Value of Weight Reduction to         PEV/PHEVs   Opportunities with Aluminum            Michael Bull              Novelis ...
Defining Who We AreThe Aluminum Association’s Aluminum Transportation Group (ATG)                   www.aluminumintranspor...
Key Topics• Range vs. Weight and Cost (vehicle & battery)• Business Trade-offs:  - Structure cost & weight vs. Battery cos...
Assumptions• Li –Ion battery:   - 115 Wh/kg (51-209 kg)  - 155 Wh/l   - SOC 0.9-0.25  - $750 kWh• Small Vehicle based on B...
Mass Breakout (Traditional)                    Small EV Steel (781kg)               38, 5%        58, 7%                  ...
Mass Breakout (Lightweight)                Small EV Aluminium (627kg)             37, 6%    51.0, 8%                      ...
Energy Balance                   Small Car Energy Balance (40 mile)       4.00       2.00       0.00                      ...
EV Mass vs..Energy Consumption          1.3 KWh/100 Mi per 100 Kg
Regen Braking – Small Car
Summary• PEV or PHEV, with so little stored energy, places emphasis on low mass  design (and low aero losses).   • Consump...
Thank you         Visit us at:www.aluminumintransportation.org
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2011 oct bpi_e_vpres

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2011 oct bpi_e_vpres

  1. 1. Value of Weight Reduction to PEV/PHEVs Opportunities with Aluminum Michael Bull Novelis on behalf of The Aluminum Association’s Aluminum Transportation Group (ATG) Fred Jacquelin RICARDO 1
  2. 2. Defining Who We AreThe Aluminum Association’s Aluminum Transportation Group (ATG) www.aluminumintransportation.org 2
  3. 3. Key Topics• Range vs. Weight and Cost (vehicle & battery)• Business Trade-offs: - Structure cost & weight vs. Battery cost & weight• Regenerative Braking vs. Vehicle mass - More or less weight sensitive? 3
  4. 4. Assumptions• Li –Ion battery: - 115 Wh/kg (51-209 kg) - 155 Wh/l - SOC 0.9-0.25 - $750 kWh• Small Vehicle based on BMW Mini: - Tradition Design =781 kg - Lightweight Design = 627kg (154 kg savings or 19.7%) - 40 and 80 mile range 4
  5. 5. Mass Breakout (Traditional) Small EV Steel (781kg) 38, 5% 58, 7% BIW 0, 0% closures 183.5, 25% 34, 4% body other 23, 3% chassis interior 71.5, 9% electrical132.7, 17% assembly Gas PHEV 65.5, 8% Battery 174.4, 22% Motor & Controller 5
  6. 6. Mass Breakout (Lightweight) Small EV Aluminium (627kg) 37, 6% 51.0, 8% BIW 91.8, 15% closures 0.0, 0% body other34.0, 5% 44.2, 7% chassis23.0, 4% interior 62.1, 10% electrical assembly132.7, 21% Gas PHEV Battery 151.4, 24% Motor & Controller 6
  7. 7. Energy Balance Small Car Energy Balance (40 mile) 4.00 2.00 0.00 Regen Gain 1 2 3 4 Brake Loss -2.00 Differential Loss Motor/Gen LosskWh -4.00 Converter Loss -6.00 Battery Loss Rolling Loss -8.00 Aero Loss -10.00 -12.00 Case Study # Case Case Case Case Case Case Case Case 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 FTP FTP % kWh Aero 22.3 24.8 29.4 32.7 1.97 1.97 1.97 1.93 rolling 30.2 28.9 26.2 23.6 2.67 2.29 1.75 1.40 battery 4.1 4.1 4 3.8 0.36 0.33 0.27 0.22 converter 7.6 7.5 7.2 6.8 0.67 0.59 0.48 0.40 motor/generator 33.2 32.2 30.8 30.8 2.93 2.55 2.06 1.82 differential 2.5 2.4 2.3 2.2 0.22 0.19 0.15 0.13 brake 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 regen 20.9 20 18.1 15.6 1.85 1.59 1.21 0.92 7
  8. 8. EV Mass vs..Energy Consumption 1.3 KWh/100 Mi per 100 Kg
  9. 9. Regen Braking – Small Car
  10. 10. Summary• PEV or PHEV, with so little stored energy, places emphasis on low mass design (and low aero losses). • Consumption ranged 0.146 kWh/mi (600 Kg) to 0.302 kWh/mi (1800 Kg). Or 1.5-3 kg of battery/mile travelled. • 10% mass reduction approximates to 10% increase in range and 4- 6% reduction in battery size.• Regenerative braking is equally important to low mass vehicles. (66- 69% recovery of rolling in city, 2-5% in highway drive cycle).• Lighter mass structures reduced energy requirements from 1.2 – 3.4 kWh, about 10%, which can significantly reduce vehicle costs at current Lithium-ion battery costs.
  11. 11. Thank you Visit us at:www.aluminumintransportation.org

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