfaction with worldly pleasures.
Pongal Harvest Festival in Tamilnadu Festival of Farmers Falls typically on the 14th or 15th June (in the month of Thai in Tamil calendar)
History of Pongal Ancient festival of Tamils originated as a Dravidian Harvest festival and has a mention in Sanskrit Puranas The celebrations of Sangam Era led to todays Pongal celebrations
First Day : Bhogi Festival In honor of lord Indra – the supreme ruler of clouds that give rains Second Day : Perum Pongal Offering of payasam (rice boiled in milk) to Sun god Third Day : Mattu Pongal Worship of cattle Fourth Day : Kaanum Pongal A day of relaxation and socializing
symbolizes the veneration of the first fruit. Indian Thanks giving to nature
Legends and MythologyThe legend of demon King HiranyakashyapAn ogress DhundhiThe death of evil minded Pootana.In South India-The worship Kaamadeva
Holika Dahan Season of Bloom Play Of ColoursExpression of love&Brotherhood Ecstasy of Bhang
Mythological Cultural Significance Significance Significance BiologicalSocial Significance Significance
Holi-To The Society Celebrates together with a spirit of bonhomie and brotherhoodRevitalizing relationships and strengthening emotional bonds between people
The Jain Society• Basic principle: non-violence towards all living beings• Also referred to as shramana dharma (self-reliant) or the "path of the nirgranthas" (those without attachments or aversions)• Follow teachings of the 24 tirthankars last being Mahavir• Jains have the highest literacy rate as well as per capita income in India• One of the best known Jain temples is the Babu Amichand Panalal Adishwarji Jain Temple, Walkeshwar (Malabar Hill)• Vikram Sarabhai, Sanjay Leela Bhansali, V Shantaram, Gautam Adani are some of the famous Jain personalities
Mahavir• Means “The Great Hero” in English, he was 24th and the last Tirthankar.• He established the central tenants of Jainism• Born as Prince Vardhaman, he renounced his kingdom and family at the age of 30.• Attained moksha at the age of 72 before which he established the five pillars of Jainism namely: ahimsa, satya, asteya, brahmacharya and aparigraha• The birth of Mahavir is celebrated as Mahavir Jayanti
History• Bhagwan Mahavir was born on 13th day under rising moon of Chaitra to King Siddhartha and Queen Trishla• The day falling in the month of March or April is celebrated as Mahavir Jayanti• It is believed that life forms in all three worlds were cheerful and gods descended from heavens to pay homage• Mahavir denounced any sort of killing and believed most virtuous life is spent sitting and fasting• Jains resolve to follow his teaching on his birth anniversary
Celebrations• Followers visit the temples and offer ceremonial bath, known as abhishek, to Mahaviras idol• Temples are lavishly decorated with flags and chariot processions carried out• The four kinds of donations recommended for every Jain on this day include: Gyan daan: sharing of knowledge Abhay daan: protecting people from bad actions Aushad daan: donating medicines Ahaar daan: giving food• Sermons are also held in shrines or temples to preach the philosophy of spiritual freedom and virtue.
Buddha Paurnima• Celebrates in remembrance of Lord Gautam Buddha – The great spiritual teacher in India• Buddha Purnima falls on the full moon day in the Hindu month of Vaisakh• Also known as Vesak
Buddha Paurnima Marks three important events of Lord Buddha’s life :• Birth : Life in Palace, The four sights, Renunciation• Enlightenment : Struggle for truth, achieved state of Buddha (the awakened one)• nirvana (salvation): The final stage of life - extinction of desire
• Buddhas teachings : Suffering is unavoidable• All living beings have the Buddha nature and can become Buddhas.• Buddha Paurnima - Hint to us to develop our inner strength
RAKSHA BANDHAN Celebration of relations came into origin about 6000 years back Day of reaffirming the bonds of affection Celebrated on full moon day of Hindu month Shravan The name Raksha Bandhan suggests a bond of protection. Sisters tie the silk thread called Rakhi on their brothers wrist and pray for their well being and brothers promise to take care of their sisters.
Origin of Raksha Bandhan : Goddess Lakshmi tied Rakhi to King Bali for first time Stories of Rakhi : Lord Krishna and Draupathi Rani Karnawati and Emperor Humayun Alexander the great and king Puru
THE SIGNIFICANCE day to celebrate the sacred relation of a brother and a sister. binding the family together in an emotional bond of love. festival encompasses true sense of peace and brotherhood can bring the much-needed relief from the ongoing violence and mistrust.
