Adaptive Learning Technology:
What it is, how it works, and
why it‟s being used
Tim Hudson, PhD
Senior Director of Curricu...
Session Overview
• Share results of the first K-12 survey to focus
exclusively on adaptive learning technology
• Define ch...
Survey Goals
• Determine how many educators are currently
using programs they believe to be adaptive
• Assess the general ...
Survey Definition
―Adaptive learning systems are softwarebased technologies that automatically
customize curriculum to the...
Why Adaptive?
Why Differentiated?
Why Individualized?
Why Personalized?
Logistical Classroom Reality
March 1:
Long
Division

March 1:
Long
Division

March 1:
Long
Division

March 1:
Long
Divisio...
If teachers could work 1-1 with ALL…
Decimal
Long
Division

Basic
Multiplication

Requires More:
• Assessments
• Time for ...
Differentiation Defined
• Educators‘ Purpose…
• All students must master important content.
• Make specific and continuall...
Survey Respondents
• 3,000 educators, technology
directors, administrators
• 2/3 are in public school systems
• 40% report...
Findings
cite
use adaptive learning software

to
Findings
use it for
use adaptive learning software as
a
use it as
Findings
use adaptive
use adaptive

software
software
Use Ranking by Grade
1. Grades 3-5
2. Grades 6-8
3. Grades K-2
Perceived ‘Features’
Rank Average
9.25
9.12
8.92
8.79
8.72
6.45

Feature
Offers personalized or individualized learning
Pr...
Perceived ‘Bugs’
Value
Too much screen time for students
Doesn’t engage students
Teachers have too little control
Not alig...
Type of ‘Adaptivity’
Value
Linear lesson sequence and assessment preand post- lesson
Real-time and continuous adaptivity
(...
Most Important Aspect?
Rank Average
8.94
8.04
7.89
6.65

Feature
Real-time & continuous adaptivity
(instantaneously within...
Obstacles or Challenges
Value
Lack sufficient budget
Don’t have necessary tech infrastructure
We’ve tried software before ...
The “Other” Challenges
Value
Lack of information or awareness
Can’t give a reason/don’t know
Not ready
Don’t want
Investig...
Infrastructure Barriers
• Insufficient high-speed bandwidth
• Hardware and technology
infrastructure challenges
• Lack of ...
Confusion about „Adaptive‟
Programs have elements of adaptive
learning but are not fully adaptive:
•
•
•
•

Adaptive testi...
Adaptive
Learning
Platform or Program
Adaptive
Learning
Platform or Program
Learning Requires Adaptivity
―…pay close attention to the
individual progress of each
student and devise tasks that
are ap...
Learning Requires Feedback
―…assessments should
provide students with
opportunities to revise and
improve their thinking, ...
Learning is not Linear
DreamBox Learning: Intelligent Adaptive Learning Engine

© DreamBox Learning
Wiggins on “Mastery”
―Indeed, many modern
software solutions now
exist to help educators
track endless small
objectives, i...
Learning to Drive?

Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Friday

Thursday
Adaptive
Learning
Platform or Program
Adaptivity Alone Doesn‟t Result
in Learning & Understanding

Math
Packet
2

Math
Packet
3

Math
Packet
4

Math
Math
Packet...
Wiggins on “Mastery”
―…the original sin in
curriculum design: Take
a complex whole, divide
it into small pieces, string
th...
“Adaptivity” as “Behavior Reinforcement”
• Conditioning the mind to
remember information using
tiny, incremental skill ste...
Similar Approaches
• Programmed Instruction (PI)
Skinner‘s ―Teaching Machines‖

• Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI)
• Ex...
Learning Design Limitation
• Programmed Instruction (PI)
Skinner‘s ―Teaching Machines‖

• Computer Assisted Instruction (C...
Plan Curriculum Backwards
1. Identify desired
results
2. Determine
acceptable
evidence
3. Plan learning
experiences
and in...
Replacing textbooks?
Instructional Approach
From a 5th grade teacher in NY:
―I had a lot of good people teaching me math when I
was a student –...
Common Teaching Cycle
Whole
Class or
Small
Group
Instruction

Use Data
Summatively

Guided
Practice

Use Data
Formatively
...
Teaching as Content Delivery
Whole
Class or
Small
Group
Instruction

