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Sence [vision]
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Sence [vision]


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  • 2. STRUCTURE OF EYE Orbital cavity Iris Eye lids Choroid Eye ball Cilliary body Conjunctiva Aqueous humor Lacrimal gland limbus Cornea vitreous humor Sclera Ratina Pupil Lens
  • 3. ORBITAL CAVITY“The bony cavity in skull containing the eye ball and its associated muscles, vessels and nerves also called eye sockets, orbit ” FUNCTIONS  It serves as a cushion to protect eye ball from external force.
  • 4. EYELIDS "The layer of skin covers and protect the eye it has thinnest skin of whole body" Functions protect and lubricate the eye blink and keep eye moist cut of light during sleep protect eye from dust particles and perspiration wipe eye and prevent dehydration fighting bacterial infection
  • 5. palpebrae protects eyeEyelashes trigger blinkingLevator palpebrae superioris raises eyelid Eyebrows Shade the eyes Prevent perspiration into eye
  • 6. CONJUNCTIVA " it is thin mucous membrane which covers the exposed part of eye " After covering the anterior surface the conjunctiva is reflected to the inner part of eyelids functions keep the eye moist by sliding the opposite portion of conjunctiva balbur portion palpebral portion balbur fissura palpebral fissura
  • 7. EYE BALLThe globe-shaped portion of the eye surrounded by thesocket and covered externally by the eyelids.Diameter 1 inch (2.5 cm) in diameterWeight 7.5 gm
  • 8. WALLS OF EYEBALL IS COMPOSED OF THREE LAYERS1) Outer layer which include cornea and sclera2) Middle layer which include choroid cilliary body and iris3) Inner layer ,the retina
  • 9. CORNEA "cornea is the transparent convvex anterior portion of outer layer ofthe eye ball which cover the iris and pupil" or cornea is front window of eye that transmit and fucuses the light intoeye size 0.5 mm thick at center and 1to 2 mm thick at periphery
  • 10.  diameter 12mm horizontally and 11 mm vertically cornea has a refractory index of 1.376refractory index function it focuses light into eye
  • 11. SCLERA Sclera is the tough white fibrous outer layer of the eye ball that cover posterior 5/6 of the eye anteriorly it is continuous with cornea Lamina cribrosa The posterior part of the sclera where it is pierced by the optic layer is thin with perforation it is name as lamina cribrosa
  • 12. MIDDLE LAYER Choroid Cilliary body IrisChoroid is the thin vascular layer of eye ball situated between sclera and retina itform posterior 5/6 of middle layer►choroid is composed of the a rich capillary plexus, numerous small arteries andveins
  • 13. CILLARY BODY Cillary body is thickened anterior part of middle layer of eye situated betweenchoroid and iris It is in the form of ring Cillary body has three partsi. Orbiculus ciliariesii. Ciliary body properiii. Ciliary processes
  • 14. IRIS Iris is the colored curtain like structure of eye ball it formthe anterior most part of the middle layer it is like a thincircular diaphragm place in the front of lens It is a muscular has two muscles constrictor pupillae Dilator pupillae
  • 15. PUPILit is a hole located in the Centre of iris and pupil is alsocentral transparent area of the eye.functionthe pupil modifies the amount of light entering into it.
  • 16. INNER LAYER THE RATINAratina is a thin delicate membrane which photoreceptor anda layer of nerve fiber which are continous with the optic nerve.location...;it is placed between the vitrous internally andchoroid externally
  • 17. FUNCTIONS1)retina act as a receptor mechanism of the eye and ultimate toolof vision light and color sensitive element of the ratinacommunicate their message via neural pathway to the visual cortexof the brain.2)ratina also play a role in light reflex and accommodation reflex.3)ratina impulses also help to maintain the tone, posture andequilibrium of the body.
  • 18. PHOTORECEPTORthere are two photoreceptors in ratina1)rod ....responsible for dark vision2)cone......... responsible for colour vision
  • 19. LENS it is a transparent, biconcave, elastic body that lies between iris and vitrous body. structure of lense it is formed of three components 1)the capsule. 2)the anterior epithelium. 3)the lens substance. composition... in young; 69% water and 30% protein..... in old age; decreases water %age, increase protein %age lense also contain potassium, sodium, chlorin, ascorbic acid and glutathione.
  • 20. FUNCTIONS 1)lens refracts light and focus it on the ratina the focal length of human lens is 44mm and its refractory power is 23D
  • 21. INTRAOCULAR FLUIDThe fluid in the eyeball responsible formaintenance of shape of the eyeball…….The two type of fluids are present in theeyeball……1)aqueous humor2)vitreous humor
  • 22. AQUEOUS HUMOR it is a thin clear, colorless, transparent fluid present in theanterior(chamber between cornea and iris) and posteriorchamber(chamber between the iris and lens) of the eyeball. normal intraocular pressure is 16-22mmHg composition of aqueous humor... 98.7% water (organicsubstances.....albumin,globulin,glucose,pyruvate,lactate,urea) , solids1.3%(inorganic substances......sodium, calcium, potassium, magnesium,chlorides, phosphates, bicarbonates)
  • 23. FUNCTIONS1) maintain the intraocular pressure.2)supply nutrition to avascular structure like cornea and lens.3)act as refractory medium.4)act as a barrier.5)remove the metabolic end products from lens and cornea.
  • 24. VITREOUS HUMORvitreous humor is a viscous fluid present behind the lens inthe space between the lens and ratina. it is a highly viscousand gelatinous substance. it is also known vitreous body the major substances in it are albumin and hyaluronic acidthese substances enter vitreous body from blood by mean ofdiffusion
  • 25. FU NC TION1)it helps maintain the shape of the eyeball.
  • 26. GLAUCOMA it is a group of diseases characterized by increased intraocular pressure whichcauses damage of optic nerve resulting in blindness types Congenital glaucomaInfantile glaucoma juvenile glaucoma causes of glaucoma 1)blockage in drainage system. 2)increase intraocular pressure.
  • 27.  glaucoma also develops secondary to other disorders which effect the eyes common causes are. 1)diabetes 2)inflammation 3)injury to eye 4)excess use of drugs e.g. corticosteroidTreatmenttreatment does not cure the diseases but can prevent further damage of opticnerve it is aimed as lowering the intraocular pressure it is achieved by usingeye drops or medicine alone or in combination with laser treatment. Ifintraocular pressure dose not controlled by these methods surgery is required
  • 28. CATARACT cataract is the opacity or cloudiness in the natural lens of the eye it is major cause of blindness worldwide. When the lens become cloudy. Light rayscannot pass through it easily and vision is blurred it develops in old age after 55-60years causes 1)eye injuries. 2)previous eye surgery 3)diabetes 4)hypocalcemia 5)long term use of drugs 6)long term unprotected exposure to sunlight 7)alcoholism 8)family history 9)diet containing large quantity of salt
  • 29. SYMPTOMS 1)glare 2)painless blurred vision 3)poor night vision 4)diplopia in affected eye 5)need for a bright light whilereading 6)fading of colortreatment surgery is only treatment for this
  • 30. REFRENCEEssential of Medical Physiology byJaypee (5th edition) chapter no.165… pageno. 924, 25,26,28,,29,30,33,34.2)Notes of sir Tabish3)Medical dictionary(Internet)