Millennial presentation final


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Presentation I developed for the Western Organization and Management Teaching Conference in April 2011 hosted at the University of Redlands

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Millennial presentation final

  1. 1. Understanding and Engaging Millennials Dr. Marcus Castro
  2. 2. Purpose• Conduct a literature and survey review of Millennials to ascertain what literature and data reveals about students• Understand how Millennials view the world, use technology; what is important to them, and identify their learning preferences• Review broad spectrum from business, academia, public and private sector studies, various learning and communication theories, relevant surveys 2
  3. 3. Limitations• International students• Online/Hybrid courses• Influence of generational mixture in classroom• Racial/ethnic & gender characteristics• Descriptive characteristics are derived from literature and data, but in some cases represent generalizations 3
  4. 4. Analytical Framework A. General Characteristics B. Learning G. Student Theory and Learning Teaching Preferences Methods Recommendations for Engagement, Further Study Balanced View of MillennialsF. Technology, Information C. Business Literacy E. Giving D. Ethics Patterns 4
  5. 5. Generational CharacteristicsGenerations: Strauss & Howe PewGreatest Generation: 1901-1924 190?-1928Silent Generation: 1925-1942 1928-1945Baby Boomers: 1943-1960 1946-1964Generation X: 1961-1981 1965-1980Millennials: 1982-200? 1980-199?Source: Pew Research Center, Strauss and Howe 5
  6. 6. A. Pew Research Center Report: Millennials, A Portrait of Generation Next (February 2010)• They are more ethically/racially diverse• Less religious: 1 in 4 unaffiliated with any religion and identify as atheist, agnostic, or nothing in particular• Less likely to serve in the military-2% males are vets• On track to become the most educated generation in U.S. history• History’s first “always connected” generation• 8 in 10 sleep with their cell phone at night• 37% are unemployed-largest in 30 years• Only 6 in 10 raised by both parents-smaller than other generations 6
  7. 7. A. Pew Research Center Report: Millennials, A Portrait of Generation Next (February 2010)• Respect their elders-say older generation is superior when it comes to moral values and work ethic• Less skeptical of government; think government should do more to solve problems• More than 2 to 1 voted for Obama, but half now say he has failed to change Washington• Think their generation is unique and distinctive because of their use of technology• Distinguish themselves as a generation that gets along well with others, especially their elders• Sent or received 20 texts over the last hour (12 for gen x, 5 for Boomers) 7
  8. 8. General Characteristics• Will be about 80 million strong at their peak (Youth Bulge)• They are not overly concerned about the environment• Aspire to work for Google, Microsoft, Apple, Disney, Nike, Sony• 45 percent have an annual income of $25,000 or less• 50 percent are single, 30 percent are married; 25 percent identified as unmarried partners• 375 stated they “just needed a change” as the chief reason they sought out their last job• Generally, Millennials don’t know American or world history like Boomers, with exception of civil rights• Comfortable clustering in Urban areas, Mixed-Use developments• More likely to use profanity, wear suggestive clothing, have tattoos• Come from households with incomes much higher in comparison to the average American a generation agoSource: mryouth intrepid, 2010; Metlife Mature Market Institute 2009; College Board and Art and Science Group, 2008 8
  9. 9. A. Feelings Toward Adults• When asked about problems facing their generation, many Millennials respond that their biggest one is the “poor example that adults set for them”• Respect their parents’ values and feel close to their parents• Respect their elders and feel prior generations worked harder, were more ethical• Perpetual access to parents may manifest in dependency, lack of feeling like an “adult” or grown upSource: Understanding the New Students, 2003 9
  10. 10. A. Hispanic Millennials• Fastest growing segment of population in many parts of U.S.• Feel like their caught between two worlds• In many cases, first in their family to go to college• More likely to drop out of school and become parents• In 1970, only one-third of young Hispanic females were enrolled in college; by 2007, this figure had risen to over half (54%)• Financial pressures to support family were the leading barrier to education completionSource: Pew Social Trends, 3/16/2011 10
  11. 11. B. The Learning Pyramid Lecture Reading – 10% Audiovisual – 20% Demonstration – 30% Discussion – 50% Practice Doing – 75% Teach Others – 90%Source: National Training Laboratories, Bethel, Maine 11
  12. 12. B. Active Learning Reading Hearing words Looking at pictures Watch a movie Passive Look at exhibit See it done on location Participate in discussion Give a talk Active Do a dramatic presentation Simulate the real experience Do the real thingSource: Audio-visual Methods of Teaching, Holt, Rinehart, Winston 12
  13. 13. B. Transformative Learning Theory• Adult education based theory that suggests ways in which adults make meaning of their lives• Looks at “deep learning” not just content or process learning• Examines what it takes for adults to move from a limited knowledge of knowing what they know without questioning• Examines what mechanisms are required for adults to identify, assess and evaluate alternative sources of information• Reframes adult world-view through the incorporation of new knowledge or information into their world-view or belief systemSource: Transformative learning institute,, accessed 4/13/2011 13
