Pharmacology Mechanisms Terms List


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Pharmacology Mechanisms Terms List

  1. 1. Pharmacology Mechanism 1. 5-FU: selectively inhibits DNA synthesis by inhibiting 18. amrinone: bipyridine that blocks phosphodiesterase, thymidylate synthase leading to increased cAMP and increaed Ca influx: 2. acetaminophen: reversibly inhibits COX increased cardiac contractility and vasodilation 3. acetazolamide: inhibits carbonic anhydrase to reduce 19. antacids: weak bases that neutralize gastric HCl renal reabsorption of bicarbonate ions 20. arsenic: uncouples oxidative phosphorylation by 4. acyclovir: guanosine analog that acts as a chain substituting for phosphates in ATP terminator and viral DNA polymerase inhibitor 21. aspirin: irreversibly inhibits COX to block the production 5. acyclovir: needs to be phosphorylated by viral thymidine of PGG2 kinase 22. atropine: binds M1, M2, M3 as an antimuscarinic 6. adenosine: acts via purinergic receptors, G protein 23. azathioprine: converted to 6-mercaptopurine and inhibits mediated decrease in cAMP and increased outward K IMP dehydrogenase -> death of lymphoid cells current 24. aztreonam: monobactam that binds PBPs, inhibits 7. albuterol: activates b2 receptor to stimulate adenylate peptidoglycan synthesis, only works in gram negatives cyclase 25. baclofen: binds and activates GABA-b receptors in the 8. alkylating agents: leads to crosslinking of bases, CNS abnormal base pairing, and DNA strand breakage 26. barbiturates: facilitate GABA, increase Cl channel 9. allopurinol: inhibits xanthine oxidase, leading to less uric DURATION, hyperpolarize membrane acid production 27. beclomethasone: enhances responsiveness of b2 receptors,10. amantadine: prevents assembly of influenza A2 virus inhibits phospholipase A211. aminocaproic acid: lysine analog that prevents plasmin 28. benzodiazepines: potentiate GABA, increase Cl channel from binding fibrin FREQUENCY of opening, hyperpolarize membrane12. aminoglycoside: enters bacteria by oxygen-dependent 29. benztropine: blocks cholinergic activity in the corpus active transport striatum once dopaminergic inhibition has been lost13. amiodarone: class III antiarrhythmic, K channel blockade, 30. bethanechol: binds M2 (K channel and cAMP) in the heart Na channel blockade, beta blocker, Ca channel blocker, 31. bethanechol: binds M3 (IP3/DAG) to increase smooth vasodilator, negative inotrope muscle firing14. amphetamine: taken up presynaptically and leads to the 32. bleomycin: binds DNA, complexes with Fe, and forms free release of endogenous NE radicals to injure the DNA chain15. amphotericin B: binds membrane sterols and acts like a 33. bromocriptine: D2 agonist, D1 antagonist pore, high affinity for ergosterol16. ampicillin: binds transpeptidases in dividing bacteria17. ampicillin: amino group allows it to pass into gram negatives 1
  2. 2. 34. buspirone (anxiolytic): selectively antagonist of serotonin 55. colchicine: binds tubulin to cause depolymerization 1A 56. colestipol: increases LDL receptors in addition to35. carbamazepine: blocks Na channels, inhibits uptake and sequestering cholesterol in the intestines release of NE 57. cromolyn sodium: decreased accumulation of Ca in mast36. carbidopa: inhibits dopa decarboxylase in the periphery cells37. cephalosporins: beta lactam that binds transpeptidases 58. cyanide: reacts rapidly with trivalent iron of cytochrome and causes autolysis oxidase in mitochondria38. chloramphenicol: blocks peptidyl transferase at 50S 59. cyclosporine: acts on T cells to inhibit transcription of39. chloramphenicol: inhibits micochondrial synthesis in bone IL-2 marrow cells 60. cytarabine: acts during S phase to inhibit DNA synthesis40. chloroquine: kills plasmodium in RBCs via incorporation of itself into the strand41. chlorpromazine: blocks D1 and D2 receptors 61. dactinomycin: blocks DNA-dependent transcription by RNA polymerase