Use Data
Summatively

Guided
Practice

Use Data
Forma...
Instruction
Let Me
Show You
How To Do
X

Now You
Go Do
X

Maybe You
Need to Be
Shown X
Again

You Know
X

Can You
Independ...
Who is doing the thinking?
Let Me
Show You
How To Do
X

Now You
Go Do
X

Maybe You
Need to Be
Shown X
Again

You Know
X

C...
Learning Outcomes?
―They were so concerned with making
sure we knew how to do every single
procedure we never learned how ...
Types of Learning Outcomes
A-M-T
Acquire Knowledge and Skills
Information, Facts
Procedures

Make Meaning
Concepts, Ideas
...
Fullan: Alive in the Swamp
―Technology–enabled innovations have a different
problem, mainly pedagogy and outcomes. Many of...
Digital Content Delivery
Explicit
Input, Video
Lecture,
Textbook
Reading,

Record it in
the
Gradebook

Dependent
Practice,...
No Pedagogical Change
Explicit
Input, Video
Lecture, Textbo
ok Reading,

Record it in
the
Gradebook

Dependent
Practice,
H...
Massive Open Online Course (MOOC)

―Each MOOC varies in content, requirements,
prerequisites and length, Tarte said. Some ...
Curse of the Familiar
―You, hungry entrepreneur…are going
to take some familiar feature of
classroom experience – the text...
School & Home Work
At School:
Explicit
Instruction &
Problem
Solving

Use Data
Summatively

At Home:
Practice
Problems

Ma...
Meaningful Flip?
At Home:
Explicit
Instructional
Videos & Online
Practice

At School:
Guided
Practice &
Problem
Solving

M...
Fullan: Alive in the Swamp
―While these innovations may be an
incremental improvement such that there is
less cost, minor ...
Common “Adaptive” Design
Explicit Input,
Video Lecture,
Textbook Reading,

Data inform
the Adaptive
Engine

Dependent
Prac...
Curse of the Familiar
―If our problems are mere inefficiencies
– if we need students doing basically
exactly what they've ...
Curse of the Familiar
―If you think that the problems in
classrooms are not just about kids
doing things a little faster, ...
SAMR Model by Dr. Ruben R. Puentedura, www.hippasus.com/rrweblog
Active and Passive
"The old teaching method — you know, where a
teacher says something and you write it down and
then take...
Learning Principle
“Understandings cannot be
given; they have to be
engineered so that learners
see for themselves the
pow...
DreamBox Approach to Adaptive
Student‘s
Own
Ideas &
Intuition

Engage with
& Make
Sense of a
Situation or
Context

Engine
...
Engineered for Realizations
Student‘s
Own
Ideas &
Intuition

Engage with
& Make
Sense of a
Situation or
Context

Engine
Ad...
Don‟t Start by Telling
―Providing students with opportunities
to first grapple with specific information
relevant to a top...
This student
doesn‟t know
anything about
fractions.

How should
she start?
“Unfamiliar” Print Resource
Contexts for Learning
• Cathy Fosnot & Colleagues
• ―10 day‖ Units based on 1 or 2
contexts pe...
Classroom Learning Experience: Field Trip

4
3

8
7

5
4

5
3

Field Trips and Fund-Raisers: Introducting Fractions, C.T. ...
Dewey, 1916
Democracy & Education
Chapter 12: Thinking in Education

―…thinking is the method of an
educative experience. ...
Dewey, 1916
―First that the pupil have a genuine situation of
experience—that there be a continuous activity in which
he i...
Dewey, 1916
―Secondly, that a genuine problem develop within this
situation as a stimulus to thought.‖

Is it fair?

Democ...
Dewey, 1916
―Third, that he possess the information and make the
observations needed to deal with it.‖

Time for sense-mak...
Dewey, 1916
―Fourth, that suggested solutions occur to him which he
shall be responsible for developing in an orderly way....
Dewey, 1916
―Fifth, that he have opportunity and occasion to test his
ideas by application, to make their meaning clear an...
Learning Science
is more important than
Data Science
Improve Learning
―Contemporary school reform efforts…
typically focus too much on
various means: structures,
schedules, pr...
Improve Learning
―Certainly such reforms serve
as the fuel for the school
improvement engine, but
they must not be mistake...
Edtechdigest.com:

“Adaptive” Learning
Technologies:
Pedagogy Should
Drive Platform
Fully Adaptive Learning
Program Characteristics
• Content engages & motivates students
• Continual & ongoing assessment th...
Truly Adaptive Learning
Technology requires
dynamic content be built
from the ground up to
invite, analyze and respond
to ...
Real-Time Formative Assessment
What incorrect answers would we expect on a
problem like 29 + 62?
19 Student adds all four ...
This student
doesn‟t know
anything about
angles or
measuring
angles.

