Autonomic nervous system (1)

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  • Blocking agents are chemicals which bind to the receptors on target organs and prevent the normal neurotransmitter from binding. * Here you can see an illustration of a receptor on the membrane of a cell. * When a neurotransmitter molecule binds with the receptor, the cell will react. * Blocking agents bind with and cover up the binding site on the receptor * * so that the neurotransmitter cannot bind. * Thus the neurotransmitter molecule will not have its normal effect on the blocked cell. *
  • Cholinergic blocking agents interfere with the binding of acetylcholine with cholinergic receptors. * Since muscarinic receptors are exclusively located on the target organs effected by the Parasympathetic division of the ANS, they effect only Parasympathetic responses. * An example of a muscarinic blocking agent is Atropine, * which is used topically during eye exams to dilate the pupil of the eye. * Atropine us sometimes also used prior to surgery to reduce salivation and respiratory secretions.*
  • Autonomic nervous system (1)

    1. 1. AUTONOMICNERVOUS SYSTEM Zulcaif Ahmad
    2. 2. AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEMPART OF THE MOTOR DIVISION OF PNS
    3. 3. AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM
    4. 4. AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEMDIVISIONS1. SYMPATHETIC2. PARASYMPATHETIC
    5. 5. FUNCTIONS OF THE ANS1. SYMPATHETIC READIES THE BODY FOR AN EMERGENCY2. PARASYMPATHETIC RESTORES THE BODY TO HOMEOSTASIS3. MOST ORGANS ARE DUALLY INNERVATED
    6. 6. SOMATIC MOTOR AND ANS1. EFFECTORS2. NUMBER OF NEURONS FROM THE CNS TO THE EFFECTOR
    7. 7. SYMPATHETIC DIVISION
    8. 8. SYMPATHETIC DIVISION
    9. 9. SYMPATHETIC DIVISION
    10. 10. PARASYMPATHETIC DIVISION
    11. 11. PARASYMPATHETIC DIVISION
    12. 12. NAMING NEURONS BY NEUROTRANSMITTER1. NEURONS WHICH SECRETE ACh ARE CHOLINERGIC2. NEURONS WHICH SECRETE NE ARE ADRENERGIC
    13. 13. NEUROTRANSMITTERS1. ALL PREGANGLIONIC NEURONS, AND POSTGANGLIONIC PARASYMPATHETIC NEURONS SECRETE ACh2. 2% OF POSTGANGLIONIC SYMPATHETIC SECRETED ACh3. THESE NEURONS ARE TERMED CHOLINGERIC
    14. 14. NEUROTRANSMITTERS1. 98% OF POSTGANGLIONIC SYMPATHETIC NEURONS SECRETE NE2. THESE NEURONS ARE TERMED ADRENERGIC
    15. 15. NEUROTRANSMITTERS
    16. 16. RECEPTORSRECEPTORS ARE STRUCTURES WHICH RECEIVENEUROTRANSMITTER FROM THE AXONAL TERMINALS OF NEURONS
    17. 17. RECEPTORSLOCATION1. DENDRITES OF POSTGANGLIONIC NEURONS2. ON EFFECTORS (SMOOTH AND CARDIAC MUSCLE, AND GLANDS)
    18. 18. RECEPTORSTYPES1. RECEPTORS WHICH RECEIVE ACh ARE CHOLINERGIC2. RECEPTORS WHICH RECEIVE NE ARE ADRENERGIC
    19. 19. CHOLINGERIC RECEPTORSTYPES1. NICOTINIC2. MUSCARINIC
