Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5




Research on Knowledge Economy, Economics of Knowledge, Knowledge Theories, Knowledge industries and the methodological and institutional hurdles faced in conducting research and the birth of ...

Research on Knowledge Economy, Economics of Knowledge, Knowledge Theories, Knowledge industries and the methodological and institutional hurdles faced in conducting research and the birth of Knowmatics from 1978-2012 have been discussed. Details are given for the future researchers to carry out their works without repeating the same thing.



Total Views
Views on SlideShare
Embed Views



2 Embeds 3 2 1



Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
Post Comment
Edit your comment


  • THIS IS BIOGRAPHICAL This is biographical, about Economics of Knowledge, my pioneering work that I started in 1978 without knowing its value and importance. It was before the birth of Information Technology. I just wanted to make use of my deep knowledge in Economics to study ‘Knowledge’ as a product for consumption and production and the collective knowledge as wealth. When I started my study on knowledge, there was no previous model or example to treat knowledge as a commodity, though everybody was telling knowledge as wealth. Quantification of knowledge and categorization of knowledge based on quality and the relationships between the Consumption and Production of Knowledge were some of the major challenges before me. Nobody was there to support me, but there were many to brand me mad. However, I successfully completed my work. I am documenting all such incidents on the hope that it will be useful to the future researchers and above all the young generation.
  • ECONOMCS OF KNOWLEDGE: MY DAYS AT THE UNIVERSITY OFMADRAS After studying Economics in a very serious way at St. Berchman’s College, Chanaganacherry, Kerala, India both for my B. A. and M. A.(1965-70) and teaching Economics at St. Dominics College, Kanjirapply, Kerala, India, I joined for my Master’s Degree in Library & Information Science at University of Madras, Chennai, India in 1978 . Along with Management of Information Systems and Services and Computer Applications in Libraries, I started to study on applying Economic Theories and Principles on Knowledge and Libraries. Since there was no computer available for our study at Madras University in 1978, my practical classes in Computer Application were conducted at the Computer Science Department of the Indian Institute of Technology, Madras. Both the British Council Library and American Library (USIS Library) Madras extended their support for us.
  • METHDOLOGICAL PROBLEMS Some of the basic methodological challenges that I encountered were: 1. There was no tool to treat knowledge as a commodity to consume and produce and measure and categorize knowledge on the basis of quality and quantity. 2. Economists had taken no pain to study university libraries as an enterprise charged with procurement and delivery of Knowledge for the academic community. 3.Libraries were left exclusively for the traditional librarians who had given more emphasis on technicalities of university libraries such as purchase, classification and cataloguing of books rather than their management or delivery of services. 4. There was not any model or research work in applying Economics on a University Library.
  • ‘THE BENEFICIAL LIBRARY’ The British Council Library, Madras had brought to my attention towards a new research work of Prof. Gordon Wills and Christina Oldman, ‘The Beneficial Library’ applying Economics and management Principles in a British University library. It was an incomplete study, ending with Literature Survey and a limited Data Analysis. That had provoked me to write to Prof. Wills of the Cranfield Institute of Technology, UK criticizing the book and also stating about my work. He wrote me back that he was eager to see the final outcomes of my work in applying Economics on Knowledge and a University Library. That had made me to realize the uniqueness and importance of my work.
  • KNOWLEDGE FOR CONSUMPTION AND PRODUCTION Even though I sought the help of Professors of Economics, Management, Philosophy, Mathematics and Computer Science, nobody was there to help me resolve the basic methodological problems of treating Knowledge as a Product for Consumption and Production and a University Library as a Knowledge Procurement, Processing and Delivering Unit and a University as a Knowledge Consumption and Production Enterprise. I was not ready to surrender. After studying the History of Sciences and Philosophy of Sciences and observing the academic community in their knowledge or library use pattern and behavior, finally I was able to complete my study. However, the Madras University awarded me a just minimum pass marks for my dissertation because my work was not in tune with the tradition of librarians, including Dr. S. R. Ranganathan, the Father of Library Science in India..
  • ‘LIBRARY RESOURCE ALLOCATION’ My set back at the Madras University hurt me a lot, for I was treated like a traitor or enemy of Library Science and the conventional wisdom of Librarians in India. As had been suggested by Prof. Gordon Wills of Cranfield School of Management, UK, I submitted a complete report about my work and findings. Prof. Wills asked MCB University Press, UK and USA, his publisher to publish my work and on that basis they contacted me. They asked me to send the manuscript .In 1979, there was only the old type mechanical typewriter and even electric or electronic typewriter or personal computer or internet was not available in India. Using my typewriter, I typed the entire text and sent the manuscript by Air Mail to England. In 1981, it was published from England and the USA in the form of a book, ‘Library Resource Allocation’ by the MCB University Press. For their extensive reviews, it became very popular not only in England and the USA but also in the USSR.
  • THE FATHER OF INFORMATICS In 1981, when my book was published, Information technology was not born. In academic circles, there was not much distinction between ‘Information’ and ‘Knowledge’ and Information was taken superior to Knowledge; scientific community had heavily relayed upon Information and Indexing Systems. My book was prescribed as a reading material for the Master’s program in Information Management of the Syracuse University. It was also came to the notice of Prof. A. I. Mikhalov, the Director of VINITI of the USSR and the Father of Informatics and the Chairman of the FID Committee on Research on the Theoretical Basis of Information Science. Prof. Mikhalov nominated me as one of the twelve members and the youngest member of the FID Committee, having consultative status with UNESCO. The Indian Council of Social Science research put me as the Director of a major Research Project on Knowledge Management of Universities.
