DEFINITION :- It isa term which refers to system for naming organisms..
Kingdom (American system hassix:Animalia, Plantae, Fungi, Protista, Archaea, Bacteria)
The microscopic, unicellular, prokaryotic ,organisms characterized by the lack of membrane bound nucleus and membrane bound organelles. NOMENCLATURE The diversity of bacterial species bynaming and placing organisms based on similarities.
Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites which mean that replicate only inside a living host cell. NOMENCLATURE1. Order (virales)2. Family (viridae)3. Sub family (virinae)4. Genus (virus)5. Species (tobacco mosaic virus)
Fungi are the plants which not differenciated into roots ,stem and leaves. NOMENCLATURE According to the five kingdom system status of fungi has changed from that of a group of PLANT KINGDOM to a separate kingdom FUNGI.
› Classification of living organisms into groups › For better and convenient understanding and study of organisms.
groups are based on convenient, observable characteristics.e.g Five kingdom system of classification.
1 cell no true nucleus - prokaryote (genetic material scattered and not enclosed by a membrane). have a cell wall, have no chloroplasts some move (flagellum); others dont some make their own food (autotrophic); others cant make their own food (heterotrophic) examples - bacteria, blue-green bacteria (cyanobacteria)
1 cell have a true nucleus – eukaryote some move (cilia, flagella, pseudopodia); others dont some are autotrophic; others are heterotrophic examples - amoeba, diatom, euglena, paramecium , some algae (unicellular), etc
Yeasts, such as brewers’ yeast, and moulds, such as Penicillium chrysogenum which produces the antibiotic penicillin, are classified as microbial fungi.
Groups reflect genetic similarity and evolutionary relatedness
Definition of species. Electron microscopy and Archea. rRNA sequencing.
It was Carl woose who sugested the concept of super kingdoms.
Three Domains (Super kingdoms) Of Living Organisms involve
Unicellular Prokaryote Cell wall composed of peptidoglycan Single loop DNA Reproduce through binary fission Benificial & harmful Occupy any ecological role e.g. Producers, consumers, decomposers, pre dator, prey, etc Anarobic and Aerobic respiration found
Utilize organic / inorganic chemicals or photosynthesis to obtain energy For example 1. Photoautotrophs 2.Chemoautotrophs 3.Heterotrophs
need CO2 asa carbonsourceobtain energynot fromlight, but fromthe oxidizationof H2S, HN4, orFe+
Heterotrophsobtain theirenergy fromorganiccompoundsmade by thephoto - andchemoautortrophs
Prokaryotes Lack peptidoglycan RNA polymerase and ribosomes are unique, but more similar to eukaryotes They do not cause any known human diseases They do not use light energy Most Archaea live in extreme environments They include :a)Methanogens b) Halophiles c) Thermophiles
“anaerobes thatproduce largeamounts ofmethane gas (CH4)”Important in thecarbon cycleoften used in sewagetreatment plants
"salt-loving"Archaea found in such extremely saline locales such as the Dead Sea and the Great Salt Lake mostly heterotrophs, but can switch to photosynthesis
"heat-loving"Archaeafound in hotsprings, acidicsoils, nearvolcanovents, etc.they use H2S togenerate ATP
unicellular eukaryotics microorganisms they move by 3 types of locomotion; pseudopods, flagella and cilia they have variety of shapes. can reproduce sexually or asexually live as free entities or parasites. Amoeba, paramecium, Volvox, Euglena etc Plasmodium falciparum that causes Malaria, Entamoeba histolytica that causes Amoebiasis , Giardia lamblia that causes Giardiasis, Trypanosoma brucei causes African trypanomiasis.
Unicellulareukaryotesno fixed shapegrow and wrapformspseudopods:buglesin the cell that help itmove and eatReproduce bybinary fissionFound in freshwater/soil
Unicellulareukaryoteshas a cilia: hair-likestructure that helpsit move and eatHas small andlarge nucleiReproduce bybinary fission/conjugationFound infreshwater
Unicellulareukaryotesuse flagellum tomoveuse eyespot todetect sunlightcontainchlorophylla green pigmentthat helpsphotosynthesisReproduce bybinary fissionFound in freshwater
Unicellular or multicellular eukaryotes Has cellulose cell wall Gain energy through photosynthesis Produce molecular oxygen & organic compounds Found in fresh waters, or on the surfaces of moist soil or rocks e.g. Bluegreenalgae,Chlamydomonas,Diatoms, Gelidium, etc..
Blue-green algae, also known asCyanobacteriaBlue-green algae are most oftenblue-green in color, but can alsobe blue, green, reddish-purpleBlue-green algae generally growin lakes, ponds, and slow-movingstreams when the water is warmand enriched with nutrients likephosphorus or nitrogen.Many different species of blue-green algae occur in Wisconsinwaters, but the most commonlydetected include Anabaenasp., Aphanizomenon
Chlamydomonas is a genus ofgreen alga consisting ofunicellular flagellates. it contains ion channels thatare directly activated by light,such as channelrhodopsinMost species are obligatephototrophs but C. reinhardtiiand C. dysosmos are facultativeheterotrophs that can grow inthe dark in the presence ofacetate as a carbon source.Cell wall is made up ofglycoprotein and non cellulosicpolysaccharides instead of
Eukaryotes Chitin cell walls Use organic chemicals for energy Unicellular / multicellular e.g. Molds and mushrooms are multicellular Yeasts are unicellular Beneficial / harmful
Multicellularconsists of mycelia(composed offilaments calledhyphae)In someinstances, the fungalmycelium forms a ringas it explores the soil-this is sometimescalled a fairy ring
unicellular,Most yeastsreproduce asexuallyby mitosis, and manydo so by anasymmetric divisionprocess calledbudding.Yeasts arechemoorganotrophs,as they use organiccompounds as a
Too small to be observedwith light microscopeConsists of DNA/RNA coreCore is surrounded byprotein coatCoat may be enclosed in alipid envelopeViruses are replicated onlywhen they are in living hostcellBacteriophage-viruses thatinfect bacteriaViroids-nucleic acid withoutprotein coatingPrions- Infectiousprotenacious particles
Helminths:flatworms and roundworms Multicellular