Janmashtami Krishna was born without a sexual union, but by divine "mental transmission" from the mind of Vasudeva into the womb of Devaki. Krishnas birth, known as Janmashtami, is 18 July 3228 BCE and departed on 3102 BCE. Krishna belonged to the Vrishni clan of Yadavas from Mathura, and was the eighth son born to the princess Devaki, and her husband Vasudeva. 29
Janmashtami Uttsav Dahi Handi is a popular ceremony, celebrated with lot of enthusiasm and glee. Dahi Handi is an enactment of Lord Krishnas efforts to steal butter from Matka (earthen pot) suspended from the ceiling. 30
Janmastami vow Janamashtami vow is to become Karamyogi like Krishna. always follow the right path and never tolerate injustice. Karma yoga is action (karma) performed without expectations or thought of reward. 32
ONAM portrays the rich cultural heritage of Kerala. Celebrated for a period of ten days starting from the first day Atham and continuing till tenth and the biggest day called Thiru Onam.
Atham - Day One Chithira - Day Two Chodhi - Day Three Visakam - Day Four Anizham - Day Five Thriketa - Day Six Moolam - Day Seven Pooradam - Day Eight Uthradam - Day Nine Thiruvonam - Day Ten
Onam Legends of King Mahabali The legend The Legend of Vanishing Boy The Legend of Boat Palliodam
Vakratunda Mahakaaya Suryakoti Samaprabha Nirvighnam Kuru Mey Deva Sarva Kaaryeshu SarvadaThe Lord with the curved trunk and a mighty body, who has the magnificance of aMillion suns, I pray to you Oh Lord, to remove the obstacles from all the actions I intend to perform.
Ganesh Chaturthi Ganesh Chaturthi, one of the most sacred Hindu festivals. Celebrates the birth of Lord Ganesha - the supreme God of wisdom and prosperity. Lord Ganesh was born on a fourth day (chaturthi) of the bright fortnight of the Hindu lunar month of Magh. „Ganesh Chaturthi‟ or „Vinayak Chaturthi‟, is celebrated as birthday of Lord Ganesha. It is observed during the Hindu month of Bhadra (mid-August – mid- September). He is son of Lord Shiva and Goddess Parvati, the Divine Mother. 41
History of Ganesh Chaturthi Bal Gangadhar Tilak, brought back the tradition of Ganesh Chaturthi and reshaped the festival from private family celebrations into a grand public event. "to bridge the gap between the Brahmins and the non-Brahmins. To unite all social classes -"the god for Everyman". It served as a meeting place for common people of all castes and communities. An important festival during the Peshwa era, Ganesha Chaturthi acquired organized form all over India largely due to Lokmanyas efforts 42
Celebration Today, Ganesh Chaturthi is celebrated in the states of India The festival is so popular that the preparations begin months in advance. Days before the actual worship. Elaborate arrangements are made for lighting, decoration, mirrors and flowers During the festival days, the Lord is worshipped with great devotion and prayer services are performed daily. The duration of the Lords stay varies from place to place; once the worship is complete, the statues are carried on decorated floats to be immersed in the sea after one, three, five, seven and ten days. 43
Celebration This procession and immersion is accompanied with dancing and the sound of exciting drum-beats, devotional songs and exploding firecrackers. As the idol is immersed amidst loud chants “Ganpati Bappa Moraya mangal murti morya” The festival comes to an end with pleas to the Lord to return the next year with chants of "Ganpati bappa morya, pudcha varshi laukar ya" (Hail Lord Ganesh, return again soon next year). In the 21st century, with the world turning fast into a global village, Ganesh Chaturthi is now celebrated all over the world, wherever there is a presence of a Hindu community. 44
Navratri Festival• Navratri, the festival of nine nights is dedicated to Goddess Durga and her nine forms.• Navratri begins from the first day of the bright fortnight of Ashwin• The nine days have great religious significance• The festival is celebrated with true devotion and purity all over the country 46
Celebrations• The festival is also celebrated with intense fervor and zest, in whole of India, in the form of Durga Puja. The vibrant festivities last for ten days, of which nine nights are spent in worship. Gujarat and western India• The most famous Navaratri celebrations are held in the western states of India.• Traditional dances in the form of Dandiya and Garba take place almost everywhere.• After worshipping and Aarti, Dandiya raas is performed all through the night. 47