and causes ss breaks42. cimetidine: competitvely inhibits H2 receptors 62. dantrolene: decreases Ca release from SR43. cisapride: facilitates Ach release from myenteric plexus 63. dapsone: analog of PABA that inhibits dihydropteroate44. cisplatin: crosslink bases, abnormal base pairing, DNA synthase from synthesizing folate de novo strand breakage, but is not an alkylating agent 64. dextromethorphan: d-isomer of amethylated opioid used45. class I antiarrhythmic: sodium channel blockade as antitussive46. class II antiarrhythmic: beta blockade 65. diazoxide: hyperpolarizes arterial smooth muscle, inhibits47. class III antiarrhythmic: K channel blockade insulin secretion48. class IV antiarrhythmic: Ca channel blockade 66. didanosine: inhibits viral reverse transcriptase as dd ATP49. clavulanic acid: binds and inactivates beta lactamases 67. digitalis: inhibits Na/K ATPase, leads to high intracellular50. clindamycin: disrupts formation of 70S initiation complex Na and therefore high intracellular Ca -> positive and inhibits aminoacyl translocation step of peptide inotropy bond synthesis 68. diphenhydramine: reversible competitive inhibitor of H151. clomiphene: in premenopausal women, acts as a receptors competitive inhibitor at estrogen receptors in the 69. diphenoxylate: acts on mu and delta receptors in the anterior pituitary and hypothalamus bowel52. clonidine: activates presynaptic a2 receptors when given 70. disulfiram: irreversibly inactivates aldehyde orally dehydrogenase, leads to accumulation of acetaldehyde53. clonidine: activates postsynaptic a2 receptors when given 71. dobutamine: analog of dopamine that stimulates b1, with IV a little b2 and a1 as well54. cocaine: blocks reuptake, especially of NE 72. dopamine: endogenous catecholamine that stimulates D1 at low doses to increase renal perfusion and diuresis 2
  3. 3. 73. doxorubicin: breaks DNA by free radical generation and 93. gold: change activation of macs, inhibit lysosomal enzyme topoisomerase II activation formation, decrease histamine release, suppress PMN74. edrophonium: reversibly binds acetylcholinesterase at the phagocytosis NMJ 94. griseofulvin: interacts with polymerized microtubules to75. ephedrine: stimulates release of NE from sympathetic disrupt mitotic spindle neurons, also acts directly 95. griseofulvin: binds tightly to keratin76. ergot alkaloids: act at alpha, dopamine, and serotonin 96. guanethidine: taken up by NE reuptake mechanism, binds receptors vesicles, inhibits release of NE77. erythromycin: inhibits translocation step of protein 97. haloperidol: high potency dopamine blocker synthesis at 50S 98. halothane: increases threshold for firing of CNS neurons78. estrogens, progestins: bind a zinc finger DNA-binding 99. HCTZ: inhibits Na/Cl transporter in the DCT, increases protein Ca reabsorption79. ethambutol: inhibits incorporation of mycolic acid into 100. heparin: activates ATIII by exposing binding site mycobacterial cell wall 101. hexamethonium: competes for nicotinic receptor on80. etoposide: binds topoisomerase II to induce ss breaks postganglionic neurons81. FK506: inhibits transcription of IL-2 with less 102. hydralazine: activates guanylate cyclase and increases nephrotoxicity than cyclosporine permeability to K82. flecainide: class 1C antiarrhythmic 103. ibuprofen: blocks the conversion of arachidonic acid to83. flucytosine: converted by cytosine deaminase to 5-FU, prostaglandins which inhibits thymidylate synthase 104. imipenem: binds transpeptidases and inhibit bacterial cell84. flumazenil: benzodiazepine analog that antagonizes wall synthesis85. fluoxetine: SSRI (no antimuscarinic, antihistamine, 105. imipramine: inhibit reuptake of NE and 5HT a-blocker side effects) 106. insulin: binds a receptor with tyrosine kinase activity86. foscarnet: inorganic phosphate that inhibits DNA 107. ipratropium: M3 antagonist, inhaled polymerase, inhibits HIV reverse transcriptase 108. isoniazid: inhibits biosynthesis of mycolic acids87. furosemide: inhibits Na/K/2Cl transporter in the TAL 109. isoproterenol: stimulates beta receptors to increase cAMP88. ganciclovir: guanine derivative inhibits DNA polymerase 110. ketoconazole: prevents conversion of lanesterol to of CMV, prevents chain elongation ergosterol by inhibiting 14-a-methylase89. gemfibrozil: increases LPL activity, decreases hepatic 111. lead: inhibits delta-ALA dehydratase and ferrochelatase synth and secretion of VLDL 112. levodopa: converted by dopa decarboxylase90. gentamicin: interferes with formation of initiation complex, induces misreading of mRNA, causes breakup 113. lidocaine: class 1B antiarrhythmic of polysomes 114. lithium: inhibits recycling of neuronal membrane91. glyburide: stimulates the release of insulin from beta cells phosphoinositides used by alpha and muscarinic and sensitizes peripheral tissues to insulin receptors92. glyburide: actions at ATP-sensitive K channels mimics glucose and leucine 3
  4. 4. 115. MAO-A: selectively metabolizes serotonin 136. nicotine/Ach on nicotinic receptors: binds receptor to116. MAO-B: selectively metabolizes dopamine allow Na and K to diffuse down their gradient117. mebendazole: inhibits microtubule synthesis 137. nifedipine: dihydropyridine that blocks L-type Ca channels118. melarsoprol: arsenical that binds sulfhydryl groups to inactivate a wide variety of enzymes 138. nifurtimox: forms chemically active radicals119. mercaptopurine: impairs synthesis of DNA and RNA, it is 139. nitrofurantoin: forms covalent bonds with bacterial DNA an analog of hypoxanthine and adenine in acidic urine120. methadone: acts on mu with extended duration of action 140. nitroprusside: combines with RBCs to release NO in both arteries and veins121. methotrexate: leads to decreased synthesis of thymidylate, purines, and amino acids by preventing the recycling of 141. norepinephrine: stimulates a1=a2>b1, with no b2 folic acid 142. nystatin: binds ergosterol and disrupts membrane122. methoxamine: a1 agonist increases intracellular calcium permeability and transport functions (topical)123. methyldopa: converted to methyl-NE in the brain, binds 143. octreotide: inhibits things through a cAMP mechanism presynaptic a2 receptors 144. olsalazine: two aspirin molecules linked by an azo bond,124. methyltestosterone: binds cytosolic receptor and goes to used in those with sulfa allergies for UC nucleus to aid transcription of testosterone-responsive 145. oxytocin: nine amino acid peptide from the posterior genes pituitary125. methylxanthines: increases cAMP to relax smooth muscle 146. pancuronium: competitively inhibits Ach at nicotinic126. metoclopramide: antiemetic that acts by dopamine receptors at motor end plates blockade 147. parathion: organophosphate that binds to cholinesterase,127. metronidazole: reductive bioactivation of nitro group by phosphorylating it and making it resistant to hydration ferredoxin froms cytotoxic products 148. pentamidine: inhibits glucose metabolism in128. miconazole: topical conazole nonreplicating PCP129. morphine: decreases Ca entry and increases K 149. phenelzine and isocarboxazid: irreversibly inhibit MAO conductance primarily at mu receptors 150. phenobarbital: acts as an anticonvulsant, induces130. nafcillin: binds transpeptidases and has a bulky R group glucuronyl transferase, it is a long acting barbiturate131. naloxone: pure mu antagonist 151. phentolamine: nonselective competitive antagonist of a-receptors132. naltrexone: used outpatient, pure antagonist at opioid mu receptors 152. phenylephrine: a1 agonist increases intracellular calcium133. neostigmine: suicide inhibitor of cholinesterase that 153. phenytoin: blocks Na channels, stabilizes membranes, carbamylates the enzymes active site decreases Ca influx, helps GABA134. niacin: inhibits hepatic secretion of VLDL, leading to 154. pilocarpine: binds M2 to increase NO in the heart lower LDL production135. niclosamide: uncouples oxidative phosphorylation and activates ATPases 4