  14. 14. B. Deep Learning• “Deep learning refers to broadly applicable thinking, reasoning, judgment skills – abilities that allow students to apply information, develop a coherent world view, & interact in more meaningful ways.• Deep learning — learning associated with higher-order cognitive tasks — is typically contrasted with rote memorization.• Memorization may help students pass an exam, but it doesn’t: – expand students’ understanding of the world around them – help them make connections across disciplines, or – promote the application of knowledge and skills in new situations”Source: Community College Survey on Student Engagement 2010 14
  15. 15. B. Instructor vs. Learner Centered ModelsInstructor-Centered Learner-Centered• Knowledge transmitted • Knowledge construction• Passive • Active• Context independent • Context dependent• Assessment separated • Assessment integrated• Competitive • CooperativeSource: Huba and Freed, 2000; Dooley and Wickersham, 2008 15
  16. 16. B. Attributes of Learner-Centered InstructionStudents:• Are actively involved in their learning• Apply knowledge and experiences to emerging issues• Integrate discipline-based knowledge• Understand and can generate “excellent” work and become sophisticated “knowers”• Are respected and valuedSource: Dooley, Wickersham, Texas A&M University, 2008 16
  17. 17. B. Model of Student Engagement Student Active Motivation Engagement LearningSource: Student Engagement Techniques, Barkley, 2010 17
  18. 18. B. College Faculty Use of Student- Centered Teaching Methods• Assistant professors are more likely than associate and full professors to employ student-centered teaching methods and less likely to use extensive lecturing• Assistant professors are 16.7 percentage points more likely than full professors to report using cooperative learning• Full professors are 8.5 percentage points more likely than assistant professors to report using extensive lecturingSource: Higher Education Research Institute at UCLA, 18
  19. 19. C. Millennial Views on Business, Marketing and Communication 1. The Organization • Collaboratively led enterprise • Stimulating work environment • Idea powered culture 2. The Product • Technology breeds humanity • Quality is core • Eco-friendly is nice 3. The Marketing • Celebrities: overpriced mannequins • Interaction creates connection • Peer-to-peer drives influenceSource:, accessed 3/31/2011 19
  20. 20. D. Millennials and Ethics• Pressure to commit misconduct is an age-independent trend-one that is experienced by all workers• Retaliation also appears to be an age-independent trend• Younger employees are more likely to observe misconduct than older employees• Younger employees are generally less likely to have a positive impression of their company’s ethical culture; thus, they have less positive experiences• They value confidentiality and privacy less than other groupsSource: Ethics Resource Center, Millennials, Gen X and baby Boomers: Who’s working at your company and what do they think about ethics. 2009 20
  21. 21. D. Millennials and Ethics• Like Gen X, they believe doing a good job is about the work you do – not how many hours you put in• Connect easily with a greater diversity of religions, races, and sexual orientations• More likely to find it acceptable to blog or tweet negatively about their company• More likely to find it acceptable to keep copies of confidential documents• More likely than Boomers to find it acceptable to call in sick when they are not• Least likely to find it acceptable to ostracize someone for reporting an off color joke (whistleblowing)Source: Ethics Resource Center, Millennials, Gen X and baby Boomers: Who’s working at your company and what do they think about ethics, 2009 21
  22. 22. E. Millennials as Donors• 91% of Millennial donors are at least somewhat likely to respond to a face-to-face request for money• 71.0% don’t need to volunteer for an organization before they donate• 60.5% say they would like access to board and executive leadership• E-mail is Millennial donors’ most preferred communication method with Facebook and print lagging significantly behind• When researching about a non-profit, Google is the donor’s first point (86.4%), followed by Facebook (51.2%)Source: Millennial Donors: A study of millennial giving and engagement habits;, accessed 3/31/11 22
  23. 23. F. Student Information Literacy• 69% reported owning an internet-capable phone (above national average)• Owners of iPhones & Androids much more likely to self-report: – a higher technology adoption level than owners of other phones – using educational and academically related applications on their phones• Google is the preferred search engine• Expect to find answers quickly and easily, w/o sorting through numerous pages of query results (they peruse 2 results on average)• Fewer than 10% of students who searched for information on their phones reported visiting a website’s “About us” pageSource: Student information literacy in the mobile environment, Kristin Yarney, 2010 accessed 4/8/2011 23
  24. 24. F. Student Information Literacy• For apps and mobile web access, students seemed to be conducting their evaluations “on the fly” at the time the info is accessed• Students tended to “powerbrowse” through titles, content pages and abstracts looking for quick results• When asked if they were able to focus their attention while reading on their phones, 92% of respondents said “yes”• 81% said their phone distracted them either “sometimes” or “frequently” during homework sessions outside of classSource: Student information literacy in the mobile environment, Kristin Yarney, 2100 accessed 4/8/2011 24