Rituals• Navratri is divided into sets of three days to adore three different aspects of the supreme goddess or goddesses.• On the first three days Durga or Goddess of Energy is worshipped.• The next three days are devoted to Lakshmi or Goddess of Wealth and the last three days for Saraswati or Goddess of Knowledge.• On the fifth day, it is traditional to worship Saraswati to invoke our spirit and knowledge.• On the eighth and ninth day, Yagna (sacrifice offered to the fire) is performed to honor Durga Mata and bid her farewell. 48
Nine Days of Navratri FIRST DAY• The first day is dedicated to the Goddess Durga is called Shailputri, the daughter of the Himalayas. She is a form of Shakti, the companion of Lord Shiva. 49
SECOND DAY• The second day is dedicated to the Goddess Durga is known as Brahmacharini. The name is derivative of the word Brahma, which means Tapa or penace. She is also a form of Mata Shakti. 50
Third Day• The third day is dedicated to the goddess Chandraghanta, the symbolic representation of beauty and bravery. 51
Fourth Day• The fourth day is dedicated to the goddess Kushmandas, the creator of the entire Universe. 52
Fifth Day• The fifth day is dedicated to the Goddess Skand Mata, the mother of the chief warrior of the Gods army the Skanda. 53
Sixth Day• The sixth day is dedicated to the goddess Katyayani with three eyes and four hands 54
Seventh Day• The seventh day is dedicated to the Goddess Kalratri, meant to make the devotees fearless. 55
Eighth Day• The eight day is dedicated to the Mata Rani or Maha Gauri, represents calmness and exhibits wisdom 56
Ninth Day• The ninth day is dedicated to Durga also referred as Siddhidatri. It is believed that she has all the eight siddhis and is worshipped by all the Rishis and Yogis. 57
The divine mother durga, had destroyed the evil force (in theform of the demon Mahisashura) and Maa Durga is also knownas Mahisashurardini, so we celebrate Valor and courage, Triumphof good over evil. 58
The Bengali Society• West Bengal – fourth most populous state of India• Kolkata served as capital of British India for several years – British influence in architecture and society is evident• Also, intellectual hub of India - Rabindranath Tagore, Swami Vivekanad etc• Religion – 72.5% Hindusim• Durga Pooja is the biggest festival of the state celebrated over 6 days• Tertiary sector biggest contributor to economy – 57.8% of STP
Outlook• Celebrated widely in Assam, Bihar, Jharkhand, Orissa, Tripura and West Bengal - 5 day annual holiday• Marks the slaying of Mahishasura by Maa Durga on the Vijayadashmi after nine days of fierce battle• Includes all the 6 days observed as Mahalaya, Shashthi, Maha saptami, Maha ashtami, Maha navami and Vijadashami
Significance• Gained importance during British raj• Reformists identified India with Durga• Symbol of Indian Independence Movement• Became an important meeting opportunity for freedom fighters• Identifiable with Dussera celebrations in many parts of the country
History• As per scriptures – actual worship – Chaitra/Basanta• Popular form Sharadiya (autumnal) – Akal Bodhon• First such Puja organised in honour of Lord Clive in the year 1757.• He wanted to thank the lord but lack of a church forced him to take part in the local celebrations• Wealthy mercantile and Zamindar families in Bengal made British Officers of the East India Company guests of honour in the Pujas.
Customs• Starts off with the Mahishasurmardini – radio programme• Pandals housing Durga idols are put up• At the end of six days, idol is taken for immersion in a procession• Chants of Hope - aashchhe bochhor abar ‘ & Durga Maa ki Jai• Environmental Hazards
• Dasara/ Dussehra is derived from Sanskrit Dasha-hara meaning "remover of bad fate" meaning remover of ten heads of Ravanas.
Dussehra is a festival celebrated acrossIndia.
It is culmination of the 10-dayannual festival of Navaratri – 9nights.
The 10th day/night after Navaratri heralds the festival ofDussehra, that commemorates…
…the legend in which the Goddess Durga, vanquishes thedemon Mahishasura.
the same festival alsocommemorates the victory ofRama, over the ten headeddemon Ravana.
The Ramlila, a dramatization of theRamayana is enacted as street-side playsduring these days
On the 10th day effigies of Ravana are burnt,signifying the victory of good over evil.
These rituals are intended to rid the household of theten bad qualities, which are represented by ten headsof Ravana as follows 1. Kama vasana 6. Matsara (Lust) (Jealousy) 2. Krodha (Anger) 7. Manas (Mind) 3. Moha (Delusion) 8. Buddhi (Intellect) 4. Lobha (Greed) 9. Chitta (Will) 5. Mada (Over 10. Ahankara (Ego). Pride)
On this day, people inaugurate new ventures, ceremonially askingGod to bless new beginnings.
