Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
2011 dec sae_cv_pres
2011 dec sae_cv_pres
2011 dec sae_cv_pres
2011 dec sae_cv_pres
2011 dec sae_cv_pres
2011 dec sae_cv_pres
2011 dec sae_cv_pres
2011 dec sae_cv_pres
2011 dec sae_cv_pres
2011 dec sae_cv_pres
2011 dec sae_cv_pres
2011 dec sae_cv_pres
2011 dec sae_cv_pres
2011 dec sae_cv_pres
2011 dec sae_cv_pres
2011 dec sae_cv_pres
2011 dec sae_cv_pres
2011 dec sae_cv_pres
2011 dec sae_cv_pres
2011 dec sae_cv_pres
2011 dec sae_cv_pres
2011 dec sae_cv_pres
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

2011 dec sae_cv_pres

87

Published on

Published in: Technology, Business
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
87
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
1
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Aluminum’s Role in MeetingFirst-Ever Heavy Truck Fuel Economy Standards Randall Scheps Alcoa, Inc. on behalf of The Aluminum Association’s Aluminum Transportation Group (ATG)
  • 2. Defining Who We AreThe Aluminum Association’s Aluminum Transportation Group (ATG) www.aluminumintransportation.org
  • 3. Many Challenges Facing the Commercial Vehicle Industry Today Transportation Energy Consumption • Rising energy Organisation for Economic Cooperation Non-OECD Countries costs and Development (OECD) Countries • Growing concern over greenhouse Quadrillion BTU gas emissions • Federal mandates continue to add weight to heavy- duty vehicles • First-ever fuel efficiency standards Freight energy use increasing faster than passenger energy useSource: International Energy Outlook 2010; U.S. EIA www.aluminumintransportation.org
  • 4. Federal Mandates Add Weight New emissions technologies have reduced fuel economy and increased weight Fuel Economy Impact Average Weight Emissions Mandate of Emissions Impact (lbs.) Technologies 2002 EPA Engine Emissions +150 -8% 2007 EPA Engine Emissions +400 -3%2010 EPA Engine Emissions (SCR) +300 +3% TOTAL 850 lbs. -8% www.aluminumintransportation.org
  • 5. Landmark Fuel Standards for Trucks • First-ever fuel economy and greenhouse gas emissions regulations for medium- and heavy-duty trucks built from 2014 to 2018 • The rule aims to: – Reduce annual oil consumption by 530 million barrels – Cut annual greenhouse gas emissions by about 270 million metric tons www.aluminumintransportation.org
  • 6. Aluminum’s Potential Recognized by Regulators• The EPA and NHTSA evaluated materials for the greatest mass reduction opportunities – Aluminum – High-strength steel – Composites• Aluminum ranked far above the others – “Greatest potential” to safely reduce vehicle weight while boosting fuel economy and cutting emissions www.aluminumintransportation.org
  • 7. 2010 Industry Sponsored Study on Lightweighting and Freight Efficiency • Objective – Quantify fuel economy impact of weight reduction with aluminum specific to U.S. drive cycles • Methodology – Analytical simulation (Ricardo) • U.S. drive cycle simulations – EPA HWFET – WVU Interstate – HUDDS • Load conditions – Un-loaded, ½ GVW Load, GVW • Engine and transmission Photo Credit: East Manufacturing – Displacement: 13-liter, diesel – 10-speed automated manual transmission (AMT) • Vehicle specifications – Frontal area: 10.68 m2 – Coefficient of drag (Cd): .60 (baseline) www.aluminumintransportation.orgSource: Ricardo
  • 8. Vehicle Configurations Studied Tractor & Tractor % Weight Trailer % Weight % Weight Trailer (lbs.) Saved (lbs.) Saved Saved (lbs.) Conventional (baseline) 16,000 13,500 29,500 “Traditional” Lightweighting 15,500 3.1% 12,500 7.4% 28,000 5.1% (1,500 lb) “High” Aluminum Content 14,500 9.4% 11,700 13.3% 26,200 11.2% (3,300 lb) Cab rear wall Rear door Cab roof RR door surround save 49 lbs. save 187 lbs. save 60 lbs. save 150 lbs. Save 20 lbs. per door Side Wall Save 1,000 lbs. Cab floor save 56 lbs. Landing gear save 50 lbs. Slider box save 150 lbs. Frame rails Cab X-member Save 30 lbs. per save 435 lbs. save 38 lbs. wheelSource: Ricardo www.aluminumintransportation.org
  • 9. Payload Configurations Studied Vehicle Tractor Mass Trailer Mass Payload Total (lbs.) Configuration (lbs.) (lbs.) (lbs.) 50,500 80,000 GVW Conventional 16,000 13,500 (baseline) 52,000 80,000 GVW “Traditional” 15,500 12,500 Lightweighting 6.5% more payload 53,800 80,0006.5% fewer trips  GVW “High” Aluminum 14,500 11,700 Content www.aluminumintransportation.orgSource: Ricardo