  • CONFRONTATION AND FRIENDSHIP WITH THE NOBEL LAURATE DR. ABDUL SALAM AND AUTHOR, MR. ALVIN TOFFLER  On the basis of my FID Committee membership, in 1984 I got an invitation from the Intergovernmental Bureau for Informatics, Rome , an autonomous body created by the UN and the UNESCO, to contribute a paper for its World Conference on Strategies and Policies for Informatics for Development.  In my paper, I criticized Alvin Toffler for his inability to bring the Third World in his ‘Future Shock’ and ‘Third Wave’ and Prof. Abdul Salam, the Nobel Laureate in Physics for his ‘Islamic Bomb’, besides formulating ‘Two Way Flow Principle for Data Flow between the Industrialized and the Third World Countries and ‘Theory of Mass Suicidal Mania’ of the Third World that would lead to Religious Fundamentalism, Terrorism and greater Military Expenditure and the New War between the Third World and Industrialized World. I also proposed Strategies to Redesign Informatics for Third world Development and Global Peace.
  • OFFICIAL DOCUMENT FORREFERENCE Quite surprisingly, both Dr. Abdul Salam and Mr. Alvin Toffler who were made as referees for my paper, recommend my paper for the Conference with the status of ‘official document for reference’ and it was translated into eight languages. That shows the greatness of these two men. Since the University of Calicut denied me permission to attend the conference, in my absence, my paper was presented by the organizers before the conference attended by over 100 heads of nations. Both the Un and UNESCO made over 1000 million dollars under the disposal of the Intergovernmental Bureau for Informatics to help the Third World.
  • ABORTED INFORMATICS PROJECT Since I was the only contributor from India for the Conference, I was contacted by IBI to submit a major project proposal worth minimum $30 million for Setting Up a Centre in Kerala for Redesigning Informatics for Development and Global Peace, within ten days in Nov. 1984. The proposal must be routed through the Government of India with the recommendation of the Calicut University. As the Vice-Chancellor was against such a big project, that too in Informatics, a quite unknown field for the him and his Professors and also the members of the University Syndicate (the Governing Council), I could not proceed with the Project. Had it been implemented, Kerala would have been far ahead in Information Technology. Probably, in 1984, the top men at the Calicut University, including the academic community, could not understand the meaning and implications of Computer and Informatics. This was taken place about 28 years ago in Kerala.
  • MATHEW’S THEORIES OF KNOWLEDGE In Dec. 1984, Prof. Mikhalov asked me to contribute a paper for the forthcoming collection of papers, ‘Theoretical Problems of Informatics’, developing at least one original theory. I took it as a challenge for I found that Consumption and Production of Information or Knowledge and their interrelationships were the basic problem of Informatics in the coming years. In 1985, the USSR Academy of Sciences published my two theories : Information Consumption-Production Correlation and the Stage Theory of Information Consumption-Production growth for the FID Committee in Russian and English and subsequently appeared over eight languages. Now they are known as Mathew’s Theories of Knowledge and they have emerged as an area for research.
  • INTERANTIONAL INFORMATION ECONOMY For the World Conference on ‘International Information Economy’ held in the USA in 1985, on the basis of a specific invitation, I contributed a paper, ‘India and International Information Economy’ and all the contributions were published in the International Information Economy Handbook, edited by Russell Pipe, 1985. This work is considered as the first work on Globalization and the role of Information Technology in shaping globalization. My paper helped the international community understand the progressive policies of India to become an Information Economy under the then Prime Minister, Mr. Rajive Ghandi. He even wrote me , expressing his appreciation for my works.
  • KNOWMATICS AND MATHEW’S THEORIES Information Technology Revolution had become a reality by 1987. Information and Communication Technologies have pervaded in almost all sectors and human activities, Banking, Finance, International Trade Corporate and Governmental Administration and so on. IT had emerged as a force to determine the fate of nations as well as business or industrial enterprises. However, for the inherent weakness, I T could not enter in ‘Knowledge’ rather than Data or Information. This had made Mathew to propound ‘Knowmatics’ – Mathematics and Engineering of Knowledge, as an elaboration of Mathew’s Theories of Knowledge in 2005.
  • REMEMBERING THOSE WHOINSPIRED It was Thunchaththu Ezhuthachan, the father of Malayalam Language who taught the great lesson that ‘Knowledge is the supreme wealth’ during 16th century in Kerala. I learned it when I was a student in my primary school in Koratty a remote village near Erumely in Kerala, that still persists in my mind and makes me to apply Economics in Knowledge. My teachers in Economics at S.B. College, Changanacherry include, Prof. C.Z. Scaria, Dr. Josepha Powathil (Arch-Bishop), Prof. T. K. Francis and Prof. C.O. Abraham who taught me the basic lessons in Economics and inspired me to explore Economics, that I am still continuing. It was Prof. G. Bhattachariya who asked me to make use of my knowledge in Economics to study Knowledge and Libraries at Madras University. Dr. A. Sukumaran Nair (formerly the Vice-Chancellor of M.G. University) helped me a lot in conducting original research works in Educational Informatics and University Management. In Calicut University, my fellow teachers Dr. M.G.S.Narayan and Dr.K.G.Adiyodi and Prof. M. M. Ghani (Vice-Chancellor) and Prof. Sukumar Azhikode (Pro-Vice-Chancellor) helped inspired me to pursue my intellectual adventures. My greatest source of inspiration was my mother and my late wife, Prof.(Dr.) Santhamma Raju from 1978 to 1999. At present, I am getting full support and encouragement from my wife, Rani Raju since 2000, besides my children, Ranjit, Reni and Priyanaka.