Aluminum’s Role in MeetingFirst-Ever Heavy Truck Fuel    Economy Standards           Randall Scheps             Alcoa, Inc...
Defining Who We AreThe Aluminum Association’s Aluminum Transportation Group (ATG)                      www.aluminumintrans...
Many Challenges Facing the                         Commercial Vehicle Industry Today                           Transportat...
Federal Mandates Add Weight              New emissions technologies have reduced                 fuel economy and increase...
Landmark Fuel Standards for Trucks                   • First-ever fuel economy and                     greenhouse gas emis...
Aluminum’s Potential Recognized             by Regulators• The EPA and NHTSA  evaluated materials for the  greatest mass r...
2010 Industry Sponsored Study on          Lightweighting and Freight Efficiency      • Objective             –    Quantify...
Vehicle Configurations Studied                                                                                            ...
Payload Configurations Studied           Vehicle          Tractor Mass     Trailer Mass       Payload      Total (lbs.)   ...
Payload Configurations Studied           Vehicle          Tractor Mass     Trailer Mass       Payload       Total (lbs.)  ...
U.S. Drive Cycles Simulated Via                       Physics-Based Model   Highway Fuel Economy Test             Heavy-...
Weight Savings Increases                  Fuel Economy for All Drive Cycles                                               ...
Weight Reduction and Aerodynamic                               Improvements are Complimentary                             ...
Aluminum Impacts                                 Fleet Freight Efficiency                     “High” Aluminum Content – 3,...
Weight Reduction Technology List in             New Heavy Truck Fuel Economy Rule                                         ...
Forged Aluminum Wheels18 Steel Wheel/Tires = 3,420 lbs                               10 Forged Alu Wheels/Tires = 2,170 lb...
Cross Members• 42% weight savings                                      8.27  vs steel (4lbs -                             ...
Fifth Wheel• 100lbs weight saved  per truck• Forged aluminum  construction• 150,000 lbs drawbar  load                     ...
Frame Rails                            Roll Formed Frame Rails•   Aluminum frame rails = 462 lbs•   47% weight save per tr...
Spaceframe Body• Aluminum extrusion  based upper structure• Bolted or welded• 40% weight save vs. steel  (2200 lbs bus / 2...
Aluminum is Part of the Solution• More payload   – Carry 3,300 lbs or 6.5% more cargo     at GVW• Improved fuel efficiency...
Thank You                          Contact Us For additional aluminum research in the areas of safety, cost,alternative po...
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2011 dec sae_cv_pres

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Transcript of "2011 dec sae_cv_pres"

  1. 1. Aluminum’s Role in MeetingFirst-Ever Heavy Truck Fuel Economy Standards Randall Scheps Alcoa, Inc. on behalf of The Aluminum Association’s Aluminum Transportation Group (ATG)
  2. 2. Defining Who We AreThe Aluminum Association’s Aluminum Transportation Group (ATG) www.aluminumintransportation.org
  3. 3. Many Challenges Facing the Commercial Vehicle Industry Today Transportation Energy Consumption • Rising energy Organisation for Economic Cooperation Non-OECD Countries costs and Development (OECD) Countries • Growing concern over greenhouse Quadrillion BTU gas emissions • Federal mandates continue to add weight to heavy- duty vehicles • First-ever fuel efficiency standards Freight energy use increasing faster than passenger energy useSource: International Energy Outlook 2010; U.S. EIA www.aluminumintransportation.org