  • 10. Payload Configurations Studied Vehicle Tractor Mass Trailer Mass Payload Total (lbs.) Configuration (lbs.) (lbs.) (lbs.) 50,500 80,000 GVW Conventional 25,250 54,750 half load 16,000 13,500 (baseline) 0 29,500 unloaded 52,000 80,000 GVW “Traditional” 25,250 53,250 half load 15,500 12,500 Lightweighting 0 28,000 unloaded 53,800 80,000 GVW “High” Aluminum 14,500 11,700 25,250 51,450 half load Content 11.2% mass 0 26,200 unloaded saved www.aluminumintransportation.orgSource: Ricardo
  • 11. U.S. Drive Cycles Simulated Via Physics-Based Model Highway Fuel Economy Test  Heavy-Duty Urban  West Virginia University (HWFET) Dynamometer Drive Schedule Interstate Drive Cycle – One of EPA’s official highway (HUDDS) (WVUIDC) cycles – One of EPA’s drive cycles for – Simulates interstate operation – Duty cycle designed for heavy-duty vehicles – Speeds vary from medium to medium to high speed – Several idle and start-stop high, many moderate operation, no mid-cycle stops positions acceleration events – Many acceleration and deceleration eventsSource: Ricardo www.aluminumintransportation.org
  • 12. Weight Savings Increases Fuel Economy for All Drive Cycles Transient Drive Cycles HWFET 13.00 HUDDS WVUIDC 11.00 Fuel Economy (mpg) 9.00 7.00 5.00 3.00 GVW 0 10000 20000 30000 40000 50000 Unloaded 60000 Weight Reduction (lbs)Source: Ricardo www.aluminumintransportation.org
  • 13. Weight Reduction and Aerodynamic Improvements are Complimentary HWFET 12.00 0.45 • Weight savings has 11.00 0.5 greater impact at 0.55 10.00 lower drag coefficient 0.6 0.65 9.00 Fuel Economy (mpg) • 3,000 lb. reduction 8.00 equivalent to 0.05 Cd 7.00 improvement 6.00 5.00 4.00 3.00 GVW 0 10000 20000 30000 40000 50000 Unloaded 60000 Weight Reduction (lbs) “High” Aluminum Content TruckSource: Ricardo www.aluminumintransportation.org
  • 14. Aluminum Impacts Fleet Freight Efficiency “High” Aluminum Content – 3,300 lb. Weight Reduction Payload Fuel Efficiency % Annual Miles* (% GVW) Improvement 0 – 25 % 10 % 4.1 % 25 – 75 % 25 % 3.7 % 6.5% more 75 – 100 % 65 % 6.5 % payload / fewer trips Fleet Average = 5.7 % * Average results from Aluminum Association Heavy-Duty Truck Use SurveySource: Aluminum Association www.aluminumintransportation.org
  • 15. Weight Reduction Technology List in New Heavy Truck Fuel Economy Rule • OEMs are able to Primary overachieve in Weight the weightReduction Options reduction category beyond the 400lb baseline • Weight reduction is manually Secondary calculated by Weight Reduction OEM from the list Options and inputted into GEM www.aluminumintransportation.org
  • 16. Forged Aluminum Wheels18 Steel Wheel/Tires = 3,420 lbs 10 Forged Alu Wheels/Tires = 2,170 lbs 18Steel Wheel/Tires =2,000lbs Weight Reduction 1,250lbs per tractor/trailer www.aluminumintransportation.org 1
  • 17. Cross Members• 42% weight savings 8.27 vs steel (4lbs - kg 3.33 kg 38lbs per crossmember)• 7 Cross members per truck Aluminum Cross Member 2.46 kg• 101 lbs per truck saved vs. steel Total Weight: 19.85 kg www.aluminumintransportation.org
  • 18. Fifth Wheel• 100lbs weight saved per truck• Forged aluminum construction• 150,000 lbs drawbar load Aluminum Fifth Wheel www.aluminumintransportation.org
  • 19. Frame Rails Roll Formed Frame Rails• Aluminum frame rails = 462 lbs• 47% weight save per truck (440lbs) www.aluminumintransportation.org
  • 20. Spaceframe Body• Aluminum extrusion based upper structure• Bolted or welded• 40% weight save vs. steel (2200 lbs bus / 250-300 lbs typical truck cab)• 10% improved range on full-electric powered version Full aluminum bus body – China & Brazil• Converting chassis would save another 1100 lbs www.aluminumintransportation.org
  • 21. Aluminum is Part of the Solution• More payload – Carry 3,300 lbs or 6.5% more cargo at GVW• Improved fuel efficiency – As high as 1,612 gallons each year for a weight constrained vehicle • Nearly one billion gallons of diesel annually for the current U.S. fleet• Reduced CO2 emissions – Up to 17.9 tons annually for a weight constrained vehicle • Approximately 10 million tons of CO2 per year for the current U.S. fleet www.aluminumintransportation.org
  • 22. Thank You Contact Us For additional aluminum research in the areas of safety, cost,alternative powertrains, growth and sustainability, to sign-up for the ATG’s monthly newsletter and/or download this presentation, please visit us online at www.aluminumintransportation.org or e-mail atginfo@aluminum.org

×