  25. 25. F. Millennials and Media Devices• 75% have created a profile on a social network• 29% visit it several times a day• 20% have posted a video of themselves online• 80% have sent a text message in the last 24 hours• 41% own a cell phone/no landline• 83% sleep with their cell phones by their bedsQ. What did you do in the past 24 hours?  Watched a video online = 32%  Posted a message to an online profile = 32%  Played video games = 28%Source: Pew Research Center, Millennials 2010 25
  26. 26. F. Texting Disorder• The American Journal of Psychiatry labeled excessive texting as a subtype of Internet addiction, “compulsive-impulsive spectrum disorder” with four characteristics: 1. Excessive use: losing sense of time or acting in a neglectful manner 2. Withdrawal: becoming angry and/or depressed when deprived of access 3. Tolerance: craving more usage 4. Negative Repercussions: lying, becoming socially isolated and/or fatiguedSource: 26
  27. 27. F. Social Networking• 85% of students who visit social networking sites use them to see what their friends are up to• 70% participate in their message boards to communicate with friends• 18-24 year old students are using them 6.5 hours per week on average• Average 111 friends across their profiles• 61% say they are interacting with people they’ve never met in personSource: Harris Poll, Dr. Jeanna Mastrodicasa, UF Assistant Vice President for Student Affairs 27
  28. 28. G. Student Characteristics – Ten Attributes of an Information-age Mindset• Computers aren’t • Multitasking is a way of technology life• Internet is better than • Typing is preferred to T.V. handwriting• Reality is blurred • Staying connected is• Doing is more important essential than knowing • Zero tolerance for delays• Learning more closely • Consumer and creator resembles Nintendo than are blurring logicSource: Understanding the new students. Diana Oblinger, EDUCAUSE ReviewJuly/August 2003 28
  29. 29. G. The American Freshman (2010)• Self-rated health for incoming first year students is at its lowest point since 1985• Current economic situation significantly affected their college choice• Students were more likely to have “major” financial concerns about financing their education and less likely to be going to a college more than 100 miles away• More students self-identified as having ADHD and psychological disorders than any other disability/condition• A significantly higher percentage of incoming first-year students reporting “hidden” disabilities, drank alcohol during their senior year of high school• Expectation to seek personal counseling in college is at an all-time high• Expectation to have at least a “B” average at all time high (grade inflation)• Optimism abounds as 57.6% believe there is a “very good chance” that they will be satisfied with college, the highest figure since 1982Source: Higher Education Research Institute, UCLA 2010 29
  30. 30. G. Student Characteristics• National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) reported that three-quarters of all undergraduates are non- traditional, defined as: – Delayed enrollment – Attend part-time – Work (either full or part time) – Are financially independent (as defined by financial aid) – Have dependents – Are single parents – Lack a high school diplomaSource: National Center for Educational Statistics, 2010 30
  31. 31. G. Preferred Learning Methods of the Millennial GenerationQ. What Study methods help you to better understand a course topic? A. Reading Material Before Class 56.9%Q. What types of electronic resources do you use for your assignments? A. Google 98%Q. When you begin an information search, what is your starting point? A. Google 69.5%; Library database 19.5%Q. What learning course materials do you prefer? A. Mixture of lecture, group work, discussion, problem solving 91.3%; solve problems 92.3%; videos 86.8%Source: Arlene Nicholas, Salve Regina University 31
  32. 32. G. Student Perceptions of Professors who are Familiar with Millennial Culture• Techno-savvy: possess the ability to effectively utilize technology• Currently relevant: use “real,” “relevant,” and “current” examples in class• Seriously humorous: Associated professor’s tone of voice as an indicator or connection. Instructors perceived as “boring” or “monotone” were seen as lacking connection• Relaxed and relatable: Actively “listened,” “related,” and talked to students about their lives• Professors perceived as “down-to-earth,” “informal,” “relaxed,” and “flexible” considered connected; those perceived as “uptight,” “strict,” “intimidating,” or “condescending” considered disconnected• Seem to strongly resist authoritarian power structures, rigid course policiesSource: Christy Price, Dalton State College 2010 32
  33. 33. G. The Millennials’ Ideal Professor• Energetic, enthusiastic, upbeat with a positive attitude• Open minded and flexible• Alert as to whether students understand• Nice, friendly, caring and helpful• Approachable• What seems to be missing form this list???Source: Christy Price, Dalton State College 2010 33
  34. 34. G. The Millennials’ Ideal Learning Environment• Students know one another and work in groups• Learning is relaxed, enjoyable and fun• A multimedia format is utilized• Relevant real-life examples• The number one characteristic respondents desired in an ideal learning environment is that it be interactive and participatory “This generation is more likely to seek wealth as opposed to meaning and purpose in life; therefore, they typically view their college education as a means to an end”Source: Christy Price, Dalton State College, 2010 34