  4. 4. Federal Mandates Add Weight New emissions technologies have reduced fuel economy and increased weight Fuel Economy Impact Average Weight Emissions Mandate of Emissions Impact (lbs.) Technologies 2002 EPA Engine Emissions +150 -8% 2007 EPA Engine Emissions +400 -3%2010 EPA Engine Emissions (SCR) +300 +3% TOTAL 850 lbs. -8% www.aluminumintransportation.org
  5. 5. Landmark Fuel Standards for Trucks • First-ever fuel economy and greenhouse gas emissions regulations for medium- and heavy-duty trucks built from 2014 to 2018 • The rule aims to: – Reduce annual oil consumption by 530 million barrels – Cut annual greenhouse gas emissions by about 270 million metric tons www.aluminumintransportation.org
  6. 6. Aluminum’s Potential Recognized by Regulators• The EPA and NHTSA evaluated materials for the greatest mass reduction opportunities – Aluminum – High-strength steel – Composites• Aluminum ranked far above the others – “Greatest potential” to safely reduce vehicle weight while boosting fuel economy and cutting emissions www.aluminumintransportation.org
  7. 7. 2010 Industry Sponsored Study on Lightweighting and Freight Efficiency • Objective – Quantify fuel economy impact of weight reduction with aluminum specific to U.S. drive cycles • Methodology – Analytical simulation (Ricardo) • U.S. drive cycle simulations – EPA HWFET – WVU Interstate – HUDDS • Load conditions – Un-loaded, ½ GVW Load, GVW • Engine and transmission Photo Credit: East Manufacturing – Displacement: 13-liter, diesel – 10-speed automated manual transmission (AMT) • Vehicle specifications – Frontal area: 10.68 m2 – Coefficient of drag (Cd): .60 (baseline) www.aluminumintransportation.orgSource: Ricardo
  8. 8. Vehicle Configurations Studied Tractor & Tractor % Weight Trailer % Weight % Weight Trailer (lbs.) Saved (lbs.) Saved Saved (lbs.) Conventional (baseline) 16,000 13,500 29,500 “Traditional” Lightweighting 15,500 3.1% 12,500 7.4% 28,000 5.1% (1,500 lb) “High” Aluminum Content 14,500 9.4% 11,700 13.3% 26,200 11.2% (3,300 lb) Cab rear wall Rear door Cab roof RR door surround save 49 lbs. save 187 lbs. save 60 lbs. save 150 lbs. Save 20 lbs. per door Side Wall Save 1,000 lbs. Cab floor save 56 lbs. Landing gear save 50 lbs. Slider box save 150 lbs. Frame rails Cab X-member Save 30 lbs. per save 435 lbs. save 38 lbs. wheelSource: Ricardo www.aluminumintransportation.org
  9. 9. Payload Configurations Studied Vehicle Tractor Mass Trailer Mass Payload Total (lbs.) Configuration (lbs.) (lbs.) (lbs.) 50,500 80,000 GVW Conventional 16,000 13,500 (baseline) 52,000 80,000 GVW “Traditional” 15,500 12,500 Lightweighting 6.5% more payload 53,800 80,0006.5% fewer trips  GVW “High” Aluminum 14,500 11,700 Content www.aluminumintransportation.orgSource: Ricardo
  10. 10. Payload Configurations Studied Vehicle Tractor Mass Trailer Mass Payload Total (lbs.) Configuration (lbs.) (lbs.) (lbs.) 50,500 80,000 GVW Conventional 25,250 54,750 half load 16,000 13,500 (baseline) 0 29,500 unloaded 52,000 80,000 GVW “Traditional” 25,250 53,250 half load 15,500 12,500 Lightweighting 0 28,000 unloaded 53,800 80,000 GVW “High” Aluminum 14,500 11,700 25,250 51,450 half load Content 11.2% mass 0 26,200 unloaded saved www.aluminumintransportation.orgSource: Ricardo
  11. 11. U.S. Drive Cycles Simulated Via Physics-Based Model Highway Fuel Economy Test  Heavy-Duty Urban  West Virginia University (HWFET) Dynamometer Drive Schedule Interstate Drive Cycle – One of EPA’s official highway (HUDDS) (WVUIDC) cycles – One of EPA’s drive cycles for – Simulates interstate operation – Duty cycle designed for heavy-duty vehicles – Speeds vary from medium to medium to high speed – Several idle and start-stop high, many moderate operation, no mid-cycle stops positions acceleration events – Many acceleration and deceleration eventsSource: Ricardo www.aluminumintransportation.org