How should
she start?
Plan Curriculum Backwards
1. Identify desired
results
2. Determine
acceptable
evidence
3. Plan learning
experiences
and in...
Angle Measurement – Common Core
4.MD.6
Measure angles in whole-number degrees using a
protractor. Sketch angles of specifi...
Digital Substitution
When an angle is decomposed
into non-overlapping parts, the
angle measure of the whole is
the sum of ...
Angle Measurement – Common Core
4.MD.5a
An angle is measured with reference to a circle with its
center at the common endp...
Angle Measurement – Common Core
4.MD.5a
An angle is measured with reference to a circle with its
center at the common endp...
Angle Measurement in DreamBox

© DreamBox Learning
What Occurs to a Student?

―The child doesn‘t have to be told
by a teacher whether he‘s right or
wrong. He can see for him...
Open-Ended

© DreamBox Learning
Angle Measurement in DreamBox

© DreamBox Learning
Common Core Standards for
Mathematical Practice
Instruction

Learning
Experience

―Let me explain how a
mathematician
thinks.‖

―As you independently
solve this problem,
...
Q&A
Thank you!
timh@dreambox.com
@DocHudsonMath
www.dreambox.com
DreamBox Combines Three Essential
Elements to Accelerate Student Learning

91
DreamBox Lessons & Virtual Manipulatives
Intelligently adapt & individualize
to:
•Students’ own intuitive strategies
•Kind...
Robust Reporting
Reporting for Differentiation
DreamBox supports small group and whole
class instructional resources
• Interactive white-board teacher lessons
www.dreamb...
Free School-wide Trial!
www.dreambox.com
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Defining Adaptive Learning Technology

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What is adaptive learning technology? How does it work? Why is it being used?

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  • The concept of adaptive learning has been with us for a long time. The idea that interactive technology could function as an electronic tutor helping students achieve greater content knowledge at their own pace has been the basis of a number of adaptive approaches to instruction. Typically, a teacher would give students a diagnostic test and then assign a course of instruction and then reassess the student to determine progress. Now, emerging educational technology is proving that personalized student assessment and instruction can be successfully delivered on an ongoing basis aligned with learning standards and desired outcomes. This is particularly important in K-12 education where the goal is to deliver personalized and differentiated learning to every student.
  • The primary goals of the survey were to determine how many educators are currently using programs they believe are adaptive and to assess the general understanding and perception of adaptive learning by ed tech buyers. What we found was some confusion and disagreement about the level of adaptivity available in today’s learning software.
  • To ensure as much as possible that respondents had the same frame of reference, we defined adaptive learning in the survey itself. (READ SLIDE)
  • More than 3,000 Tech & Learning readers responded to the survey providing a well-rounded sample of our audience. 40% reported they were using adaptive learning software, about 1200 users, and more than 2/3 of respondents work in public schools.
  • Our findings include the following results: (READ SLIDE)
  • (READ SLIDE)
  • (READ SLIDE)
  • Respondents reported they used adaptive learning software most often for students in 3-5 grades; followed by students in grades 6-8; with K-2 students bringing up the rear.But the most important finding in the survey is that even among educators who report using adaptive learning technology, there is significant misunderstanding of which programs qualify as true adaptive learning software and which programs merely have certain elements that are adaptive.
  • The 1200 respondents who reported using adaptive learning software were asked to rank the importance of various aspects of adaptive learning. This table illustrates that ranking: (READ SLIDE)
  • As every educator knows, there is rarely enough time in the school day to accomplish everything that is needed, so software must deliver results to justify the investment of time. When asked about the problems and challenges they experience in using adaptive learning programs in their school or district, survey respondents gave these reasons: (READ SLIDE)Since the “other” category was so large, it’s important to note that 33% of these “Other” answers were technology related challenges reported in detail by the respondents.
  • When asked to choose the level of adaptivity of their software, only 37% responded that their software was capturing student responses in an ongoing manner both within and between the lessons.
  • Asked to specifically rank various aspects of adaptive learning, respondents rated real-time and continuous adaptivity as the top feature.
  • The last part of the survey was directed to nonusers of adaptive learning software. When asked to choose the reason that most closely aligned with their situations, more than half responded that a lack of funds was the primary reason they were not yet using adaptive learning programs.
  • Again, because more than a third responded that there were other reasons why they were not using adaptive learning software, it is instructive to look at how those “other” answers break down. One out of four nonusers cited lack of information or awareness about adaptive learning software as their reason for not using it with their students.
  • Some of the technology challenges include: (READ SLIDE)
  • It is clear from the survey results that many respondents understand the ideal of adaptive learning programs – that they can deliver continuous and ongoing adaptivity, as the student is engaging in the program in real time. But much of the software that respondents reported using have elements of adaptive learning but are not fully adaptive as noted in this slide. (READ SLIDE)
  • The promise of adaptive learning technology is that it is fully adaptive – meaning that the software continually measures the student’s progress and automatically adjusts content based on real time performance data. The survey results reveal that only a small portion of reported users are actually using programs with continuous and ongoing adjustments of content based on student responses in real time.
  • Defining Adaptive Learning Technology

