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Anaemia
 

Anaemia

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    Anaemia Anaemia Presentation Transcript

    • Dr.Zulcaif Ahmad 03444737311 Topic Name : Anaemia Zulcaif Ahmad02/12/13 1 03444737311
    • AnaemiaFrom Greek anaimia,meaning lack of blood) is a decrease innumber of red blood cells (RBCs) or lessthan the normal quantity of hemoglobin inthe blood. Zulcaif Ahmad02/12/13 2 03444737311
    • AnaemiaMean corpuscular volume:or"mean cell volume" (MCV),The normal reference range is typically80-100 fL Zulcaif Ahmad02/12/13 3 03444737311
    • AnaemiaTypes: Microcytic Hypochromic MCV<80fL Macrocytic MCV >100fL Normocytic normochromic MCV=80- 100fL Zulcaif Ahmad02/12/13 4 03444737311
    • AnaemiaMicrocytic hypochromic.Microcytic anaemia is a type of anemia characterized by small red blood cells. The normal mean corpuscular volume (MCV) is less than 80fL Zulcaif Ahmad 02/12/13 5 03444737311
    • AnaemiaMicrocytic hypochromic anaemia: Iron deficiency anaemia.(childhood & adult) Thalassemia.(childhood & adult) Sidroblastic anaemia. Zulcaif Ahmad02/12/13 6 03444737311
    • AnaemiaIron Deficiency anaemiaIron is an important building block for red blood cells.When iron loss exceeds its intake for a long time, iron storage decreases and insufficentamount of iron is available for haemoglobin production. Zulcaif Ahmad02/12/13 7 03444737311
    • AnaemiaIron deficiency anaemia Zulcaif Ahmad02/12/13 8 03444737311
    • AnaemiaCause of iron deficiency anaemia:-~Parasitosis~Dietary insufficiency~Malabsorption~Chronic blood loss~Intravascular hemolysis~General fatigue Zulcaif Ahmad02/12/13 9 03444737311
    • AnaemiaThalassemia heterogenous hemolytic disorders characterized by quantitative abnormalities of haemoglobin synthesis~Genetic defect in globin production Zulcaif Ahmad02/12/13 10 03444737311
    • Anaemia α-thalassemia : α-chain deficiency β-thalassemia : β-chain deficiency (Cooleys anaemia) α -thalassemia (Thalassemia major) due to gene deletion : genes from both parents β-thalassemia(Thalassemia minor) due to point mutation : gene from one parent Zulcaif Ahmad02/12/13 11 03444737311
    • AnaemiaCauses of thalassemia~Iron overload~Enlarged spleen~Infection~Bone deformities~Slowed growth rate~Heart disease Zulcaif Ahmad02/12/13 12 03444737311
    • AnaemiaThallasemia minor Zulcaif Ahmad02/12/13 13 03444737311
    • AnaemiaSideroblastic anemia,Disorder associated with various defects in the porphyrin biosynthetic pathway~porphyrin biosynthesis defect~Diminished heme synthesis~Increased cellular iron uptake Bone marrow produces ringed sideroblasts rather Ahmadhealthy red blood Zulcaif than02/12/13 14 cells. 03444737311
    • AnaemiaSideroblastic anaemia Zulcaif Ahmad 02/12/13 15 03444737311
    • AnaemiaCauses:-The cause of sideroblastic anemia cannot always be identified.~Toxins: lead or zinc poisoning~Drug-induced: ethanol, cycloserine~Nutritional: pyridoxine or copper deficiency~Genetic: (X-linked) Zulcaif Ahmad02/12/13 16 03444737311
    • AnaemiaMacrocytic anaemiaThese are the anaemias in which the RBC have the MCV greater than 100fl Zulcaif Ahmad 02/12/13 17 03444737311
    • AnaemiaMacrocytic: Megaloblastic anaemia Non megaloblastic anaemia Zulcaif Ahmad 02/12/13 18 03444737311