  12. 12. Weight Savings Increases Fuel Economy for All Drive Cycles Transient Drive Cycles HWFET 13.00 HUDDS WVUIDC 11.00 Fuel Economy (mpg) 9.00 7.00 5.00 3.00 GVW 0 10000 20000 30000 40000 50000 Unloaded 60000 Weight Reduction (lbs)Source: Ricardo www.aluminumintransportation.org
  13. 13. Weight Reduction and Aerodynamic Improvements are Complimentary HWFET 12.00 0.45 • Weight savings has 11.00 0.5 greater impact at 0.55 10.00 lower drag coefficient 0.6 0.65 9.00 Fuel Economy (mpg) • 3,000 lb. reduction 8.00 equivalent to 0.05 Cd 7.00 improvement 6.00 5.00 4.00 3.00 GVW 0 10000 20000 30000 40000 50000 Unloaded 60000 Weight Reduction (lbs) “High” Aluminum Content TruckSource: Ricardo www.aluminumintransportation.org
  14. 14. Aluminum Impacts Fleet Freight Efficiency “High” Aluminum Content – 3,300 lb. Weight Reduction Payload Fuel Efficiency % Annual Miles* (% GVW) Improvement 0 – 25 % 10 % 4.1 % 25 – 75 % 25 % 3.7 % 6.5% more 75 – 100 % 65 % 6.5 % payload / fewer trips Fleet Average = 5.7 % * Average results from Aluminum Association Heavy-Duty Truck Use SurveySource: Aluminum Association www.aluminumintransportation.org
  15. 15. Weight Reduction Technology List in New Heavy Truck Fuel Economy Rule • OEMs are able to Primary overachieve in Weight the weightReduction Options reduction category beyond the 400lb baseline • Weight reduction is manually Secondary calculated by Weight Reduction OEM from the list Options and inputted into GEM www.aluminumintransportation.org
  16. 16. Forged Aluminum Wheels18 Steel Wheel/Tires = 3,420 lbs 10 Forged Alu Wheels/Tires = 2,170 lbs 18Steel Wheel/Tires =2,000lbs Weight Reduction 1,250lbs per tractor/trailer www.aluminumintransportation.org 1
  17. 17. Cross Members• 42% weight savings 8.27 vs steel (4lbs - kg 3.33 kg 38lbs per crossmember)• 7 Cross members per truck Aluminum Cross Member 2.46 kg• 101 lbs per truck saved vs. steel Total Weight: 19.85 kg www.aluminumintransportation.org
  18. 18. Fifth Wheel• 100lbs weight saved per truck• Forged aluminum construction• 150,000 lbs drawbar load Aluminum Fifth Wheel www.aluminumintransportation.org
  19. 19. Frame Rails Roll Formed Frame Rails• Aluminum frame rails = 462 lbs• 47% weight save per truck (440lbs) www.aluminumintransportation.org
  20. 20. Spaceframe Body• Aluminum extrusion based upper structure• Bolted or welded• 40% weight save vs. steel (2200 lbs bus / 250-300 lbs typical truck cab)• 10% improved range on full-electric powered version Full aluminum bus body – China & Brazil• Converting chassis would save another 1100 lbs www.aluminumintransportation.org
  21. 21. Aluminum is Part of the Solution• More payload – Carry 3,300 lbs or 6.5% more cargo at GVW• Improved fuel efficiency – As high as 1,612 gallons each year for a weight constrained vehicle • Nearly one billion gallons of diesel annually for the current U.S. fleet• Reduced CO2 emissions – Up to 17.9 tons annually for a weight constrained vehicle • Approximately 10 million tons of CO2 per year for the current U.S. fleet www.aluminumintransportation.org
  22. 22. Thank You Contact Us For additional aluminum research in the areas of safety, cost,alternative powertrains, growth and sustainability, to sign-up for the ATG’s monthly newsletter and/or download this presentation, please visit us online at www.aluminumintransportation.org or e-mail atginfo@aluminum.org
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