  35. 35. G. EDUCAUSE Study of Undergrads• Oriented toward inductive discovery or making observations, formulating hypothesis and figuring out the rules (Nintendo)• A linear thought process is much less common than bricolage or piecing information together from multiple sources• More comfortable in image-rich and audible environments than text• Gravitate toward activities that promote and reinforce social interaction• Source: EDUCAUSE Center for applied research. The ECAR study of undergraduate students and information technology, 2010 35
  36. 36. G. EDUCAUSE Study of Undergrads• Expect immediacy with which a response is expected or the speed at which they are used to receiving information, the Net Gen is fast• Achievement oriented. They want parameters, rules, priorities and procedures• Technology is not necessarily better: face-to-face interactions are ranked either first or second preference• They expect constant connections and thrive on immediate gratification• It’s not technology per se, but that makes learning engaging, it is the learning activity and social interactionSource: EDUCAUSE Center for applied research. The ECAR study of undergraduate students and information technology, 2010 36
  37. 37. Recommendations for Engagement• Demonstrate genuine interest and provide regular honest feedback on assignments and class participation• Learn their names and ensure they know each others’ names• Provide resources and guidance on how they can manage the information they generate and consume, because they may read information out of context or partially interpret• Provide exercises that allow them to understand and create meaning based on their experiences and understanding of the world (constructivism)• Vary the type of technology used and learning modalities to maintain interest and challenge 37
  38. 38. Recommendations for Engagement• Develop exercises that promote experiential hands-on learning – Small groups, in-class presentations, peer review, field work, simulations, game shows – Integrate music, art, games, video, and creative activities – Design handouts and digital modules in a visually appealing manner• Make exercises and activities relevant to real-world scenarios• Focus on learning outcomes and frequently offer recognition and rewards, as they’re achievement oriented 38
  39. 39. Recommendations for Engagement• Provide students options toward the completion of assignments, as they are used to exercising choice and customer service• As possible, rework classroom furniture to accommodate peer to peer learning and interactive exercises• Assess your level of commitment as it may require increased curriculum and coursework design time• Assess satellite classrooms A/V technology, geography, etc., as they may not promote learning, interactive engagement• Utilize Data Driven/Evidence based assessment strategies – Assess deep learning variables and outcomes – Assess student classroom engagement 39
  40. 40. Helpful Tips• Let students know you will utilize SafeAssign to reduce plagiarism, as the lines blur in the digital age and usage of smart phones and quick Google searches• Utilize warm up exercises; (Center for Creative Leadership, Barkley’s Student Engagement Techniques)• Develop proficiency in effective group facilitation techniques• Master and utilize the advanced functions within Blackboard or whatever course management software being utilized 40
  41. 41. Best PracticeUtilize Reflective Teaching Techniques:• Refers to an activity or process in which an experience is recalled, considered and evaluated usually in relation to a broader purpose – Stage One: The Event itself – Stage Two; Recollection of the event – Stage Three: Review and response to the event• Journal writing• Collaborative diary keeping – share and discoverSource: The Teacher Trainer; Bartlett, 1990 41
  42. 42. Helpful Tips• Utilize peer evaluation assignments• Allow students to establish agenda for a class• Establish classroom norms, student agreements• Develop clear, bullet-proof syllabus• Utilize personal web pages, blogs or Facebook in assignments• Allow students to communicate via cell phone text messaging• Create “special events” in courses, assignments 42
  43. 43. Best Practice• Georgia Gwinnett College gave each instructor both full time and adjunct a cell phone. The college encouraged faculty members to respond to texts and phone messages within 24 hours or one business day• Instructors obtained free phone number phone number from Google Voice that can ring to any phone• The cell phone availability, along with mentoring and smaller class sizes has been successful in increasing the retention rate for returning sophomores to 75 percent, almost double that of similar colleges in GeorgiaSource: EPCC faculty development http://epcc, accessed 3/31/11 43
  44. 44. Areas for Further Consideration/Study• Student expectations: Possible disconnect between what students expect from courses and what they receive• Educational resources: publishers may not keep pace with learning modalities; may require further utilization of simulations, games, real-life scenarios to obtain deep learning• Generational and racial/ethnic mix in classes: may pose challenges to engagement, use of technology• Literature - conflicting data on key Millennial characterizations• Library interface, utilization of user-friendly “Apps” 44
  45. 45. Thank you! 45