    1. 1. Adaptive Learning Technology: What it is, how it works, and why it‟s being used Tim Hudson, PhD Senior Director of Curriculum Design DreamBox Learning @DocHudsonMath December 3, 2013
    2. 2. Session Overview • Share results of the first K-12 survey to focus exclusively on adaptive learning technology • Define characteristics of adaptive learning • Examine the pedagogical implications of adaptive technologies • Consider how digital experiences can empower students to think independently, receive specific feedback, and self-direct their learning.
    3. 3. Survey Goals • Determine how many educators are currently using programs they believe to be adaptive • Assess the general understanding and perception of adaptive learning technology by professionals considering ed-tech products • Clear up confusion about level of adaptivity in available learning programs Note: Survey conducted by Tech & Learning (www.techlearning.com) and commissioned by DreamBox Learning
    4. 4. Survey Definition ―Adaptive learning systems are softwarebased technologies that automatically customize curriculum to the knowledge level of the learner. The algorithms actively track and access student performance to provide feedback to the teacher and student about the student‘s progress on an ongoing basis.‖
    5. 5. Why Adaptive? Why Differentiated? Why Individualized? Why Personalized?
    6. 6. Logistical Classroom Reality March 1: Long Division March 1: Long Division March 1: Long Division March 1: Long Division March 1: Long Division March 1: Long Division March 1: Long Division March 1: Long Division March 1: Long Division March 1: Long Division March 1: Long Division March 1: Long Division March 1: Long Division March 1: Long Division March 1: Long Division March 1: Long Division March 1: Long Division March 1: Long Division
    7. 7. If teachers could work 1-1 with ALL… Decimal Long Division Basic Multiplication Requires More: • Assessments • Time for Testing • Time for Scoring • Data • Content Knowledge • Resources Step-by-Step Scaffolding Partial Quotients Fraction Division
    8. 8. Differentiation Defined • Educators‘ Purpose… • All students must master important content. • Make specific and continually evolving plans to connect each learner with key content. • Expect differences in the nature of scaffolding. • Therefore we Ask… • What does this student need at this moment in order to be able to progress with this key content, and what do I need to do to make that happen?‖ Leading and Managing a Differentiated Classroom by C.A. Tomlinson & M.B. Imbeau, ASCD, © 2010, pp. 13-14
    9. 9. Survey Respondents • 3,000 educators, technology directors, administrators • 2/3 are in public school systems • 40% reported using adaptive learning software (1,200 users)
    10. 10. Findings cite use adaptive learning software to
    11. 11. Findings use it for use adaptive learning software as a use it as
    12. 12. Findings use adaptive use adaptive software software
    13. 13. Use Ranking by Grade 1. Grades 3-5 2. Grades 6-8 3. Grades K-2
    14. 14. Perceived ‘Features’ Rank Average 9.25 9.12 8.92 8.79 8.72 6.45 Feature Offers personalized or individualized learning Provides intervention for struggling students Improves overall student achievement Unique pacing for every student Offers enrichment for advanced students Lowers cost of instruction
    15. 15. Perceived ‘Bugs’ Value Too much screen time for students Doesn’t engage students Teachers have too little control Not aligned with Common Core Not rigorous enough Other Count 219 210 202 132 102 287 Percentage 26.32% 25.24% 24.28% 15.87% 12.26% 34.50%
    16. 16. Type of ‘Adaptivity’ Value Linear lesson sequence and assessment preand post- lesson Real-time and continuous adaptivity (instantaneously within and between lessons) Recommending lessons after direct instruction. Other Count Percentage 403 43.71% 344 37.31% 126 13.67% 49 5.31%
    17. 17. Most Important Aspect? Rank Average 8.94 8.04 7.89 6.65 Feature Real-time & continuous adaptivity (instantaneously within & between lessons) Recommending lessons after direct instruction Linear lesson sequence & assessment preand post-lesson Other
    18. 18. Obstacles or Challenges Value Lack sufficient budget Don’t have necessary tech infrastructure We’ve tried software before & it didn’t help Don’t philosophically agree with use of tech or learning software Other Count 950 Percentage 55.43% 443 25.85% 51 2.98% 39 2.28% 624 36.41%