  5. 5. 155. pilocarpine: binds M3 to increase glandular secretions 173. rifampin: suppresses RNA chain initiation156. polymyxin: acts on gram negatives by distorting 174. selegiline: inhibits MAO-B selectively membrane lipid structure (it is a basic polypeptide 175. sodium stibogluconate: inhibits glycolysis or nucleic acid containing fatty acids) metabolism157. praziquantel: increases membrane permeability to Ca 176. spironolactone: competitive antagonist of aldosterone in158. prednisone: blocks proliferation of activated T cells the DCT159. primaquine: metabolized to quinolone-quinone 177. streptokinase: exposes an active site on plasminogen intermediates that are oxidants 178. strychnine: competitve antagonist of glycine160. probenecid: competes for a weak acid carrier transporter 179. succinylcholine: depolarizing NM blocker in the proximal tubule 180. sulfasalazine: a sulfapyridine linked to aspirin, acts only161. procaine: blocks Na channels on rapidly firing pain at the colon when bacteria break it apart neurons 181. sulfinpyrazone: inhibits platelet granule release,162. propantheline: competitive muscarinic antagonist relaxes adherence to subendothelial cells, synth of GI/GU smooth muscle and decreases secretions prostaglandins163. propranolol: decreases slope of phase 4 in pacemaker 182. sulfinpyrazone: inhibits platelet release, platelet adhesion, cells and prostaglandin synthesis164. propranolol: decreases renin release by blocking b1 in the 183. sulfonamides: PABA analog, competitive antagonist of JGA dihyropteroate synthetase165. propranolol: increases refractory period at AV node 184. sulfonamides: ultimately inhibits THF synthesis and166. propylthiouracil: thionamide that inhibits iodide impairs purine and thymidine synthesis organification, incorporation of iodine into tyrosine 185. suramin: inhibits parasitic enzymes involved in energy residues, and conversion of T3 to T4 in the periphery metabolism167. pyrantel pamoate: neuromuscular blockade at nicotinic 186. tamoxifen: competitive antagonist at estrogen receptor receptors 187. terbutaline: parenteral b2 bronchodilator168. quinidine: Na channel blockade in the heart, a 1A 188. tetracycline: active transport pumps drug through the antiarrhythmic, anticholinergic inner cytoplasmic membrane, prevents access of169. quinolones: inhibits bacterial topoisomerase II aminoacyl tRNA to acceptor site on mRNA170. ribavirin: inhibits synthesis of guanine nucleotides by 189. ticarcillin: carboxyl R group allows penetration into competitively inhibiting IMP dehydrogenase gram-negative bacteria, acts by inhibiting171. ribavirin: phosphorylated form inhibits 5 cap formation transpeptidase and inhibits viral RNA polymerase 190. ticlopidine: interferes with platelet 2b/3a binding of172. rifampin: inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase of fibrinogen mycobacteria by interacting with beta subunit 191. timolol: decreases aqueous humor formation by nonselective beta blockade 192. trifluridine: thymidine analog that gets into DNA and makes it break 5
  6. 6. 193. trimethoprim: structurally similar to folic acid, inhibits DHFR194. ursodiol (anti-gallstones): decrease hepatic secretion of cholesterol into bile, inhibits HMG-coA reductase, decreases reabsorption of cholesterol by intestine195. valproic acid: enhances GABA accumulation196. vancomycin: prevents polymerization of peptidoglycans197. vasopressin: causes release of vWF and factor VIII in the vascular endothelium198. verapamil: decreases phase 4 slope and decreases rise of phase 0 slope199. vidarabine: adenosine analong in which arabinose replaces ribose, inhibits viral DNA polymerase200. vinca alkaloids: binds tubulin to arrest cell at metaphase201. warfarin: inhibits epoxide reductase in the liver202. zidovudine (AZT): inhibits viral reverse transcriptase 6