    20. 20. CHOLINERGICNICOTINIC RECEPTORSLOCATION1. SKELETAL MUSCLE2. DENDRITES OF POSTGANGLIONIC NEURONS3. ADRENAL MEDULLA
    21. 21. CHOLINERGICNICOTINIC RECEPTORSTHE NEUROTRANSMITTER USED IS ACh
    22. 22. CHOLINGERICNICOTINIC RECEPTORS MECHANISM OF ACTION IS DIRECT
    23. 23. CHOLINERGICNICOTINIC RECEPTORS
    24. 24. CHOLINERGICNICOTINIC RECEPTORS Na+ ION INFLUX PRODUCES DEPOLARIZATION OF THE MEMBRANE, THEREFORE, EXCITATION
    25. 25. CHOLINERGICNICOTINIC RECEPTORSEXAMPLES OF ACTION1. SKELETAL MUSCLE CONTRACTION2. GENERATION OF AN ACTION POTENTIAL ON POSTGANGLIONIC NEURONS3. STIMULATION OF THE ADRENAL MEDULLA AND SECRETION OF NE AND E
    26. 26. CHOLINERGICMUSCARINIC RECEPTORSLOCATION1. EFFECTORS INNERVATED BY POSTGANGLIONIC PARASYMPATHETIC NEURONS2. EFFECTORS INNERVATED BY POSTGANGLIONIC SYMPATHETIC NEURONS
    27. 27. CHOLINERGICMUSCARINIC RECEPTORSTHE NEUROTRANSMITTER USED IS ACh
    28. 28. CHOLINERGICMUSCARINIC RECEPTORS MECHANISM OF ACTION IS INDIRECT
    29. 29. CHOLINERGICMUSCARINIC RECEPTORS
    30. 30. CHOLINERGICMUSCARINIC RECEPTORSIF THE EFFLUX OF K+ IONS ISREDUCED, DEPOLARIZATIONRESULTS AND THE EFFECT IS EXCITATION
    31. 31. CHOLINERGICMUSCARINIC RECEPTORS IF THE EFFLUX OF K+IONS IS INCREASED,HYPERPOLARIZATION RESULTS AND THE EFFECT IS INHIBITION
    32. 32. CHOLINERGICMUSCARINIC RECEPTORSSYMPATHETIC EXAMPLES1. EXCITATION—ECCRINE SWEAT GLANDS2. INHIBITION—BLOOD VESSELS IN SKELETAL MUSCLE
    33. 33. CHOLINGERICMUSCARINIC RECEPTORSPARASYMPATHETIC EXAMPLES1. EXCITATION—G.I. TRACT2. INHIBITION—HEART, BLOOD VESSELS SUPPLYING PENIS AND CLITORIS
    34. 34. ADENERGIC RECEPTORSTYPES1. ALPHA 12. ALPHA 23. BETA 14. BETA 2
    35. 35. ADRENERGIC ALPHA 1 RECEPTORSLOCATION1. BLOOD VESSELS SERVING THE SKIN, VISCERA, KIDNEYS, AND SALIVARY GLANDS2. MOST SYMPATHETIC TARGET ORGANS EXCEPT THE HEART
    36. 36. ADRENERGIC ALPHA 1 RECEPTORSTHE NEUROTRANSMITTER USED IS NE. E AND NE PRODUCED BY THE ADRENAL MEDULLA CAN ALSO BIND TO THIS RECEPTOR
    37. 37. ADRENERGIC ALPHA 1 RECEPTORS MECHANISM OF ACTION IS INDIRECT
    38. 38. ADRENERGIC ALPHA 1 RECEPTORS ADRENERGIC ALPHA 1 RECEPTORS PRODUCEDEPOLARIZATION, THEREFORE, THEY ARE EXCITATORY
    39. 39. ADRENERGIC ALPHA 1 RECEPTORSEXAMPLES OF ACTION1. CONSTRICTS BLOOD VESSELS2. CONSTRICTS VISCERAL ORGAN SPHINCTERS3. CONTRACTION OF RADIAL MUSCLE OF THE IRIS, WHICH CAUSES DILATION OF THE PUPIL OF THE EYE
    40. 40. ADRENERGIC ALPHA 2 RECEPTORSLOCATION1. BLOOD PLATELETS2. EXOCRINE GLANDS OF THE PANCREAS3. LIVER
    41. 41. ADRENERGIC ALPHA 2 RECEPTORSTHE NEUROTRANSMITTER USED IS NE, BUT E AND NE PRODUCED BY THE ADRENAL MEDULLA CAN ALSO BIND TO THIS RECEPTOR
    42. 42. ADRENERGIC ALPHA 2 RECEPTORSTHE MECHANISM OF ACTION IS INDIRECT