    19. 19. The “Other” Challenges Value Lack of information or awareness Can’t give a reason/don’t know Not ready Don’t want Investigating it now Count 155 114 73 48 47 Percentage 25.29% 18.60% 11.91% 7.83% 7.67%
    20. 20. Infrastructure Barriers • Insufficient high-speed bandwidth • Hardware and technology infrastructure challenges • Lack of professional development
    21. 21. Confusion about „Adaptive‟ Programs have elements of adaptive learning but are not fully adaptive: • • • • Adaptive testing only Assessment only Test prep only Differentiation depends on teacher assignment of content • Pedagogical understanding
    22. 22. Adaptive Learning Platform or Program
    23. 23. Adaptive Learning Platform or Program
    24. 24. Learning Requires Adaptivity ―…pay close attention to the individual progress of each student and devise tasks that are appropriate…‖ ―Present students with ‗just manageable difficulties‘ – that is, challenging enough to maintain engagement, but not so difficult as to lead to discouragement.‖ p. 24 Bransford, J.D., Brown, A.L., & Cocking, R.R. (Eds.). (2000). How people learn: Brain, mind, experience, and school (2nd ed.). Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.
    25. 25. Learning Requires Feedback ―…assessments should provide students with opportunities to revise and improve their thinking, help students see their own progress over [time], and help teachers identify problems that need to be remedied.‖ p. 25 Bransford, J.D., Brown, A.L., & Cocking, R.R. (Eds.). (2000). How people learn: Brain, mind, experience, and school (2nd ed.). Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.
    26. 26. Learning is not Linear DreamBox Learning: Intelligent Adaptive Learning Engine © DreamBox Learning
    27. 27. Wiggins on “Mastery” ―Indeed, many modern software solutions now exist to help educators track endless small objectives, in the name of "mastery," "proficiency," or "competency." In some units, students cannot advance to the next level until they test out on interim assessments of such bits of knowledge.‖ ―How Good is Good Enough?‖ G. Wiggins, ASCD © 2013
    28. 28. Learning to Drive? Monday Tuesday Wednesday Friday Thursday
    29. 29. Adaptive Learning Platform or Program
    30. 30. Adaptivity Alone Doesn‟t Result in Learning & Understanding Math Packet 2 Math Packet 3 Math Packet 4 Math Math Packet Packet Math 1 2 Packet 3 Math Packet 3 Math Packet 8 Math Packet 7 Will County, Illinois One-Room Schoolhouse, http://polarbearstale.blogspot.com/
    31. 31. Wiggins on “Mastery” ―…the original sin in curriculum design: Take a complex whole, divide it into small pieces, string those together in a rigid sequence of instruction and testing, and call completion of this sequence "mastery." ―How Good is Good Enough?‖ G. Wiggins, ASCD © 2013
    32. 32. “Adaptivity” as “Behavior Reinforcement” • Conditioning the mind to remember information using tiny, incremental skill steps given to students in repetitive feedback loops http://teorije-ucenja.zesoi.fer.hr/doku.php?id=instructional_design:programmed_instruction
    33. 33. Similar Approaches • Programmed Instruction (PI) Skinner‘s ―Teaching Machines‖ • Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) • Explicit Direct Instruction (EDI) • Individually Prescribed Instruction (IPI) ―Benny‘s Rules‖
    34. 34. Learning Design Limitation • Programmed Instruction (PI) Skinner‘s ―Teaching Machines‖ • Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) • Explicit Direct Instruction (EDI) • Individually Prescribed Instruction (IPI) ―Benny‘s Rules‖
    35. 35. Plan Curriculum Backwards 1. Identify desired results 2. Determine acceptable evidence 3. Plan learning experiences and instruction Understanding by Design, Wiggins & McTighe, ©2005
    36. 36. Replacing textbooks?
    37. 37. Instructional Approach From a 5th grade teacher in NY: ―I had a lot of good people teaching me math when I was a student – earnest and funny and caring. But the math they taught me wasn‘t good math. Every class was the same for eight years: ‗Get out your homework, go over the homework, here‘s the new set of exercises, here‘s how to do them. Now get started. I‘ll be around.‘‖ p. 55, Teaching What Matters Most, Strong, Silver, & Perini, ©2001
    38. 38. Common Teaching Cycle Whole Class or Small Group Instruction Use Data Summatively Guided Practice Use Data Formatively to Plan Whole Class Assessment
    39. 39. Teaching as Content Delivery Whole Class or Small Group Instruction Use Data Summatively Guided Practice Use Data Formatively to Plan Whole Class Assessment
