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The sinuses are hollow air-filled sacs lined by mucous membrane. The ethmoid and maxillary sinuses are present at birth. The frontal sinus develops during the 2 nd year and the sphenoid sinus develops during the 3 rd year.
Imaging studies, such as sinus radiographs, ultrasonograms, or CT scanning – indicated if child is unresponsive to 48 hours of antibiotics and if the child has a toxic appearance, chronic or recurrent sinusitis, and chronic asthma.
Laboratory studies, such as culture of sinus puncture aspirates.