Significance• King Ramas coronation• Goddess Lakshmi‟s Birthday• Krishna Killed Narakaasur• Vishnu Rescued Lakshmi• The Return of the Pandavas• Special Day for the Sikhs• Special Day for the Jains• Coronation of Vikramaditya• Special Day for the Arya Samaj• Hindu New Year day• Harvest Festival
A Five Days Festival• Day 1: Dhanteras• Day 2: Choti Diwali / Naraka Chaturdashi / Kali Chaudas• Day 3: Diwali / Lakshmi Puja• Day 4: Padwa / Bali Pratipada / Govardhan Puja /Annakoot• Day 5: Bhaiduj
Diwali Rituals• Tradition of Playing Cards• Tradition of Crackers• Rangoli• Tradition of gifts• Tradition of Lights
ISLAM• Islam is religion of peace• Islam means „submission to God‟, „peace‟ and „way of peace‟• based on Holy Quran and sunnat (saying) of Holly Prophet Muhammad• Islam is the second largest religion• There are two main sects in religion of Islam i.e. Sunni and Shia
Five pillars of islam• Shahadah (faith)• Salah (Prayer)• Zakat (Alms-giving)• Sawn (Fasting)• Hajj (mecca)
Allah & Mohammad• Allah and Muhammad are central figures in Islam. Allah is the supreme god in Muslim worship while Muhammad is his prophet and messenger.• Allah is the Creator, and Muhammad is the creation (in extension, the founder of Islam).• Muslims give worship to Allah and high respect to Muhammad.• He is the last prophet and messenger which signifies the fulfillment of Allah‟s other revelations and prophets.• The quran is the product of Allah‟s revelations to Muhammad
Ramadan Month• Ramadan is the ninth month of the Islamic calendar• Ramadan - the month of holy fasting• month of blessing• Significance- – Allah revealed the Quran – victory in greatest battle at Badr. – Laylat al-Qadr, a night which is better than a thousand months.• There are three parts to the month of Ramadan: – Rahmat or mercy of God; – Maghfirat or forgiveness of God; – Nijat or salvation. Each period lasts about 10 days, or one-third of the entire month.
A practices during Ramadan• Fasting• Prayer and Reading of quran• Iftar• Charity• Laylat al-Qadr
Eid ul fitr• "Festival of Breaking the Fast“• EID-UL-FITR is celebrated on the first day of Shawwaal, at the completion of Ramadan.• Many Muslims may also prepare festive meals to share, wear new clothes, visit relatives and give presents to children. Cards can also be sent, often featuring the words “Eid Mubbarak”• The devotees gather in the mosques to pray, friends and relatives meet and exchange greetings. Prayers, family get-togethers and feasts are the major highlights of the festival.• A time for increased religious devotion and self-examination.
Bakri Eid– Allah challenged Prophet Ibrahim– Ibrahims faith in Allah– Ibrahim sacrifices his son
Eid al adha• The month of Dhul Hijja. (10th day)• Eid-Ul-Adha (the Feast of Sacrifice or Day of Sacrifice) is observed after the Hajj - the annual pilgrimage to Makkah (Mecca) in Saudi Arabia.
ChristmasChristmas celebrates the birth of Jesus Christ,who according to the Christian religion, is theson of God and the founder of the Christianreligion
ChristmasJoseph and Mary had to travel to Bethlehem,the native village of Joseph, because of thecensus ordered by Caesar.Finding no place to sleep in Bethlehem, Marygave birth in a stable.
Christmas Choice of the date • Pagan celebration for Mithra, persian god of light • Day of the winter solstice • In 330, the roman emperor Constantine decided to establish Christmas on the 25th of December to counter the pagan celebration • The real birth of Jesus Christ happened in the year 7 or 8 BC • The festival is celebrated as a mark of respect to Lord Jesus, who is considered as the son of God and founder of the Christian religion
Christmas Etymology: – Latin languages: Noel, Natale, Navidad come from « de natalis » (day of birth) – English: Cristes Maesse, ‘ mass of christ ’ Meaning of the symbols • Christmas crib: representation of Jesus’ birth • Advent: liturgical period to prepare the arrival of Jesus • Midnight mass
Jesus came to earth, To show us how to live, How to put others first, How to love and how to give. Then He set about His work, That God sent Him to do;He took our punishment on Himself; He made us clean and new. He could have saved Himself, Calling angels from above,But He chose to pay our price for sin; He paid it out of love.
Our Lord died on Good Friday, But the cross did not destroyHis resurrection on Easter morn That fills our hearts with joy.Now we know our earthly death, Like His, is just a rest. Well be forever with Him In heaven, where life is best. So we live our lives for Jesus, Think of Him in all we do. Thank you Savior; Thank you Lord. Help us love like you!
Significance• Humanity receives its new lease on life, its liberation from both death and, thus, the fear of death.• If Christ didnt rise from the dead, then there is no justification for our faith
Easter Customs…• Attending sunrise services/Night Vigil• Exclaiming the Paschal greeting,• lighting of the large Paschal candle (symbolic of the Risen Christ)• Renewal of Baptisim Promises• Blessing of the Home• Easter Eggs and Bunny
Across Religions…What is celebrated? • Christian religion: the résurrection of Jesus • Jewish religion: the célébration of the Exodus, when Moses freed the Jewish people • Pagan célébration to lionize the return of spring