    40. 40. Instruction Let Me Show You How To Do X Now You Go Do X Maybe You Need to Be Shown X Again You Know X Can You Independently Do X?
    41. 41. Who is doing the thinking? Let Me Show You How To Do X Now You Go Do X Maybe You Need to Be Shown X Again You Know X Can You Independently Do X?
    42. 42. Learning Outcomes? ―They were so concerned with making sure we knew how to do every single procedure we never learned how to think mathematically. I did well in math but I never understood what I was doing. I remember hundreds of procedures but not one single mathematical idea.‖ p. 55, Teaching What Matters Most, Strong, Silver, & Perini, ©2001
    43. 43. Types of Learning Outcomes A-M-T Acquire Knowledge and Skills Information, Facts Procedures Make Meaning Concepts, Ideas Contexts, Situations Transfer Independent Use Unfamiliar Situations © Authentic Education
    44. 44. Fullan: Alive in the Swamp ―Technology–enabled innovations have a different problem, mainly pedagogy and outcomes. Many of the innovations, particularly those that provide online content and learning materials, use basic pedagogy – most often in the form of introducing concepts by video instruction and following up with a series of progression exercises and tests. Other digital innovations are simply tools that allow teachers to do the same age-old practices but in a digital format.‖ (p. 25) Fullan & Donnelly, Alive in the Swamp: Assessing Digital Innovations in Education, © July 2013, www.nesta.org/uk
    45. 45. Digital Content Delivery Explicit Input, Video Lecture, Textbook Reading, Record it in the Gradebook Dependent Practice, Ho mework, W orksheet Independent Mistakes on the Quiz or Test Practice, Quiz, Test
    46. 46. No Pedagogical Change Explicit Input, Video Lecture, Textbo ok Reading, Record it in the Gradebook Dependent Practice, Homework, Worksheet Independent Mistakes on the Quiz or Test Practice, Quiz, Test
    47. 47. Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) ―Each MOOC varies in content, requirements, prerequisites and length, Tarte said. Some will contain video lectures, some might have selected readings, and some courses provide quizzes periodically so students can test their understanding of the material.‖ High School to Offer College Courses Online www.emissourian.com, November 27, 2013
    48. 48. Curse of the Familiar ―You, hungry entrepreneur…are going to take some familiar feature of classroom experience – the textbook, the flashcard, the lecture, the worksheet, the sticker, the behavior chart – and you will digitize that feature.‖ -Justin Reich on EdWeek November 20, 2013 http://blogs.edweek.org/edweek/edtechresearcher/2013/11/edtech_start-ups_and_the_curse_of_the_familar.html
    49. 49. School & Home Work At School: Explicit Instruction & Problem Solving Use Data Summatively At Home: Practice Problems Maybe you need to be shown X again Whole Class Assessment
    50. 50. Meaningful Flip? At Home: Explicit Instructional Videos & Online Practice At School: Guided Practice & Problem Solving Maybe You Need to Watch the Video Again Use Data Summatively Whole Class Assessment
    51. 51. Fullan: Alive in the Swamp ―While these innovations may be an incremental improvement such that there is less cost, minor classroom efficiency and general modernisation, they do not, by themselves, change the pedagogical practice of the teachers or the schools [or learning programs and platforms].‖ (p. 25) Fullan & Donnelly, Alive in the Swamp: Assessing Digital Innovations in Education, © July 2013, www.nesta.org/uk
    52. 52. Common “Adaptive” Design Explicit Input, Video Lecture, Textbook Reading, Data inform the Adaptive Engine Dependent Practice, ―Workshe et‖ Problems Mistakes on the Quiz or Test Items Digitized Quiz/Test Items
    53. 53. Curse of the Familiar ―If our problems are mere inefficiencies – if we need students doing basically exactly what they've been doing before but faster – then the gambit of building apps that mirror typical classroom practices will work out great.‖ -Justin Reich on EdWeek November 20, 2013 http://blogs.edweek.org/edweek/edtechresearcher/2013/11/edtech_start-ups_and_the_curse_of_the_familar.html
    54. 54. Curse of the Familiar ―If you think that the problems in classrooms are not just about kids doing things a little faster, but doing different things than is current practice, then you need to build things that will be unfamiliar.‖ -Justin Reich on EdWeek November 20, 2013 http://blogs.edweek.org/edweek/edtechresearcher/2013/11/edtech_start-ups_and_the_curse_of_the_familar.html