    • AnaemiaMegaloblastic anaemia~Haemoglobin production probably normal.~Defects in nuclear replication and division.~Inhibition of DNA synthesis~Impaired DNA synthesis leading to defective cell maturation and cell division Zulcaif Ahmad02/12/13 19 03444737311
    • AnaemiaCauseThe cause of megaloblastic anemia is due to deficiency of vitamin B12 and folic acid.The macrocytes in this condition is usually “oval” - hence they are also called as MACRO OVALOCYTES Zulcaif Ahmad 02/12/13 20 03444737311
    • AnaemiaMegaloblastic anaemiaRed beefy tongue Zulcaif Ahmad02/12/13 21 03444737311
    • AnaemiaMegaloblastic anaemia Zulcaif Ahmad 02/12/13 22 03444737311
    • 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Row 1 Row 2 Row 3 Row 4 Zulcaif Ahmad02/12/13 23 03444737311
    • AnaemiaFolic acid~It a vitamin necessary for the production of the RBC, WBC and platelets.~It is not synthesized in the body.~It is found in large number of green fresh vegetables, fruits. Zulcaif Ahmad02/12/13 24 03444737311
    • AnaemiaNon megaloblastic anaemia~These are disorders in which the macrocytosis is not due to vitamin B12 or folic acid deficiency~Here the macrocytes are “ROUNDNon-megaloblastic anemia is usually caused by alcohol abuse. DNA synthesis is not defective, and there are no megaloblastic changes on the blood smear. Zulcaif Ahmad02/12/13 25 03444737311
    • AnaemiaPresenter: Ayla ArmaghanPresented to: Mr TabishHajvery University Lahore, Pakistan Zulcaif Ahmad02/12/13 26 03444737311
    • AnaemiaNormocytic normochromic anaemiaA form of anaemia in which concentration ofhaemoglobin in RBCs iswith in the standard rangebut low in number. Zulcaif Ahmad 02/12/13 27 03444737311
    • AnaemiaNormocytic normochromic anaemia. Aplastic anaemia. Haemolytic anaemia. Increase Plasma. Zulcaif Ahmad02/12/13 28 03444737311
    • AnaemiaAplastic anaemiaIt is the condition where bone marrow does not produce sufficent new cells to replenish blood cells. Zulcaif Ahmad02/12/13 29 03444737311
    • AnaemiaSymptoms~weakness or fatigueIn severe cases leads to heart failure Zulcaif Ahmad02/12/13 30 03444737311
    • AnaemiaDisease~Lymphoma~Myeloma Zulcaif Ahmad02/12/13 31 03444737311
    • AnaemiaTestBone marrow aspiration test Zulcaif Ahmad02/12/13 32 03444737311
    • AnaemiaHemolytic anaemiaIt is a form of anaemia due to break down of RBCs Zulcaif Ahmad02/12/13 33 03444737311
    • AnaemiaCBC test (Complete blood count test) Zulcaif Ahmad02/12/13 34 03444737311
    • AnaemiaPlasma increase Zulcaif Ahmad02/12/13 35 03444737311
    • References MedicineNet.com --> Definition of Anemia Last Editorial Review World Health Organization (2008). Worldwide prevalence of anaemia 1993–2005. Geneva: World Health Organization.ISBN 9789241596657. Retrieved 2009-03-25. Table 12-1 in:Mitchell, Richard Sheppard; Kumar, Vinay; Abbas, Abul K.; Fausto, Nelson. Robbins Basic Pathology. Philadelphia: Saunders.ISBN 1-4160-2973-7. 8th edition. Kumar, Vinay; Abbas, Abul K.; Fausto, Nelson; & Mitchell, Richard N. (2007). Robbins Basic Pathology (8th ed.). Saunders Elsevier. p. 432 ISBN 978-1-4160-2973-1 National Heart Lung and Blood Institute > What Causes Anemia? Retrieved on June 9, 2010 GYton Zulcaif Ahmad02/12/13 36 03444737311