Anatomy

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Anatomy

  1. 1. Introduction to Dental Anatomy<br />Dental Anatomy & Occlusion<br />Dent 202<br />
  2. 2. Introduction<br />Human dentition is diphyodont<br />2 sets of dentitions<br />Primary/deciduous<br />20 teeth in total<br />Incisors/canines/molars<br />Smaller size<br />Secondary/permanent<br />32 teeth in total<br />Incisors/canines/premolars/molars<br />Bigger size<br />
  3. 3. Deciduous & permanent dentitions<br />Why do we have to have 2 sets of teeth?<br />
  4. 4. Why 2 sets of dentitions?<br />The jaws have to accommodate the increased number of permanent teeth and their bigger size<br />
  5. 5. Dental formula<br />I for incisors<br />C for Canines<br />PM for premolars<br />M for molars<br />Deciduous teeth are indicated by the letter D before the initial<br />
  6. 6. Human dental formula<br />Deciduous teeth<br />DI 2/2 DC 1/1 DM 2/2 = 10<br />Permanent teeth<br />I 2/2 C 1/1 PM 2/2 M 3/3 = 16<br /> The numbers following the letter refer to the number of teeth of each type in the upper then the lower dentition for one side only <br />
  7. 7. Quadrants<br />Tooth-bearing region of the jaw can be divided into 4 quadrants<br />Right maxillary (1 or 5)<br />Left maxillary (2 or 6)<br />Left mandibular (3 or 7)<br />Right mandibular (4 or 8)<br />Quadrants in permanent dentition have the numbers 1 - 4 and in deciduous have the numbers 5 - 8<br />
  8. 8. Quadrants<br />1 or 5<br />2 or 6<br />4 or 8<br />3 or 7<br />
  9. 9.
  10. 10. Teeth order<br />Each tooth in a quadrant takes a letter (A – E for deciduous) or a number (1 – 8 for permanent) indicating its order when counting from the midline<br />8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1<br />1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 <br />E D C B A<br />A B C D E <br />8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1<br />1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 <br />E D C B A<br />A B C D E <br />
  11. 11. Dental nomenclature<br />By words<br />Set<br />Deciduous or permanent<br />Jaw<br />Maxillary or mandibular<br />Class<br />Incisor/canine/premolar/molar<br />Order within a class<br />Central or lateral<br />First/second/third<br />Side<br />Right or left<br />By numbers, letters and/or symbols<br />Palmer notation system<br />Universal numbering system<br />FDI numbering system<br />
  12. 12. Palmer/Zsigmondy notation system<br />1<br />E<br />American Dental Association in 1947<br />Tooth is represented by a number 1 – 8 (permanent) or a letter A – E (deciduous)<br />Two lines; indicates which quadrant the tooth belongs to<br />a horizontal representing the occlusal plane and <br />a vertical representing the midline<br />Examples:<br />Maxillary right central incisor<br />Mandibular left second deciduous molar<br />E D C B A<br />A B C D E<br />8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1<br />1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8<br />E D C B A<br />A B C D E<br />8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1<br />1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8<br />
  13. 13. Universal numbering system<br />Palmer – difficulty in keyboard typing<br />ADA adopted the universal system in 1968<br />Uppercase letters for deciduous teeth<br />Consecutive from A to T<br />Following a clockwise order from maxillary right second molar to mandibular right second molar<br />Numbers for permanent teeth<br />Consecutive from 1 to 32<br />Following a clockwise order from maxillary right third molar to mandibular right third molar<br />A B C D E<br />F G H I J<br />1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8<br />9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16<br />T S R Q P<br />O N M L K<br />32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25<br />24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17<br />
  14. 14. FDI numbering system<br />Proposed by FDI & adopted by WHO<br />Each tooth is allocated a two-digit number; the left designates the quadrant and the right designates the tooth order <br />Examples<br />Mandibular right permanent canine 43<br />Maxillary left deciduous lateral incisor 62<br />55 54 53 52 51<br />61 62 63 64 65<br />18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11<br />21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28<br />85 84 83 82 81<br />71 72 73 74 75<br />48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41<br />31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38<br />

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