    55. 55. SAMR Model by Dr. Ruben R. Puentedura, www.hippasus.com/rrweblog
    56. 56. Active and Passive "The old teaching method — you know, where a teacher says something and you write it down and then take a test — that's about as passive as it gets… This idea pushes kids to be more actively involved since, by and large, it's something we're both learning together. That leads to a lot of innovative teaching — and a lot of innovative learning, for that matter.‖ ―Coding in the Curriculum‖ September 2013 http://mashable.com/2013/09/22/coding-curriculum
    57. 57. Learning Principle “Understandings cannot be given; they have to be engineered so that learners see for themselves the power of an idea for making sense of things.” p. 113, Schooling by Design, Wiggins & McTighe, ©2007
    58. 58. DreamBox Approach to Adaptive Student‘s Own Ideas & Intuition Engage with & Make Sense of a Situation or Context Engine Adapts & Differentiates Student Independently Transfers ―Offline,‖ Too Specific, In stant, Cust om Feedback
    59. 59. Engineered for Realizations Student‘s Own Ideas & Intuition Engage with & Make Sense of a Situation or Context Engine Adapts & Differentiates Student Independently Transfers ―Offline,‖ Too Specific, Instant, Custom Feedback
    60. 60. Don‟t Start by Telling ―Providing students with opportunities to first grapple with specific information relevant to a topic has been shown to create a ‗time for telling‘ that enables them to learn much more from an organizing lecture.‖ How People Learn, p. 58
    61. 61. This student doesn‟t know anything about fractions. How should she start?
    62. 62. “Unfamiliar” Print Resource Contexts for Learning • Cathy Fosnot & Colleagues • ―10 day‖ Units based on 1 or 2 contexts per unit • Building a mathematical community • Young Mathematicians at Work
    63. 63. Classroom Learning Experience: Field Trip 4 3 8 7 5 4 5 3 Field Trips and Fund-Raisers: Introducting Fractions, C.T. Fosnot, Heinemann © 2007, used with permission
    64. 64. Dewey, 1916 Democracy & Education Chapter 12: Thinking in Education ―…thinking is the method of an educative experience. The essentials of method are therefore identical with the essentials of reflection.‖ Democracy and Education: an Introduction to the Philosophy of Education, J. Dewey, 1916
    65. 65. Dewey, 1916 ―First that the pupil have a genuine situation of experience—that there be a continuous activity in which he is interested for its own sake.‖ Field trip + Lunch = Interest Democracy and Education: an Introduction to the Philosophy of Education, J. Dewey, 1916
    66. 66. Dewey, 1916 ―Secondly, that a genuine problem develop within this situation as a stimulus to thought.‖ Is it fair? Democracy and Education: an Introduction to the Philosophy of Education, J. Dewey, 1916
    67. 67. Dewey, 1916 ―Third, that he possess the information and make the observations needed to deal with it.‖ Time for sense-making, modeling, manipulatives, & conversation Democracy and Education: an Introduction to the Philosophy of Education, J. Dewey, 1916
    68. 68. Dewey, 1916 ―Fourth, that suggested solutions occur to him which he shall be responsible for developing in an orderly way.‖ How do we know when something “occurs” to a student? 5th grader in intervention: “So it looks like a half of a fifth is a tenth. That‟s easy!” Democracy and Education: an Introduction to the Philosophy of Education, J. Dewey, 1916
    69. 69. Dewey, 1916 ―Fifth, that he have opportunity and occasion to test his ideas by application, to make their meaning clear and to discover for himself their validity.‖ Convince yourself through inquiry, exploration, feedback Democracy and Education: an Introduction to the Philosophy of Education, J. Dewey, 1916
    70. 70. Learning Science is more important than Data Science
    71. 71. Improve Learning ―Contemporary school reform efforts… typically focus too much on various means: structures, schedules, programs, PD, curriculum, and instructional practices (like cooperative learning)‖ [or adaptive learning] [or blended learning] [or flipped classrooms] [or iPads, hardware, etc] p. 234-235, Wiggins & McTighe, © 2007
    72. 72. Improve Learning ―Certainly such reforms serve as the fuel for the school improvement engine, but they must not be mistaken as the destination…[which is] improved learning.‖ p. 234-235, Wiggins & McTighe, © 2007