    43. 43. ADRENERGIC ALPHA 2 RECEPTORS ADRENERGIC ALPHA 2 RECEPTORS PRODUCE HYPERPOLARIZATION, THEREFORE, THEY ARE INHIBITORY
    44. 44. ADRENERGIC ALPHA 2 RECEPTORSEXAMPLES OF ACTION1. INHIBIT INSULIN AND ENZYME SECRETION FROM THE PANCREAS2. INHIBIT GALL BLADDER CONTRACTIONS
    45. 45. ADRENERGIC BETA 1 RECEPTORSLOCATION1. HEART2. KIDNEY
    46. 46. ADRENERGIC BETA 1 RECEPTORSTHE NEUROTRANSMITTER USEDIS NE, BUT E AND NE PRODUCED BY THE ADRENAL MEDULLA CAN ALSO BIND TO THIS RECEPTOR
    47. 47. ADRENERGIC BETA 1 RECEPTORSMECHANISM OF ACTION IS INDIRECT
    48. 48. ADRENERGIC BETA 1 RECEPTORS ADRENERGIC BETA 1RECEPTORS USUALLY PRODUCE DEPOLARIZATION, THEREFORE, THEY ARE EXCITATORY
    49. 49. ADRENERGIC BETA 1 RECEPTORSEXAMPLES OF ACTION1. INCREASES HEART RATE AND STRENGTH OF CONTRACTION2. SECRETION OF RENIN FROM JG CELLS OF THE KIDNEY
    50. 50. ADRENERGIC BETA 2 RECEPTORSLOCATION1. LUNGS BOTH BLOOD VESSELS AND BRONCHIOLES2. CORONARY BLOOD VESSELS3. SMOOTH MUSCLE OF THE DIGESTIVE AND URINARY SYSTEMS
    51. 51. ADRENERGIC BETA 2 RECEPTORSTHIS RECEPTOR BINDS ONLY EPINEPHRINE WHICH IS PRODUCED BY THE ADRENAL MEDULLA
    52. 52. ADRENERGIC BETA 2 RECEPTORSTHE MECHANISM OF ACTION IS INDIRECT
    53. 53. ADRENERGIC BETA 1 RECEPTORS ADRENERGIC BETA 2RECEPTORS USUALLY PRODUCE HYPERPOLARIZATION, THEREFORE, THEY ARE INHIBITORY
    54. 54. ADRENERGIC BETA 2 RECEPTORSEXAMPLES OF ACTION1. DILATION OF THE BRONCHIOLES OF THE LUNGS2. DILATION OF BLOOD VESSELS OF THE LUNGS AND HEART
    55. 55. ADRENERGIC BETA 2 RECEPTORS3. DECREASED MOTILITY AND TONE OF THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM4. RELAXATION OF URINARY BLADDER
    56. 56. COMPARISON OF THE TWO DIVISIONS1. FUNCTIONS2. ORIGINS3. NAME OF GANGLIA4. LOCATION OF GANGLIA5. RELATIVE LENGTH OF PRE & POSTGANGLIONIC NEURONS6. NEUROTRANSMITTERS USED
    57. 57. COMPARISON OF THE TWO DIVISIONS7. RECEPTORS8. RAMI COMMUNICANTES9. DEGREE OF EFFECTS10. LENGTH OF EFFECTS
    58. 58. BLOCKING AGENTS• Interfere with stimulatory or depressing effects of neurotransmitters by blocking the receptors on target organs. BlockerNORMAL NEUROTRANSMITTER CAN’T BIND WITH RECEPTOR BECAUSE BLOCKER COVERS THE BINDING SITE.
    59. 59. CHOLINERGICBLOCKERS MUSCARINIC BLOCKERS BLOCK PARASYMPATHETIC EFFECTS ON TARGET ORGANS AN EXAMPLE IS ATROPINE.
    60. 60. ADRENERGICBLOCKERSBLOCK RECEPTOR BINDING SITES PREVENTING THE BINDING OF EPINEPHERINE OR NOREPINEPHERINE. ALPHA 1 BLOCKERS DECREASE BLOOD PRESSURE IN PATIENTS WITH HYPERTENSION WITHOUT INTERFERING WITH OTHER SYMPATHETIC EFFECTS.
    61. 61. ADRENERGICBLOCKERS BETA 1 BLOCKERS ON HEART PREVENT HEART RATE INCREASE & ARRHYTHMIAS IN CARDIAC PATIENTS WITHOUT INTERFERING WITH OTHER SYMPATHETIC EFFECTS.

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