    73. 73. Edtechdigest.com: “Adaptive” Learning Technologies: Pedagogy Should Drive Platform
    74. 74. Fully Adaptive Learning Program Characteristics • Content engages & motivates students • Continual & ongoing assessment that differentiates uniquely with varying scaffolds • Personalized learning path within and between lessons in real time • Student performance data immediately available to teachers
    75. 75. Truly Adaptive Learning Technology requires dynamic content be built from the ground up to invite, analyze and respond to initial conceptions.
    76. 76. Real-Time Formative Assessment What incorrect answers would we expect on a problem like 29 + 62? 19 Student adds all four digits 33 Student believes this is a subtraction problem 81 Student does not regroup to the tens place 92 Arithmetic error in ones place 811 Student adds each column independently 2962 Student combines digits • • • • How would you ―score‖ each error? How would you respond to each error? What lesson(s) need to come before & after? Which of these errors are ―naturally occurring?‖
    77. 77. This student doesn‟t know anything about angles or measuring angles. How should she start?
    78. 78. Plan Curriculum Backwards 1. Identify desired results 2. Determine acceptable evidence 3. Plan learning experiences and instruction Understanding by Design, Wiggins & McTighe, ©2005
    79. 79. Angle Measurement – Common Core 4.MD.6 Measure angles in whole-number degrees using a protractor. Sketch angles of specified measure. 4.MD.7 Recognize angle measure as additive. When an angle is decomposed into non-overlapping parts, the angle measure of the whole is the sum of the angle measures of the parts. Solve addition and subtraction problems to find unknown angles on a diagram in real world and mathematical problems, e.g., by using an equation with a symbol for the unknown angle measure.
    80. 80. Digital Substitution When an angle is decomposed into non-overlapping parts, the angle measure of the whole is the sum of the angle measures of the parts.
    81. 81. Angle Measurement – Common Core 4.MD.5a An angle is measured with reference to a circle with its center at the common endpoint of the rays, by considering the fraction of the circular arc between the points where the two rays intersect the circle. An angle that turns through 1/360 of a circle is called a ―onedegree angle,‖ and can be used to measure angles. 4.MD.5b An angle that turns through n one-degree angles is said to have an angle measure of n degrees.
    82. 82. Angle Measurement – Common Core 4.MD.5a An angle is measured with reference to a circle with its center at the common endpoint of the rays, by considering the fraction of the circular arc between the points where the two rays intersect the circle. An angle that turns through 1/360 of a circle is called a ―onedegree angle,‖ and can be used to measure angles. 4.MD.5b An angle that turns through n one-degree angles is said to have an angle measure of n degrees.
    83. 83. Angle Measurement in DreamBox © DreamBox Learning
    84. 84. What Occurs to a Student? ―The child doesn‘t have to be told by a teacher whether he‘s right or wrong. He can see for himself whether it works. That‘s what science and knowledge is about.‖ – Seymour Papert © DreamBox Learning
    85. 85. Open-Ended © DreamBox Learning
    86. 86. Angle Measurement in DreamBox © DreamBox Learning
    87. 87. Common Core Standards for Mathematical Practice
    88. 88. Instruction Learning Experience ―Let me explain how a mathematician thinks.‖ ―As you independently solve this problem, you‘ll be thinking like a mathematician.‖ ―I‘ve shown you the mathematical structure. Now go use it.‖ ―On your own, you‘ll need to look for the structure. And find it. Then use it.‖
    89. 89. Q&A
    90. 90. Thank you! timh@dreambox.com @DocHudsonMath www.dreambox.com
    91. 91. DreamBox Combines Three Essential Elements to Accelerate Student Learning 91
    92. 92. DreamBox Lessons & Virtual Manipulatives Intelligently adapt & individualize to: •Students’ own intuitive strategies •Kinds of mistakes •Efficiency of strategy •Scaffolding needed •Response time
    93. 93. Robust Reporting
    94. 94. Reporting for Differentiation
    95. 95. DreamBox supports small group and whole class instructional resources • Interactive white-board teacher lessons www.dreambox.com/teachertools • Tutorials for virtual manipulatives • Concept video introductions
    96. 96. Free School-wide Trial! www.dreambox.com
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